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One of humanity’s greatest queries has focused on the nature of a change from good to evil. There is no single answer; several possible reasons apply. Julius Caesar, who dramatically asked his friend, “Et tu, Brute?” learned the hard way about the power of opportunity. In the fictional series, Homeland, empathy for a child was the root of Nicholas Brody’s turncoat actions. Finally, there is the longstanding issue of necessity, in which a person turns to crime to deal with environmental stressors, such as a lost job or poverty.

Whatever the reason, when a bacterium decides to change, the only means to accomplish the action is through genetic evolution. The process may involve altered expression of already present genes, nucleotide mutation in the genetic sequence, recombination events or the acquisition of virulence elements such as plasmids. When this happens, the microbe becomes different in structure and function forming a new strain and quite possibly, a new health problem.

The most widely studied bacterium is without a doubt Escherichia coli. This small rod-like organism is ubiquitous in our world and interacts with us each and every day. Some are harmless, such as the commensal K-12 or beneficial including the probiotic Nissle 1917. But there are pathogens and one of the most prevalent strains is Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC).

The bacterium, first described in 1987, is known to cause both singular infections as well as large outbreaks. It is also a major focus for diarrheal illness particularly in children. Unfortunately, determining the mechanisms of evolution as well as the motivating reasons for its appearance have been a mystery.

In 2010, an international team of researchers attempted to find some answers. They looked at 126 isolates from the southwest region of Nigeria to identify a common ancestor and possibly determine a motive. Unfortunately, they came up empty. There was no single EAEC strain; rather it was a compilation of various pathogenic bacteria all showing the same symptoms but with no common reason to change.

In 2013, the EAEC picture was muddied even further. A team of researchers in the United Kingdom analyzed various EAEC isolates between 1993 and 2009. As expected, they found several pathogenic variants but they happened upon non-pathogenic ones as well. Based on this discovery, the presence of this particular strain did not necessarily mean disease. If there had been a common reason for this bacterium to turn evil, it was not all-encompassing.

Now there may be a possible explanation for both the development of the EAEC strain as well as the reason for the variety in pathogenic response. An international team of researchers investigated the origin of the strain and last week revealed their surprising results. Unlike previously believed, there was no single motive but rather, as many as three.

The group focused on 564 strains isolated over the course of three decades. Using a technique known as multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) the researchers attempted to find the answer behind pathogenic motivation. First, was there a common ancestor to explain the development of this strain and second, why did some cause illness why others did not. The task was a tall order for any microbiologist and yet they felt they could finally succeed where others had failed.

In terms of mechanism, the group found a common evolutionary route for pathogenic EAEC strains. Regardless of geographical location, these bacteria arose mainly through recombination in which communication with other strains led to a turncoat outcome. As for the motivation behind the change, the development happened primarily when competition was present. The process was not evil in nature but rather an act of necessity.

With the understanding of both mechanism and motive, the researchers wanted to then take the unusual step of figuring out why only some isolates caused disease. The answer offered an unexpected perspective. Until now, EAEC was thought to be its own separate branch of E. coli but the analysis showed otherwise. EAEC could be found in three separate groups only one of which was considered pathogenic. This meant in essence, the bacteria had been misunderstood; they were not all villains. In fact, most were nothing more than survivalists.

The overall conclusions suggest the profile of EAEC needs to be reviewed and altered. Indeed, isolates do cause disease, but there are harmless and/or helpful ones as well. This distinction has yet to be delineated fully yet a more detailed investigation is clearly useful. After all, when it comes to villains, a proper analysis can help us understand not only why a good person – or microbe – turns bad, but also whether they are actually our enemies or just lost souls.

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Securityhealthsystray.exe Bad Image; What Is It?

Bad Image errors in Windows occur if a program or application faces difficulty while launching or running. The most common reasons for Bad Image errors are outdated or corrupted system files, malware or viruses, and hardware issues. Recently, some users have been complaining about SecurityHealthSystray.exe Bad Image error on their Windows device with the following error message:

\?C:WindowsSystem32SecurityHealth1.0.2207.20002-0SecurityHealthSSO.dll is either not designed to run on Windows or it contains an error. Try installing the program again using the original installation media or contact your system administrator or the software vendor for support. Error status 0xc000012f.

What is SecurityHealthSystray.exe?

SecurityHealthSystray.exe is a Windows process related to the Windows Defender Security Center. It’s responsible for providing your PC with real-time protection against viruses and malware. This process usually runs in the background to scan your device for threats and offers notifications and alerts when required.

Fix chúng tôi Bad Image

To fix the chúng tôi Bad Image error on your Windows device, consider running an SFC scan and installing the latest version of Visual C++ Redistributable. If that doesn’t help, follow these suggestions:

Run SFC and DISM

Install the latest Visual C++ Redistributable

Re-register the DLL file

Download Windows OS files from Microsoft

Uninstall recently installed Windows Update

Reset Windows Security App

Now lets see these in detail.

1] Run SFC and DISM

Bad image errors may occur due to corrupted/damaged Windows system files or system image corruptions. Run SFC and DISM to scan and repair these. Here’s how:

Type the following commands one by one and hit Enter: For SFC: sfc/scannow For DISM: DISM /Online /Cleanup-Image /CheckHealth DISM /Online /Cleanup-Image /ScanHealth DISM /Online /Cleanup-Image /RestoreHealth

Restart your device once done and check if the error is fixed.

2] Install the latest Visual C++ Redistributable

C++ Redistributable is a set of runtime library files that allows the usage of pre-developed code and allows installation for multiple apps. If its packages get deleted or corrupted, it can stop several programs from functioning correctly. In that case, you will need to install the required version again. Here’s how you can update Visual C++ Redistributable.

3] Re-register the DLL file

You can also try re-registering the DLL file,to fix chúng tôi Bad Image error. Here’s how:

Type the following command and hit Enter: regsvr32 SecurityHealthSSO.dll

Now, restart your PC and check.

4] Download Windows OS files from Microsoft

A Windows OS dll file can be downloaded from Microsoft. This is a safe option. After downloading it, you must place it in the proper folder and re-register the concerned DLL file. In this case, that’s SecurityHealthSSO.dll.

5] Uninstall recently installed Windows Update

A broken or corrupted file installed with the system update sometimes makes applications crash. Uninstalling a Windows Update can help fix bad image errors if it started occuring after installing the update. To Uninstall Windows Updates in Windows 11, do the following:

From the Start or WinX Menu, open Windows 11 Settings

Now scroll down till you see Uninstall updates under Related settings

The Installed Updates Control Panel applet will open

6] Reset Windows Security App

If none of these suggestions were able to help, reset Windows Security app. Follow these steps to do so:

Type the following and hit Enter:

Exit PowerShell once the command executes.

I hope this post helps you.

Read: MSTeams.exe Bad Image Error Status 0xc0000020 in Windows 11/10

Why do I keep getting Bad Image error? How do I fix a Bad Image error?

Scan your device for outdated or corrupted Windows system files to fix a bad image error. You can also try re-registering the file and installing the latest version of C++ redistributable. However, if that doesn’t help, uninstall the recently installed Windows Update.

What is 0xc000012f Bad Image ?

The error code 0xc000012f bad image occurs if programs executable or supporting modules are corrupt. However, it can also occur if the C++ redistributable files are outdated or corrupted.

Criticism Of The Indian Constitution: Exploring Key Concerns And Debates


Criticism of the Indian Constitution on different bases, along with critical investigation of the ideological backbone of the Indian Constitution. Critics feel that the Indian constitution is very lengthy (extra long) and complicated and has some irrelevant parts.

The Constituent debates provide a good awareness of the thinking behind the making of our Constitution and it was even debated considering each article at a time with serving a useful purpose.

In today’s article we will talk about Criticism of the Indian Constitution: Exploring Key Concerns and Debates will help aspirants in making answers for the mains paper, UPSC prelims exam, and CADs.

Criticism of Indian Constitution- Grounds of Criticism Not a Representative Body

The critics criticized the Indian constitution as not having a representative body. So, the member of the Indian constitution is not directly voted by the Indians using their global adult franchise.

Not A Sovereign Body

The critics also said that being a voting member of a community is not a sovereign body. It was only built because of the offers given by the British Government.

The Hindus Dominate the Indian Constitution

Criticisms of the Constitution of India, some critics said that the Hindus dominate it. According to Lord Viscount Simon, it is a system of Hindus only. Winston Churchill clearly expressed that it belongs to only one big party in India.

Indian Constitution Is a Borrowed Constitution

There is not anything latest and original in the Indian constitution for many critics. According to the Critics, the Indian constitution is a bag of borrowings.

Carbon Copy of the Act of 1935

Critics in a way that expresses disapproval examine the ideological bases of the Indian constitution and explain that incorporates maximum laws and clauses from the Indian Government’s 1935 Act in the Indian constitution.

According to Prof. N. Srinivasan, the constitution of India, apply a carbon copy of the Government’s 1935 Act in both cases of material and language.

Anti-India Constitution

One more criticism of the Indian constitution is that it is un-Indian (anti-Indian) because India’s emotions and political conventions are not considered in the Indian constitution.

They said that it does not work in India and also it is not suitable for foreign types of nature in Indian conditions.

Very Long Constitution

Indian Constitution is a very long constitution made up of 145,000 words and 395 articles when it comes into being and it was considered the world’s largest constitution made between 1947 to 1950. Hence, for them Indian Constitution consisting unnecessary elements.

Un-Gandhian Constitution

Critics said that the Indian constitution is an Un-Gandhian constitution as it decreases the principles of Mahatma Gandhi. According to the critics, our constitution should be like district panchayats and villages.

K. Hanumanthaiah said that Mahatma Gandhi never desired this type of constitution.

Lawyers Paradise

Critics thought that the Indian constitution is very legal type.

They say that the legal vocabulary and clause-ology of the constitution make the Indian constitution a difficult document way to understand. Critics also felt that politicians and lawyers ruled the constituent assembly. They said that other social features are not correctly shown.

Sir Ivor Jennings said that Indian Constitution is a lawyer’s paradise.

Constituent Assembly Debates

We can divide the Constitutions Debates into four major parts:

Stage Work

Elementary stage (9-12-1946 to 27-01-1948) The guiding principles of the constitution were outlined in the reports submitted by some of the committees like the Committee on Fundamental Rights and Minorities, the Union Powers Committee, etc. Also, a Drafting Committee was formed to draft the Constitution.

First reading (4-11-1948 to 9-11-1948) Establishment of the draft constitution in the Assembly.

Second reading (15-11-1948 to 17-10-1949) The draft was talked about section by section.

Third reading (14-11-1949 to 26-11-1949) The third reading of the Constitution was fully completed and it was staged on 26th November.


Q1. What were the criticisms made against the making of the Indian Constitution?

Ans: Critics have criticized the Constituent Assembly in different ways. These are as follows: Not a representative body: Critics have argued that the Constituent Assembly was not a representative body because its members were not directly elected by the people of India on the basis of the universal adult vote.

Q2. What was the trouble faced by the framers of the Constitution?

Ans: The trouble faced by the framers of our constitution were: 1. India was a vast and diverse country. It was not an easy task to make a constitution keeping in mind the needs of all the different regions and groups.

Q3. Who wrote the Constitution of India?

Ans: On August 29, 1947, the Constituent Assembly appointed Dr. B.R. A drafting committee was formed under the chairmanship of Ambedkar to prepare a draft constitution for India.

Loki May Prove Evolution Of All Complex

Loki may prove evolution of all complex-celled life

A life form called Lokiarchaeota, or “Loki” for short, may prove to be the missing link between simple and complex-cell organisms here on Earth. The discovery of Loki could have major implications for everyone from scientists to text-book writers – not to mention those interested in disproving humanity’s evolution from single-celled organisms. Loki was discovered near the hostile underwater environment called Loki’s Castle, located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between Norway and Greenland, over 2,000 meters below the surface of the water. Loki looks like the Norse god-like character Loki too, in an abstract sort of way.

A new microbe has been discovered. This microbe could very well be the missing link between basic and complex life. The connector between life with simple microbes and those with complex cells.

In short – this may be another extremely important proof of evolution of humans from goop.

Archaea were discovered in the 1970s (by biologist Carl Woese) as being microorganisms with simple, small cells that, besides their cells, more closely related to organisms with complex cell types than they did other simple-celled organisms.

Those with complex cells are called eukaryotes.

But something was missing. There wasn’t an organism that bridged the gap.

Now there may well be.

Above: Loki’s Castle (Credit: Center for Geobiology/U. of Bergen), first reported in July of 2008.

“The site where Loki [was discovered] is heavily influenced by volcanic activity, but actually quite low in temperature,” according to Steffen Jørgensen from the University of Bergen in Norway. Jørgensen was one of several researchers involved in taking samples at the location Loki was located.

In these extreme environments, scientists occasionally discover oddities they’d have found in no other place on Earth.

“Extreme environments generally contain a lot of unknown microorganisms,” said Jimmy Saw, “which we refer to as microbial dark matter.” Saw is co-load author on the paper which has been published this week. Saw is also a researcher at the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology at Uppsala University.

“The puzzle of the origin of the eukaryotic cell is extremely complicated, as many pieces are still missing,” said Thijs Ettema at the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, leader of the scientific team that carried out this study.

Above: “Image of a hydrothermal vent field along the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge, close to where ‘Loki’ was found in marine sediments. The hydrothermal vent system was discovered by researchers from the Centre for Geobiology at University of Bergen (Norway).” VIA Centre for Geobiology (University of Bergen, Norway) by R.B. Pedersen.

“We hoped that Loki would reveal a few more pieces of the puzzle, but when we obtained the first results, we couldn’t believe our eyes. The data simply looked spectacular”

“By studying its genome,” continued Thijs Ettema, “we found that Loki represents an intermediate form in-between the simple cells of microbes, and the complex cell types of eukaryotes.”

Results in the study published this week suggest that their eukaryotic host evolved from what they call “a bona fide archaeon.” They show that this ancestor of the current form had many components that then went on to underpin more evolved eukaryote-specific features.

The host, therefor, had what this team of researchers call “a rich genomic ‘starter-kit’ to support the increase in the cellular and genomic complexity that is characteristic of eukaryotes.”

Additional information can be found in the paper “Complex archaea that bridge the gap between prokaryotes and eukaryotes” published this week in Nature (2024). Find this paper under code doi:10.1038/nature14447 with authors Anja Spang, Jimmy H. Saw, Steffen L. Jørgensen, Katarzyna Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, Joran Martijn, Anders E. Lind, Roel van Eijk, Christa Schleper, Lionel Guy, and Thijs J.G. Ettema.

Windows 10 Kb4015217 Brings A Bevy Of Bug Fixes, Download It Now

Windows 10 KB4015217 brings a bevy of bug fixes, download it now




Microsoft recently rolled out a new cumulative update for the Windows 10 Anniversary Update OS. Update KB4015217 features a series of important bug fixes, patching various issues such as high CPU usage, VPN driver bugs, many File Explorer issues, and more.

It is worth mentioning that Microsoft listed two build versions for KB4015217, OS build 14393.1066 and 14393.1083. Unfortunately, the tech giant did not explain what are the exact differences between the two versions.

Without further ado, let us see what are the fixes and improvements brought by KB4015217.

Addressed issue that was preventing the Camera application from saving a captured image when “Show recently opened items in Jump Lists on Start or the taskbar” settings is enabled.

Improved the Host Network Service (HNS) to support an overlay network driver for use on Windows Server 2024 to connect containers across hosts using Docker Engine in Swarm Mode.

Addressed issue where displays turn off unexpectedly even when Turn off display and Screen saver are disabled in the power profile.

Addressed an issue where CredentialGuard-enabled computers joined to Active Directory domains submit two bad logon attempts each time a bad password is provided during a Kerberos-based logon. Logons to Active Directory domains with arbitrarily low account lockout thresholds may be subject to unexpected account lockouts. For example, 2 logons with a bad password could result in an account being locked out if the account lockout threshold is set to 3 or 4.

Addressed issue that increases CPU usage when IP forwarding or weak host is enabled.

Addressed issue where some of the VPN drivers do not get migrated when upgrading the OS to Windows 10, version 1607.

Addressed issue that causes virtual machines to fail during high I/O scenarios where the user may log in multiple times.

Addressed issue that was causing connections (after the 1st connection request) from a Remote Desktop Client to a Remote Desktop session to fail after upgrading from Windows 10, version 1511, to Windows 10, version 1607.

Addressed issue that was causing the Command prompt to be not displayed properly through the serial console on headless systems.

Addressed issue that was causing MDM enrollment failtures on devices using Kerberos authentication.

Addressed issue with rendering when a webpage contains a DIV element that has the contenteditable attribute.

Addressed issue that causes text to disappear when you resize an Internet Explorer window when the encoding is Hebrew and any text ends with an underscore character.

Addressed issue that was causing headless machines to not go into S3 sleep mode sometimes.

Enabled warning message in Group Policy Management Console (GPMC) to alert administrators of a design change that may prevent the processing of a User Group after installing security update MS16-072 (KB3163622).

Addressed an issue that was causing Windows Explorer to perform an endless, rapid refresh of a network drive that is mapped to a share, preventing users from performing tasks such as rename object.

Addressed a memory leak in Internet Explorer when hosting a page that contains nested framesets, which load cross-domain content.

Addressed an issue that was causing the print spooler service to hang instead of showing a timeout error when a connection between a bluetooth printer and the machine is lost during printing.

Addressed an issue that was preventing installation of a new printer driver that uses v3 printer drivers.

Improved the reliability of Load Balancing/Failover (LBFO) whenever there is a resource rebalance, a device failure, or a surprise removal of a device.

Addressed additional issues with updated time zone information, Internet Explorer, and Microsoft Edge.

Security updates to Scripting Engine, libjpeg image-processing library, Hyper-V, Win32k, Adobe Type Manager Font Driver, Internet Explorer, Microsoft Edge, Graphics component, Active Directory Federation Services, .NET Framework, Active Directory, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, Windows Kernel model drivers and Windows OLE.

Have you downloaded KB4015217 on your computer? Did you encounter any issues after installing the update?


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Exploring The Committees Of The Constituent Assembly: Key Players In Shaping India’S Constitution


The first meeting of the Constituent Assembly took place in 1946 in New Delhi’s Constitution Hall, now known as the Central Hall of Parliament House. Numerous accomplished individuals from various fields collaborated to draft the Indian Constitution.

In this article we will discuss Exploring the Committees of the Constituent Assembly: Key Players in Shaping India’s Constitution.

The Indian Constitution was primarily crafted by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar. According to Article 395 of the Indian Constitution, both the Indian Independence Act of 1947 and the Government of India Act of 1935 were repealed.

What Was the Indian Constituent Assembly?

The Constituent Assembly, also referred to as the first parliament of an independent India, was a sovereign body established to assist in the constitution-making process for the newly independent India. The Cabinet Mission Plan was responsible for creating the country’s Constituent Assembly.

The current system of universal adult franchise voting was abolished by the Cabinet Mission Plan. Instead, it recommended that the recently elected provincial assemblies choose the members of the various committees of the constituent assembly.

In order to choose the members of the various committees of the constituent assembly, members of the provincial assembly used their single, transferable vote.

The Provincial Assembly chose 292 of the members. The Princely States and the Chief Commissioner Provinces of Coorg, Delhi, Ajmer-Merwara, and British Baluchistan contributed more than any other province. While the Princely States added 93 members, the Chief Commissioner provinces added 4 members.

According to each state’s population, seats were distributed to the Princely States and the Provinces. Sikhs, Muslims, and all other communities were to share it equally so that each group would have a representative in the Constituent Assembly.

The Constituent Assembly had 389 members prior to the division of India and Pakistan. However, following partition, there were only 299 seats available because some princely states and provinces had joined the newly created Pakistan.

The first session of the newly formed parliament was called to order by the Constituent Assembly on December 9, 1946, with Dr. Sachchidananda Sinha served as the temporary president. On December 11, 1946, the constituent assembly chose Dr. Rajendra Prasad as president and Harendra Coomar Mookerjee as vice president.

The Committees of the Constituent Assembly

The Constituent Assembly established various committees to examine the various departments involved in creating the Constitution of an Independent India.

The constituent assembly had 22 committees in total. Only eight of them—the minor and supporting committees—were among the most significant committees.

Procedural matters were handled by 10 committees. 12 committees were in charge of important issues. The Drafting Committee has undoubtedly had a significant impact on Indian politics as a result of its critical role in the constitution-drafting process.

Chairman Committees

B.R. Ambedkar Drafting Committee.

Rajendra Prasad

Ad hoc Committee on the National flag.

Rules of Procedure Committee.

Finance and Staff Committee.

Steering Committee.

Vallabhbhai Patel

Advisory Committee.

Minorities and Tribal and Excluded Areas.

Provincial Constitution Committee

G.V. Mavalankar Functions of the Constituent Assembly.

Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar Special Committee to Examine the Draft Constitution.

A.V. Thakkar Excluded and Partially Excluded Areas Sub-Committee.

J.B. Kripalani Fundamental Rights Sub-Committee.

B. Pattabhi Sitaramayya House Committee.

H.C. Mukherjee Minorities Sub-Committee.

Gopinath Bardoloi North-east frontier tribal areas and assam, excluded and partially excluded areas sub-committee.

K.M. Munshi Order of Business Committee.

Jawaharlal Nehru

States Committe.

Union Constitution Committee.

Union Powers Committee.

Drafting Committee

One of the eight most significant committees in the Constituent Assembly was the drafting committee. On August 29, 1947, the constituent assembly established it. On August 30, 1947, the Drafting Committee convened for the first time, and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was chosen to preside as the committee’s chairman.

It was the most significant committee because it was tasked with drafting a new constitution for India based on the information provided by the other constituent assembly committees.

The first draft of the proposed constitution was made public by the drafting committee on February 21st, 1948. Then, for roughly eight months, it was examined by Indian citizens. The public also suggested additional changes.

The necessary adjustments were made following public feedback, and the next draft of the constitution was published in October 1948. The full Indian Constitution took the drafting committee 2 years, 11 months, and 17 days to complete after its inception in 1947.

Over the course of 165 days, the constitutive Assembly met a total of 11 times. Out of these, 114 days were devoted to the drafting committee’s discussions and the draft(s) of the Constitution.


Q1. What is the Constituent Assembly’s most significant committee?

Ans: The most important committee of the Constituent Assembly was the Drafting Committee, which was founded on August 29, 1947. This committee was given the responsibility of creating a draft of the new Constitution.

Q2. How many committees did the Constituent Assembly appoint?

Ans: A Drafting Committee headed by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was one of the thirteen committees the Constituent Assembly established to draft the constitution.

Q3. What do you understand about the constitutional committee?

Ans: Examining public bills for issues of constitutional significance and looking into more general constitutional issues are the committee’s two main tasks.

Q4. Why is the constitution committee important?

Ans: The main duty of the Constitution Committee was to conduct periodic reviews of the constitution, to make sure that the administration operates with effectiveness and efficiency, while maintaining transparency and accountability in decision-making.

Q5. Who is the Indian Constitution’s father?

Ans: The Indian Constitution is credited to Dr. B.R. Ambedkar the chairman of the drafting committee as its founder.

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