You are reading the article Why Are There Liquid Nitrogen Canisters On Nyc Sidewalks? updated in February 2024 on the website Tai-facebook.edu.vn. We hope that the information we have shared is helpful to you. If you find the content interesting and meaningful, please share it with your friends and continue to follow and support us for the latest updates. Suggested March 2024 Why Are There Liquid Nitrogen Canisters On Nyc Sidewalks?
I had sporadically seen mysterious nitrogen canisters on New York City sidewalks, and wondered what they were doing there. Each tank has a hose snaking its way into a manhole, where it presumably dispenses nitrogen under the street. Luckily, Popular Science let me find out as part of my job (booyah). It turns out they’re there to keep copper cables dry so phone and internet services can run smoothly.
Verizon spokesman John Bonomo said the tanks supplement the company’s existing pressurized system to keep its cables dry when repairs are going on or there’s too much steam present. The cables have a protective sheath around them, but sometimes it’s not enough to keep them dry. “But as durable as that is,” Bonomo said, “that gets penetrated by the elements, as well, over time.”
As the liquid nitrogen leaves the canister, it turns into a gas. When nitrogen undergoes this phase change, it expands 175 times. This keeps the cables at a high enough pressure to keep moisture out.
Two tanks at Madison Avenue and East 27th Street in Manhattan have been there for about a year because of steam buildup, said Verizon’s local manager for Manhattan pressure Alex Diachok. The space under Madison and Lexington avenues, especially, is much smaller than other areas under the city, he said, and temperatures can reach 220°F. The tanks are mostly used in Manhattan because of the congestion, temperature and water table of the island, Bonomo said. Dan Mattiace from McKinney Welding Supply, who supplies Verizon’s nitrogen, said liquid nitrogen is the best option for this application because liquid oxygen is combustible, and liquid helium and carbon dioxide are too expensive.
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While the warning signs on the tanks may seem alarming, Bonomo said they have never exploded or significantly leaked in the city, but they have tipped over on occasion when a car has backed into them, for instance. The cans are so sturdy that toppling hasn’t caused any leaks, Diachok said, and Verizon technicians are able to simply stand them back up. Sometimes the tanks need to release pressure by shooting a plume of nitrogen above the tank. It looks like snow because the nitrogen cools the water molecules in the air so quickly that they freeze. Verizon area manager for insulation and maintenance Patrick Johnson said this is just a normal function of the canisters and is nothing to worry about. Verizon technicians check each canister every night to make sure they’re functioning properly, Diachok said.
“We’ve done a lot of work to get these off the street,” Johnson said. “It’s a big expense. This is not our business.” Just refilling the tank costs about $100, Diachok said, which they have to do every day to every three days. Right now in the city, Verizon has 54 tanks at 28 sites, and that number goes up in the winter when there’s more steam underground since it’s used to heat the buildings.
Verizon’s copper cables mostly send phone calls, but also transmit fire and security alarms and still carry some internet via DSL, too. As Verizon transitions its network from copper cables to fiber, the nitrogen canisters will go away, since fiber-optic cables are impervious to water.
OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA Rebecca Harrington
You're reading Why Are There Liquid Nitrogen Canisters On Nyc Sidewalks?
The USB–C connector has been on the market for some time. So why is it still so hard to find a great USB–C hub?What is USB–C?
USB Type C, or USB–C to its friends, is the newest USB connector standard. It replaces all the USB connectors that came before it, so it supersedes all the Mini and Micro cables of older standards. USB–C also supports the highest data and power transfer rates of the USB 3.1 Gen 2 standard, cranking up as high as 10 Gbps and 100 watts. It’s the most robust, durable, and powerful USB connector type available.
USB–C should not be confused with the USB 3.1 specification; USB–C is simply a connector type. Cables and devices with USB–C connectors can support data transfer rates from USB 2.0’s 480 Mbit/s to Thunderbolt 3’s 20 Gbps. Fortunately, all cables with USB–C connectors must contain a chip reporting what kind of speed and power they can safely handle.
It might be less obvious to consumers. You need to shop carefully and look for the specific logos stamped on the cable end. Look for the USB 3.1 Gen 2 Superspeed trident with the 10 Gbps branding.Challenges for USB–C
So if USB–C is the biggest, baddest new USB connection standard, why isn’t it better supported by the marketplace? Mostly, it comes down to a much smaller market, lack of competition, and OEMs’ relative inexperience with the USB 3.1 standard.1. It’s still new
In addition to its new power, USB–C is the newest connector type on the market. While you’ll find it on some devices, very few computers offer solely USB–C ports. Apple’s MacBook and MacBook Pro are the notable exceptions, although the USB–C connectors on those computers actually might support Thunderbolt 3, depending on the model. The connector type has begun its slow diffusion through the peripheral market, but it hasn’t made much of a dent yet.
But replacing a connector as popular and widely used as USB is bound to take a long time. That kind of change doesn’t happen quickly. So adoption of Type C was always going to be more of a trickle than a flood: a few devices at first, starting with speed-sensitive applications. Eventually, Type C will take over completely, but it’s hard to predict when that day will come. Right now, that day seems distant.2. Demand is low
This limited adoption means that there’s not yet a huge demand for USB–C devices. Since few devices support the standard, most folks haven’t really caught on yet. And when they do purchase a device with USB–C, they’re likely to buy a conversion dongle to continue using the USB Type A connectors on their computer. Simple direct conversion dongles for USB–C to USB A are also reliable and cheap, so it’s a good choice for most users. Thanks to the relatively slow uptake of USB–C among consumers, there isn’t as much competition in the market for hubs and cables.3. Lack of manufacturing expertise
Because relatively fewer hubs are being made, manufacturers don’t get as much practice to iron out the defects in their design and production processes. That means the hubs are more likely to be unreliable or not fully up to spec in ways both frustrating and limiting. While your host device will likely “see” the USB ports and recognize devices connected to them, the connection might be buggy or slower than necessary.
Just multiplying USB–C ports is actually the easiest way to make a USB–C hub. However, even that is more complicated than USB 2 thanks to changes in the standards. But it’s not as difficult as making a multi-input USB–C hub. And that’s just what many manufacturers are trying to put out. It’s the big appeal of USB–C, after all!
USB–C’s “alternate modes” can take graphic or network input, and those ports are even more likely to be buggy. That’s one of the reasons that USB breakout hubs are so expensive: they’re harder to design and build. Since data type is no longer segregated by connector, the USB–C hub will include some chipsets to sort out inputs. And all that’s not necessarily a straightforward process. The majority of factories in China, where nearly all hubs are built, are great at cheap, straightforward processes; other things need practice and expertise.
It’s not just hubs; cables aren’t even safe. Stories about out-of-spec USB–C cables frying laptops are not unheard of. As OEMs gain experience, this will become less of an issue. But for now, it’s a real concern.What to Buy?
As time goes on, all these problems will lessen and eventually disappear. As fabricators get better at building USB 3.1 Gen 2-compliant hardware, we’ll see a commensurate improvement in the quality of hubs available. Until then, reviews are your friend. Look for devices made by reliable manufacturers with positive reviews from real users.
Alexander Fox is a tech and science writer based in Philadelphia, PA with one cat, three Macs and more USB cables than he could ever use.
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Yes, there is no goto statement in Python. Let us first understand what is a goto in C Language. However, the usage of goto is also discouraged in C.
The goto statement in C programming provides an unconditional jump from the ‘goto’ to a labelled statement in the same function. Following is the syntax −goto label; .. . label: statement; Example
Let us now see a C program for goto −
“a = %dn”
}Output a = 10 a = 11 a = 12 a = 13 a = 14 a = 16 a = 17 a = 18 a = 19
NOTE − The use of goto statement is highly discouraged in C language as well.No GoTo in Python
In Python, there’s no need of goto since we can accomplish the same with if statements and or, and, and if-else expressions & loop with while and for statements, containing continue and break.User-defined Exceptions
Use user-defined exceptions as an alternative −
)Nested Methods Example
Use nested methods as another alternative −
“In the demo() function”
)Output In In the demo() function The goto-statement module
It is a function decorator to use goto in Python. Tested on Python 2.6 through 3.6 and PyPy. Install it using the pip −
Note: Works till Python 3.6pip install goto-statement
Let us see an example −
PC gamers can optimize Windows 11/10 to improve gaming – and for gamers on Windows 11, there are a couple of gaming settings you need to know and tweak for an even better experience. In this post, we take a look at why your games are crashing on your Windows PC and also offer suggestions on how gamers can mitigate the usually unexpected occurrence of this issue.
To proffer concrete remediation to games crashing on PC, you need to identify the main factors that are the culprit. Below are the most common causes of this issue:
Gaming PC doesn’t meet minimum specs
PC has been overclocked
Incorrect or wrong game settings
Graphics adapter consumimg too much power
Windows operating system is outdated
Outdated device drivers
Poor or slow network connection
Digital Rights Management (DRM) issues
Games are running in the wrong mode
Security software interference
Too many open browser tabsWhy are games crashing on my PC
As we have identified the most reasons why games crash on PC, we can now proceed to outline measures PC gamers can apply or put in place prevent this occurrence at the barest minimum. In no particular order, the following are suggestions you can try to prevent or fix game crash issues on your Windows 11/10 gaming rig. We suggest you give your gaming system a restart as this simple action can fix game crash issues, assuming there are no serious underlying issues with your hardware or OS.
Check system requirements
Check game graphics settings
Check the power supply unit (PSU)
Make sure Windows is updated
Make sure drivers and games are updated
Check network/internet connection
Enable Game Mode
Check and adjust security software settings
Let’s see these in detail.1] Check system requirements
The main and obvious reason why games crash on PC is, the gaming system spec doesn’t meet the game’s minimum requirements. So, when buying games online from Steam and similar services, make sure to review the game’s description for the system requirements. If you’re buying the physical copy of the video game from a brick-and-mortar store, you’ll find the minimum and recommended system requirements on the back of the video game packaging.
You can always check the game vendor site for this informations. If your PC meets these requirements, you shouldn’t have any issues installing and running the game. Otherwise you will need to upgrade your PC before you can play the game – this could require you to simply upgrade the hardware components (like RAM, storage disk etc) on your rig or purchase a new gaming PC.
Read: Farming Simulator 22 crashing or freezing on Windows PC2] Stop overclocking
Although with good ventilation and cooling, CPU overclocking and GPU overclocking can significantly increase performance as many gamers still engage in this practice. However, it isn’t a perfect method as games can still crash. So, if you have overclocked your PC, you can simply reverse the change depending on the overclocking software in use. Generally, launch the software and look for the option to stop the overclocking or uninstall the software altogether. This basically will reset your processor (and GPU, if appropriate) to default settings. Once done, restart your computer and see if the crash issue is resolved. Otherwise, the issue is caused by something else.
Read: Diablo 3 keeps crashing or freezing on Windows PC3] Check game graphics settings
To help you get the most out of your game, most games, especially those with high system requirements, have a dedicated video settings screen. Games tend to boot with a configuration designed for your system hardware, but this can cause game crashes sometimes. In this case, you can troubleshoot by lowering the game settings in the video configuration screen. You can keep adjusting the settings until you hit the right mix of performance and graphics. If you graphics card is unable to handle high resolutions, you will have to upgrade to a more powerful graphics hardware.
Read: How to enable Optimizations for windowed games in Windows 114] Check the power supply unit (PSU)
If the graphics adapter installed on your Windows 11/10 gaming PC is drawing more power than is available on the PSU, you’re likely to experience game crashes. The only solution as it applies in this case, is to upgrade to the best PSU capable of providing enough power to play the game. Before swapping out the PSU, check how much power your PC needs. Also, make sure there’s no dust or particles build-up on the graphics card and PC interior to prevent high PC temperature which can lead to performance issues and possibly system crash.
Read: How to measure your PC’s total power consumption5] Make sure Windows is updated
Your game’s system specification should list the correct operating system and version required to run the title. Most AAA games are designed for 64-bit systems and is expected to run without issues on newer versions of Windows. Generally, the issues of operating systems and hardware are interlinked – in the sense that older hardware running Windows 11/10 may be suitable for running the most up-to-date video games. But your games will likely crash if you play on an old or outdated operating system. So make sure Windows is updated to the latest build/version to keep up with game improvements and requirements for the best gaming experience.
Related: Games loading slow on Windows PC6] Make sure drivers and games are updated
If games are crashing on your PC, before you try forking out money to purchase a new gaming rig, you should first update drivers and the game itself; assuming you are running the latest version of Windows on your rig.
Games can crash for reasons beyond (but not unrelated to) unsuitable hardware and operating systems. Video drivers, for instance, should be up-to-date, as should the game itself. Although some games will automatically check for updates and install them before they load, you can manually check for patches and updates for the game in question at the publisher’s website
Depending on your PC, manufacturers have made available special driver download software for their brands that you can use to update update drivers and firmware:
You can also use a third-party free driver update software or you can download the latest version of the device driver you need from the hardware manufacturer’s website.7] Check network/internet connection
Especially with online gaming, you may experience game crashes when slow or poor network delays the game client being updated by the remote server. To prevent this issue, make sure that your network speed is suitable for playing games. Check your internet device and disable other internet applications to ensure that only the game receives data. For the best online gaming experience, you can connect your PC directly to the router via Ethernet and avoid using WiFi where possible. You may have to use a Powerline Ethernet Adapter to overcome any architectural limitations.
In some cases, network issues can contribute to Digital Rights Management (DRM) affecting a game’s performance or the remote server status causing the game to crash. In this case, you can play offline if the option is available for the game. This will prevent the DRM from checking with the remote server for suspicious activity in the game or account.
Still on network issues causing games to crash, your VPN/GPN software can also cause games to keep closing on your PC, particularly online games. This can occur if the VPN server is down, or if the VPN client isn’t able to maintain a connection. Distance can also play a part, as you’ll have to deal with latency when playing on a specific game server located at another region. In any case, the applicable solutions here, is to switch to a faster and more stable VPN, invest in a faster internet connection or disconnect from the VPN when accessing a specific game server.
Read: How to optimize Windows 11/10 for Online Gaming8] Enable Game Mode
Interference by other open and running apps while gaming on your Windows 11/10 computer can cause the game to crash. So, close all other apps before launching the game you want to play, as this will even free up more system resources for the game to run smoothly. This also applies to your browser as well – so make sure not to open multiple tabs than necessary. You might need voice chat software like Discord or Game Bar; beyond that your PC resources should be focused on running the game.
In addition, you can enable Game Mode to reduce and limit other activity so that your game can freely run with sufficient system resources.9] Check and adjust security software settings
Apps, processes, and services running in the background can impact the performance of gaming, and your security software is not an exception. Your AV is actively looking for suspicious files. Sometimes, these files are scanned, which can cause the PC to hang or freeze, and then crashes due to security scanning. The game in play can also crash because a legitimate game file is identified as harmful and quarantined. In this case, you can either reduce the level of (or disable) file scanning when gaming, replace your security software with one that has “game mode” option, or temporarily disable (if possible) the security software for the duration of your gameplay.
On the other hand, games can crash on your PC if infected by a virus/malware. So be sure to keep your AV updated and manually scan your system periodically.10] Reinstall game
Other things being equal, this is a viable solution to the game crashing on PC, because it could be that the issue is caused by corrupted or damaged game files or even a botched game installation that is missing crucial game files. In this case, you can uninstall the game (preferably, use uninstaller software), reboot PC, and then download and reinstall the latest version of the game on your Windows 11/10 PC.
I hope this post is informative and helpful enough for you!
These posts might interest you:What causes games to crash on PC?
The game may close, generate an error, or crash during start or during play if your Windows 11/10 computer does not meet the system requirements of the game or because of outdated drivers. This can also happen if your PC is infected by a virus.Why do all of my games keep crashing?
There could be a number of reasons why apps or games freeze or crash, especially when you consider the wide range of chipsets, screen resolutions, custom skins on Android smartphones. One reason could be low memory or a weak chipset. Apps can also crash if they are not coded properly.How do I fix a crashed game?
To fix a crashed game on Windows 11/10 computer, you can try the following suggestions:
Install the latest drivers
Install the necessary software
Make sure the PC doesn’t overheat
Disable background programs
Disable the onboard sound device
Scan for malware
Check your Hardware
Read: Lost Ark keeps crashing on Windows PCCan RAM cause games to crash?
RAM can sometimes cause specific problems on your PC. Some gamers report that games keep crashing after adding new RAM. This usually occurs when trying to run high-speed DDR RAM or if you have installed the memory component on an unseated module or the RAM itself is bad which needs to be replaced.Why are my games closing by themselves?
Poor memory management is one of the most common reasons for app or game crashes on mobile devices, especially for low-end mobiles and tablets. There may insufficient storage space for apps to run smoothly, especially if you have multiple applications running at the same time in the background.
Understanding that no two SEO campaigns are the same is a challenge in getting wider business buy-in to the project.
One example that sticks out in my mind is working with a global travel company who was comparing their website and infrastructure with that of BBC News.
“The BBC doesn’t do it that way,” was a common phrase thrown into the mix.
Having worked with a number of organizations, ranging in size from sole traders to IPO SaaS companies, one thing is apparent.
While SEO best practices may be a consistent benchmark to aim for, no two successful SEO strategies are the same – even if two websites are in the same vertical.
When we look at “ranking factors” or things to move the needle in favor of our client’s websites, there are a large number of factors that need to be taken into account including:
The tech stack your website is running.
The lead time from a development request being made to deployment on production.
How much investment has been made/has been planned into brand building and general PR.
How much resource is available to produce content (internally and externally).
The level of competition for the target topics and search phrases.
The end goal of users on the website (product sale, lead generation, article view).
All of these factors are dependent on the business and the business model.
And, unless you have inside information, it’s highly unlikely that you can answer the same points for your competitors as you can for yourself.
This is why there is a lot of debate within the SEO industry about pretty much anything to do with SEO.
A prime example being the ongoing debate around just how valuable inbound links are in terms of the wider mix. In some verticals and for some websites, they’re a lot more important than others.
This is because as SEO professionals, we’re all exposed to varying levels of challenge.Industry ‘Ranking Factors’
In the past, Searchmetrics has produced a ranking factor study looking at “universal ranking factors”, as well as weighting them by industry – to show the differences between them.
Comparing the Travel Industry and the Finance Industry from the study, top factors that correlated with higher performance within organic search were:
Page word count is higher.
Number of bullets user per list.
Number of internal links.
Number of images used.
In comparison to the top correlating factors in the Finance Industry being:
Content relevance and core topic.
File size and page load time.
The number of AdSense/AdLinks (less is more).
So does this mean that internal linking structures aren’t important in the Finance Industry and shouldn’t be a key part of your SEO strategy?
No, it doesn’t.
While studies like this are great, they only cover quantifiable elements that can be easily measured across a large sample of websites.
They don’t take into account more objective and subjective factors, such as brand and offline presence.
These do however show the different approach taking in each vertical, and this is majorly influenced by business model and product type.
You’d expect a travel website to contain a large number of images and contain lots of guides talking about destinations with persuasive copy.
Whereas from a financial website or bank, you’d expect non-verbose copy that’s straight to the point with the information the user needs.Some Things Are Universal
Correlating factors aside, some elements of organic search (within Google) are universal and should really be seen as basics across all websites, with strategy then being overlaid on top. These are:Site Speed
Important for SEO and site usability. Not so much a problem today, given the increased spotlight that Google gave site speed in previous years, making it a staple part of the SEO auditing process.
The majority of websites also now run behind CDNs that allow for things such as JS/CSS and HTML compression.
It’s also important to consider the differences between the HTML response and the rendered response, and have a non-JS fallback solution in place if possible as this can affect:
New URL discovery.
New URL indexing.Machine Learning & the Web Corpus
Whenever I’m talking about comparing two or more websites, I refer back to a Moz Whiteboard Friday from 2024. It looks at how Google may (or may not) interpret and evaluate the value of your content in comparison to the wider web corpus.
Although the video and transcript don’t directly mention machine learning and Google’s artificial intelligence, Rand Fishkin did talk about how Google assesses the web corpus and takes learnings from it – using the example of granola bars.
This is were approaches and strategies between competing websites tend to overlap.
In the example, when Google is assessing the quality of a page talking about granola bars, it’s looking at the web corpus for information and typically, you’d find pages containing nutritional value tables and lists of ingredients and allergens.
From this, they would see keywords such as [calories], [fats], [sugars], and then differentiating keywords such as [organic] and [vegan].
Applying this to another vertical such as travel, a page targeting [italy tours] may also talk about [rome coliseum], [milan], [venice], or [pompeii].
If Google finds 100 websites with a page targeting [italy tours], and 87 of the 100 contain a group of related topics and keywords and 13 don’t, machine learning (and logic) will go with the more consistent corpus.
This is also when you break away from just looking at single pages in silo, and start looking at:
The main content/supporting content elements across the domain.
Internal linking that creates little microsites of user value around a topic with content addressing multiple user intents (i.e., commercial pages, evergreen guides, and the blog).
Because Google is aware of what the web corpus is saying, you need to be in line with this and then develop the strategy to go one better – not just mirror what Google already sees as being rank worthy.Optimizing for Your Business Model
It’s important that you use the right strategies for your business model and target user base – taking into consideration your competitive space.
While some technical elements of SEO are universal, it’s not possible to blindly imitate strategies between websites and expect the same results.
This is why it’s difficult to forecast the impact of specific SEO tasks.
Due to the sheer number of variables (internal and external), no two websites are “the same”.
Saying that a website is “similar” is not enough.
All screenshots taken by author, August 2023
Why IUDs and Birth Control Implants Are on the Rise BU experts weigh in on the current threats facing family planning and abortion access in America
Photo courtesy of iStock/PrimeTime_Productions
Updated on June 12, 2023.
The four million Americans who receive birth control and other health services through Title X, the federally funded family planning program, may be breathing a sigh of relief (at least temporarily). The Trump administration’s sweeping changes to Title X, which were rolled out in March 2023 and scheduled to go into effect on May 3, 2023, were blocked in late April by a federal judge in Washington state. The changes would have prevented any medical organization that provides or refers patients for abortions from receiving program Title X funds that support STD prevention, cancer screening, and contraception.
The now-blocked Title X changes are just one of numerous actions that the Trump administration has taken to restrict access to contraception and abortion. Add on top of that the murky future of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), and it’s no coincidence that more and more women are seeking out long-term birth control options.
In the days and months following the 2024 presidential election, women’s healthcare providers across the country reported a spike in patients’ requests for long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) like intrauterine devices (IUDs) and under-the-skin implants. Among them were several physicians with Boston University ties who saw patients becoming more concerned about birth control access.
Due to President Trump’s campaign promise to repeal the ACA—which requires coverage for most contraceptives—these physicians say many women felt the window of time to get free birth control was closing, especially for more expensive and highly effective contraceptives like IUDs and implants which, respectively, cost between $1,000 and $1,300. As long as the ACA’s Women’s Health Amendment is still enforced, most insurance companies must cover the costs.
Judy Platt, director of Boston University’s Student Health Services primary care department, remembers seeing firsthand an increase in the number of BU students’ requesting IUDs after the 2024 election, which, she says, then leveled off after about 12 months.
“I saw a patient this morning who, when I was reviewing her history, talked about how she got an IUD the week after the election. That is how she refers to it: 2024, the week after the election,” says Katharine White, who is a practicing physician and associate professor of obstetrics and gynecology at Boston Medical Center and BU School of Medicine. “That was the incentive for her to get it.”
According to physician Jennifer Childs-Roshak (Questrom’10), president and CEO of Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts, Planned Parenthood health centers across the country saw the total number of patients using IUDs increase 91 percent in recent years, and saw an uptick in requests for IUDs after the 2024 election due to concerns about losing access to affordable birth control.
Research data now backs up healthcare providers’ anecdotal reports about the increasing popularity of LARCs. A recent Harvard University study found the demand for IUDs and implants increased by 21.6 percent in the 30 days after Trump was elected.
The IUD and the implant are the most effective forms of reversible birth control available, according to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Depending on the type, an IUD can last for over 10 years of continued use and an implant can last 3 years or more. This “set it and forget it” method, combined with the devices being highly effective, can be incredibly freeing, White explains, and patients themselves are often the ones spreading the word about the benefits within their social circles.
“A woman who has an IUD that she’s happy with will talk to everybody about how her IUD has changed her life,” says White. “There’s a social element I see to LARC devices that there hasn’t been around other methods of birth control.”
White says that there are, of course, pros and cons to any method of birth control, which should be carefully considered with a healthcare provider no matter who is sitting in the Oval Office.
“The answer is not: everyone should have an IUD,” says White. “It’s that everyone should have free and easy access to one, so if that’s what she decides is the best thing for her, she can just get it and get back to her life.”
Two years into Trump’s presidency, his administration has made it easier for employers to claim religious or moral objections to the ACA’s mandate that they provide insurance for contraception. On April 1, 2023, President Trump tweeted that a vote to totally replace the ACA will have to wait until after the 2023 election, when he hopes that the House of Representatives will return to a Republican majority.Why geography matters
When the proposed Title X changes were first revealed in March 2023, 21 states and medical organizations like Planned Parenthood filed lawsuits in opposition. The rule changes would have removed the guarantee that patients receive full and accurate information about abortion options from their doctors, which raised ethical concerns from medical professionals.
“The Trump-Pence administration…put healthcare providers like Planned Parenthood in an impossible position: withhold information from patients or get pushed out of the Title X program,” says Childs-Roshak.
Nationally, 41 percent of the people who receive care through the Title X program go to Planned Parenthood health clinics. According to Childs-Roshak, funding from the Title X program prevented over 1,500 chlamydia cases, 260 gonorrhea cases, and 43 cervical cancer cases in 2010 in Massachusetts. The rule changes would have had disproportionate consequences for women of color, who make up at least 56 percent of Title X participants.
Advocates have also expressed concern that cuts to Planned Parenthood would leave patients stranded from healthcare in certain areas of the country.
“Geography matters in this country with respect to health and human rights,” says Wendy Mariner, a BU School of Public Health professor of health law, School of Law professor of law, and School of Medicine professor of medicine.
Lawmakers in some left-leaning states like Massachusetts and New York are taking steps to protect access to reproductive care and remove barriers that limit a person’s ability to choose to have an abortion. In response to the Trump administration’s efforts to roll back coverage requirements for employers with religious or moral objections, Massachusetts enacted a bill in 2023 that mandates free access to contraceptives. New York has abolished a 1970-era law that criminalized abortion unless a mother’s life was at risk and legalized abortion after 24 weeks if a woman’s health or the fetus’ life is in danger.
Meanwhile, in some right-leaning states, conservative lawmakers are making abortion services and contraceptive services less available by imposing Targeted Regulation of Abortion Providers (TRAP) laws, in hopes of getting a case in front of the Supreme Court that could potentially undermine a woman’s federally protected right to choose an abortion.
In 2024, one such case from Texas, Whole Woman’s Health v. Hellerstedt, made it all the way to the Supreme Court. The case challenged a 2013 Texas TRAP law that mandated that physicians who perform abortions have admitting privileges to a hospital within a 30-mile radius, which slashed the state’s number of abortion clinics from 42 to just 19.
“In the Whole Woman’s Health case, the [Supreme Court] struck down the Texas TRAP law because it did not, in fact, provide any medical benefit but made women’s right to have an abortion impossible to exercise in many cases,” Mariner explains. But in today’s current political climate, “with the new Supreme Court justices who are believed to favor restrictions on abortion and contraception, I think states are being encouraged to enact laws that more directly attack women’s rights to make all kinds of reproductive decisions.”
A bill in Louisiana has presented new challenges, Mariner recently wrote in a blog post, that go well beyond abortion and could potentially alter how constitutional rights are defined and protected. In May 2023, the governor of Louisiana signed into a bill that proposes to ban abortions as early as six weeks into pregnancy. Since pregnancy is tracked from the first day of a woman’s last period before conception, for a woman with a typical 28-day menstrual cycle, six weeks pregnant is only about two weeks after she has missed her next period. Kentucky, Mississippi, Ohio, Missouri, and Georgia have signed similar bills that seek to restrict abortion early within the first trimester. Alabama’s governor signed one of the most extreme bills, which proposes to criminalize doctors for performing abortion procedures with up to 99 years in jail, unless a woman’s life is threatened or a lethal fetal anomaly is detected.
“When you think about what is actively happening right now…how many women are not in control of their bodies right now. [Women are] already not able to fully decide what happens to their pregnancies,” says White, who recently penned an
Although White does not credit the upward trend in IUDs and implants to the threat of new legislation restricting abortion access—since most women don’t anticipate needing a future abortion—she does see her patients worrying more and more about losing access to affordable methods of birth control.
“I find that issues around reproductive health are one of those ways that people are realizing that what happens politically affects them personally,” says White. “Issues around contraception and abortion directly affect the decisions that they can make for themselves and for their family and I think that has been a very rude awakening.”
Mariner says if a person’s rights granted in Roe v. Wade were taken away by a Supreme Court decision, “then it would be up to the states individually to decide what laws they wanted to pass. So where you live would determine what your rights were, the way that where you live now influences what kind of education you receive, what jobs are available, and whether you can breathe the air.”
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