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What is chúng tôi & What is it Used for? All about the process and tips to reduce its CPU usage




The UpdateCheck.exe process is generally linked to a third-party app that uses it to scan for newer versions.

Some notable apps that have a process by the same name include, Coupoon, Maxtor Manager, and RAD Studio.

The process triggers high CPU usage for many and, in some cases, affects the Internet speed.



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Of the many background process running in Windows, most pose no harm or lead to any issues. But a few have been a cause of concern for users, especially the ones triggered by rather unknown third-party apps. One such is the chúng tôi process.

The UpdateCheck process is listed in the Task Manager and often results in high CPU usage. This automatically affects the PC’s performance, slows the Internet speed, and sometimes causes other apps to crash. Keep reading to find out all about the process!

UpdateCheck.exe, as the name suggests, looks for newer versions of the software that installs it. The catch is that several programs have the UpdateCheck process in their directory. The primary ones are:

So, chúng tôi is in no way a critical Windows process, and terminating or disabling it shouldn’t affect the core functioning of the PC, except for the app that triggers it. That, too, would only affect the automatic updates. You can still manually search for and install these.

We have had several instances where hackers disguised malware as a critical process to bypass detection. So, your primary approach should be to identify the file path and verify whether the process is stored in the program’s dedicated directory or in another location.

For the programs discussed earlier, here is the usual storage path:

Coupoon: C:Program Files (x86)Coupoon

Maxtor Manager: C:Program FilesMaxtorOneTouch Status

In case the chúng tôi process is not in the dedicated directory, use a reliable antivirus solution to run a full system scan.

If you find the process in the usual path, relax a bit! Though it doesn’t mean that the process won’t throw any errors. So, here are a few solutions to get things back to normal!

1. Scan for malware

When you are unsure whether chúng tôi is safe or if it’s a malware, a quick way to identify that is to run a virus scan. Though the built-in Windows Security is capable of handling such issues, for a deeper scan, you can use a third-party antivirus software.

2. Uninstall the program behind the process

While you could manually delete the chúng tôi file, there’s a good chance the program would fetch it all over again. So, it’s recommended that you uninstall the app altogether to get rid of the process.

For this, many prefer using an effective uninstaller software to eliminate any leftover files and registry entries.

3. Perform a system restore

If everything else fails to work, as a last resort, you can always restore the PC to a state where the chúng tôi issue didn’t exist. A system restore doesn’t affect the stored files, though some configured settings or installed apps may be removed.

Before you leave, check some quick tips to make Windows faster and get superior performance.

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What Is Proof Of Burn?

As anyone who has paid any meaningful attention to the cryptocurrency market will tell you, the devil is always in the details. While public perception of the cryptocurrency market is that it exists like a homogenous whole — like the cryptocurrency rankings you see on coinmarketcap are no different from a Forex currency listing, with cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum and Cardano no more different from one another than the Pound from the Euro or the dollar.

They’re all just currencies, right? Different only in name, color, and value. But this vast oversimplification of cryptocurrencies and their evolving, highly specialized use-cases misses out on an entire world that exists under the hood of each currency.

Related: Proof of Stake vs. Proof of Work

What is Proof of Burn?

Here on Nerdschalk, we’ve talked about cryptocurrency quite a lot lately. We’ve put out a few guides on some of the bigger currencies, explaining how they work and how you can purchase some for yourself. We’ve talked about NFTs and how to invest in them. We’ve even talked about pure-blockchain topics like Forking and Sharding.

But we wouldn’t be writing about any of these things, and some guy in England wouldn’t be dreaming about the day he can finally go digging in the local garbage dump, if it weren’t for the consensus algorithms that made Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies possible. Down below, we’ll run you through exactly what Proof of Burn is, how it works, and why some are suggesting it as a better alternative to Proof of Work than the widely supported Proof of Stake protocol.

Related: What is Proof of Authority?

How Proof of Burn Works

Proof of Burn derives its name from a process called Coin Burning, in which tokens are sent to public addresses without private keys, rendering them forever unretrievable. These public addresses, known as Eater Addresses, are often randomly generated without private keys – meaning no one ever had, nor ever will have access to the funds stored inside them. This is why the process is called “burning” — you’re essentially consigning a certain amount of currency to oblivion just as effectively as you would be by setting fire to all the notes in your wallet.

The Proof of Burn protocol was first put forth by Iain Stewart in 2012 during an online discussion in the BitcoinTalk forum, in which he described the proof of burn protocol as a less energy-intensive alternative to Proof of Work and Proof of Stake, while asserting its similarity in design to the latter.

Often seen as Proof of Work without any real power consumption and the hefty equipment costs on the part of the miners, Proof of Burn endows the minors of a network with virtual mining power, rather than physical, proportionate to the value burned. In a traditional Proof of Work protocol, miners on a network compete in a race to solve computationally-intensive cryptographic puzzles in order to validate blocks on the networks.

Only the correct answer to the cryptographic puzzle will produce the accurate record of the transaction to be added to the distributed ledger that is the blockchain. The crux of the Proof of Work algorithm is that it is computationally-intensive — i.e. costly — for the individual node to find the correct answer but essentially effortless for every other note on the network to process and verify that the answer is correct – achieving consensus and adding the block to the chain.

Because it requires investment — through power and equipment — to take part in the validation process and reap the rewards that come with it, miners are naturally disincentivized to engage in fraudulent behavior and support the network. 

Proof of Burn essentially cuts out the physical hardware required to participate in the computational race to solve each puzzle and replaces it with a certain amount of virtual computing power commensurate to the amount of currency the miner verifiably burned. This retains the element of personal investment in the network on the part of the miner without driving up the total power consumption of the network, providing the same safeguards of Proof of Work without the economic footprint.

Advantages of Proof of Burn

That means ever more powerful hardware and soaring electricity costs which, when put together in the context of the major networks like bitcoin can bowed pretty poorly For the environment. This concern remains a major talking point for the mainstream acceptance of proof of work-based cryptocurrencies like bitcoin, and by solving it, proof of burn can potentially increase the speed at which cryptocurrencies finally achieve widespread legitimacy.

Because Proof of Burn endows virtual mining power relative to how much the node burned, there is no need for expensive, top-tier processing power and the cataclysmic power bills that accompany it. This accomplishes a secondary goal as well: it allows new blockchains to bootstrap off of previously generated “work.”

Because a Proof of Burn protocol hinges on burning coins that have, of course, been mined, the original computing power expended remains a source of scarcity even in the second blockchain with an entirely new currency when using Proof of Burn this way.

One of the most salient cons associated with a Proof of Burn protocol comes in the actual process of mining itself once coins have been burned. Mining on a Proof of Burn-based network can be slower than that of a Proof of Work-style blockchain. This is because the powerful equipment used in a Proof of Work Blockchain has been replaced with the virtual “mining rig” that the system endows, which inherently produces a lower hash rate than dedicated hardware setups.

A Proof of Burn protocol also poses an added risk to the individual miner; while Proof of Work is itself an incredibly risky venture, with immense upfront costs associated with achieving the computational power required for a viable mining operation, Proof of Burn provides no guarantee that the cost of the initial coin burning will be recovered through mining in a timely manner. Or at all. All the coin burn does is “purchase” you a virtual mining rig of a certain size; after that point, you’re in the same competitive mining race as any Proof of Work system.

As of yet, Proof of Burn also suffers from a similar drawback as proof of Stake, in which the system selects for those willing to immobilize or invest larger sums of currency — ostensibly as a means of collateral and disincentivizing any attempts fraudulent behavior.

This, of course, has some merit but the oft-pointed weakness of such a paradigm is that the selection process incorporates only the staked or burned amount, and not the amount relative to the holdings of the stakeholder or burner. Thus, what may be a considerably larger sum than another miner may in fact be much smaller in proportion to that individual’s total holdings, thus serving as a weaker guard against misbehavior than intended.


What Is @Escaping In Swift

In Swift, a closure marked with @escaping means the closure can outlive the scope of the block of code it is passed into.

In a sense, @escaping tells the closure to “stay up even after the surrounding function is gone”.

But why is this useful?

Let’s say you are performing an (asynchronous) network request such that:

Function f() fetches information from a web page.

After completion, a closure function g() runs inside f().

The only way to make this possible is to pass the function g() as an escaping closure into the function f().

This tells the Swift compiler after calling f() to keep g() alive to wait for the network request to complete and the response to arrive.

In this guide, we are going to take a look at non-escaping closures and escaping closures in detail.

Also, you are going to see a demonstrative example to support understanding.

Closures in Swift

In Swift, closures are non-escaping by default.

If you pass a non-escaping closure into a function, it is called right away.

The life of the non-escaping closure ends when the function call finishes.

As a result, there will be no trace of that closure.

This is the default behavior.

Let’s see a simple example of a non-escaping closure and its behavior.

Please repeat the actions in this guide in your own code editor to truly understand what happens.

Let’s write a function add that takes:

Integers a and b

A closure called action

Right after summing the numbers up, the function add calls the action.

var sum = a + b action(sum) }

Let’s call this function with integers 10 and 20 and a closure that prints the result into the console:

add(a: 10, b: 20, { res in print(res) })



As you can see, the result of adding 10 and 20 gets printed to the console right away.

However, this default behavior of a closure can be an issue when dealing with asynchronous code.

In an asynchronous function, you might not want to execute the closure right away. Instead, you want to wait for the asynchronous task to complete before calling a function.

This is where escaping comes in handy.

@escaping: Escaping Closures in Swift

Escaping makes it possible for the closure to outlive the function surrounding it.

This means the closure can stay around to catch a network request-response that arrives later.

To make a closure escaping, use the @escaping keyword modifier in front of the closure type.

Let’s see an example of how using a non-escaping closure fails in the context of an async function, and how to fix it using an escaping closure.


Say you are using an app to message your friend and you ask them “How are you?”.

As you know, it always takes a while to get a response.

For the sake of demonstration, let’s say it takes 2 seconds for your friend to reply back.

Let’s simulate this conversation in Swift code.

To mimic this behavior, you need a function that takes a response handler closure as a parameter.

This response handler is simply responsible for taking care of handling your friend’s response that arrives 2 seconds later.

Here is how it looks in code:

print(“Hey, how are you?”)

DispatchQueue.main.asyncAfter(deadline: .now() + 2, execute: { responseHandler(“Hi, I’m doing really good.”) })

print(“Responding takes a while…”) }

howAreYou({ friendResponse in print(friendResponse) })

But this code causes a compiler error.

This is because you are trying to execute the responseHandler function 2 seconds after the howAreYou function has executed.

This is a problem because 2 seconds after calling the howAreYou, there is no trace of that function or the responseHandler closure.

Thus the responseHandler never has a chance to handle your friend’s response. It gets destroyed before the response even arrives.

The Swift compiler is clever. It knows this is about to happen. Thus it shows you an error and does not run the code.

To make it work, you should make the responseHandler closure outlive the context of the howAreYou function to see the response arrive.

To do this, you need to turn it into an escaping closure:

print(“Hey, how are you?”)

DispatchQueue.main.asyncAfter(deadline: .now() + 2, execute: { responseHandler(“Hi, I’m doing really good.”) })

print(“Responding takes a while…”) }

howAreYou({ friendResponse in print(friendResponse) })

This way you tell the program that the responseHandler is an asynchronous closure and you want it to stay alive even after howAreYou call completes.

Now the compiler error is gone and the code works as intended.

It is as simple as that!

Now your responseHandler closure is able to show your friend’s response as it can out-live the howAreYou function’s scope!

But this example is quite arbitrary.

The next logical question is when is an escaping closure actually useful.

Let’s take a look.

When Are Escaping Closures Actually Useful

Escaping closures are useful whenever you want the closure to be able to outlive the function’s scope from where you are calling it.

A great example is when dealing with network requests.

When fetching data over a server, it takes a while for a network request to complete, and thus, the response to arrive.

To perform actions on the response, you need to wait for it to arrive.

To make a closure wait for the data, it has to be able to outlive the function’s scope where it is called.

To do this, you need to use an escaping closure.

To perform actions on the response, you need to


Today you learned what is @escaping in Swift.

In short, @escaping is a keyword modifier that turns a closure into an escaping closure.

An escaping closure is useful in asynchronous tasks when the closure has to wait for the function to complete.

When you use an escaping closure, the closure outlives the function in which it is called. In other words, when the function completes, the closure stays up and keeps waiting for the response.

Thanks for reading. Happy coding!

Further Reading

50 Swift Interview Questions

What Is An Activist Investor?

When activist investors identify a target, they buy a substantial stake in the company’s equity, which signals to the market that changes are on the way.

A company’s share price can rise due to the news that an activist firm has become a shareholder.

A shareholder activist will then push for changes they believe are in the company’s best interests. These changes often include: 

Strategic redirection

Changes in operational decisions

Capital restructuring 

Selling non-core divisions and subsidiaries 

Changes in management 

Changes in corporate governance, i.e. a refreshed board of directors 

Activist investors are different to private equity firms

Activist investing is about creating shareholder value by causing change.

In contrast to private equity firms, activist investors rarely acquire majority or total stakes in companies to profit from their sales.

They use public communications and private discussions to win over other shareholders and company leaders.

If such efforts fail, an activist investor may choose to run a proxy contest to elect new board members and directors.

Do activist investors help or hurt companies? 

There have been instances when activist investors have successfully resolved the old problem faced by shareholders whose interests don’t always align with those of chronic management teams.

There’s no doubt they’ve created value for themselves and other shareholders.

The effectiveness of activist investing, however, can’t be easily categorised.

Activists will always look out for themselves, and if they are successful, they will always make money.

However, rather than making long-term investments, activist investors tend to focus on short-term strategies like dividends and share buybacks that boost the share price.

Here are the names of some well-known activist investors

A well-known activist investor is billionaire Carl Icahn. Icahn famously purchased a 1% stake in Apple Inc. in 2013 and urged the company to increase share buybacks. And in 2023, Apple spent $85.5 billion on buybacks.

Paul Singer founded Elliott Management Corp., which manages $51 billion in activist investments. The company is known for its aggressive activism, including a public attempt to oust Jack Dorsey as CEO of Twitter in 2023. Elliott was given a board seat and a $2 billion share buyback program, and Dorsey resigned from the CEO position in November 2023.

Other famous activist investors include David Einhorn, Ryan Cohen, Starboard Value, ValueAct Capital, Trian Partners, and Third Point Partners.

Watch this video explaining how Paul Singer, the activist investor, made his money.

How activist investors can do good

Activist investors can be helpful catalysts for change in stagnant or mismanaged companies. They can replace bad managers and unlock value via corporate restructuring. 

Share prices often rise significantly after an activist investor announces a stake in a company. 

A company’s management is much less likely to ignore shareholder proposals if activist investors are involved. 

Activist investors often bring new ideas and a fresh perspective to a stagnant company with great potential.  

How activist investors can cause damage

The long-term outlook isn’t always crucial to activist investors. Such short-term thinking can be harmful.

A company’s long-term vision may be derailed by activist investor pressure to implement immediate improvements to drive shareholder value.

The short-term impact of share buybacks and dividends is often positive, but investing that cash in the company may be wiser over time.

There is often no guarantee that the ideas for change proposed by activist investors will succeed, as they may not be experts in the company’s particular industry.

When activist investors eventually sell their large stakes in the public market, they can cause downward pressure on stock prices.

What Is An Independent Director?

With this role comes responsibility and exciting growth opportunities, both professionally and personally.

Independent board members, or non-executive directors, are expected to make decisions that benefit the organisation while being able to collaborate with other members of the board.

Stay compliant, stay competitive

Build a better future with the Diploma in Corporate Governance.

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Stay compliant, stay competitive

Build a better future with the Diploma in Corporate Governance.

Download brochure

Book a call

What does an independent, non-executive director do? 

An independent board member (director) is not employed by the company and has no financial interest in it.

The shareholders select such people to serve on the board due to their expertise and experience in specific fields such as finance, management, HR or marketing.

An independent director provides a valuable, impartial perspective to corporate decision-making and oversight. Their role is to ensure the organisation operates within the law and its specific charter and ethical expectations.

Independent board directors are uniquely positioned to help guide organisations in a supportive way towards more success by providing guidance on best practices and strategies for executing their mission goals.

Appointing an independent board director is often seen as a positive choice for any organisation. After all, having access to insights and perspectives from individuals who come with experience in different capacities can be invaluable.

It also shows an organisation’s commitment to providing proper oversight and governance, helping ensure its success.

Ultimately, they facilitate decision-making processes that consider a variety of perspectives while focusing on the ultimate goal of achieving success — both financial and non-financial.

What skills and traits should an independent director possess?

Potential independent board directors should bring the skill set and experience necessary to make a lasting impact as a leader. These qualities give the individual the modern-day capabilities and insights needed to navigate the competitive business environment.

Through their expertise and leadership, independent board directors can ensure that an organisation takes a calculated approach towards success.

Independent company directors should be equipped with the following:

Solid judgment

Problem-solving skills

Financial literacy

Industry knowledge and practices

Practical communication abilities

Team-building aptitude,

And dedication towards their role

With all these traits in place, potential independent directors can help pave the way for more successful company outcomes.

Watch David W Duffy (below), the CEO of the Corporate Governance Institute explain what makes a great non-executive director. 

How can you become an independent non-executive director?

Becoming an independent board director is a challenging yet rewarding process. It requires an individual to demonstrate competence, passion, and commitment to engage meaningfully in their role as an unbiased non-executive director.

To ensure success, individuals must apply for vacancies as soon as they become available and familiarise themselves with the company’s governance documents before attending interviews.

This helps demonstrate that the candidate has put effort into understanding the company’s needs and is ready to commit to becoming part of its leadership team.

Read more: Preparing your CV for a role on a board of directors

The benefits of being an independent non-executive director

As an independent director, you can gain invaluable experience and broader insights into a company’s operations.

Board members are expected to exercise sound judgment and make strategic decisions that benefit the organisation.

Independent directors benefit from being able to view operations from a more comprehensive perspective and collaborate with other highly experienced board members to discuss matters of importance.

Overall, becoming an independent director can open up many doors of opportunities and offers rewarding challenges throughout the journey.

Become an effective independent non-executive director

Being an independent board director can be a tricky balancing act. Committing the necessary time and energy can be hard when other professional goals are competing for attention.

However, it is worth the effort, as these roles provide an incredible opportunity to lead teams and make decisions.

Directors must communicate thoughtfully when dialogue is complex, listen to all perspectives to reach an informed consensus, and ensure their voice is heard loud enough for our good intentions to shine through.

If you want to enhance your career as a director, the Diploma in Corporate Governance is the perfect place to start. 

By providing the practical knowledge, insightful thinking and global mindset necessary to be successful in the role, this comprehensive course helps directors fulfil their boards’ aspirations while succeeding in their ambitions. 

The diploma offers support and guidance from experienced faculty and expert mentoring from leading industry authorities. It will put participants firmly on the path towards being respected board members with influence, enabling them to bring about real impact within their roles. 

Learn more about the Diploma in Corporate Governance today by downloading the course brochure below. 

What Is The Placebo Effect?

The placebo effect is a phenomenon where people report real improvement after taking a fake or nonexistent treatment, called a placebo. Because the placebo can’t actually cure any condition, any beneficial effects reported are due to a person’s belief or expectation that their condition is being treated.

Example: Placebo effect definitionYou participate in a double-blind clinical trial on a new migraine medication. For the next month, each time you experience a migraine, you are instructed to take a pill and rate the pain intensity.

You feel that the pill relieves the symptoms, but at the end of the month you find out that you were given a placebo—and not the new medication. The perceived improvement you experienced was due to the placebo effect.

The placebo effect is often observed in experimental designs where participants are randomly assigned to either a control or treatment group. 

What is a placebo?

A placebo can be a sugar pill, a salt water injection, or even a fake surgical procedure. In other words, a placebo has no therapeutic properties. Placebos are often used in medical research and clinical trials to help scientists evaluate the effects of new medications.

In these clinical trials, participants are randomly assigned to either the placebo or the experimental medication. Crucially, they are not aware of which treatment they receive. The results of the two groups are compared, to see whether they differ.

In double-blind studies, researchers also don’t know who received the actual treatment or the placebo. This is to prevent them from conveying demand characteristics to participants that could influence the study’s results. This is preferred over single-blind studies, where participants do not know which group they have been placed in, but researchers do.

Placebos may help relieve symptoms like pain, fatigue, or stress-related insomnia, but they don’t actually treat a condition or cure a disease. Note that due to ethical considerations, placebos are not always used in clinical trials. For example, as it would be unethical to leave terminal cancer patients untreated, placebos aren’t used in these types of studies.

What is the definition of placebo effect?

For some people, just the idea that they are taking medication makes them feel better. This occurs even if the medication is actually just a placebo. This phenomenon is known as the placebo effect. In other words, the perception of feeling better is triggered by the person’s belief in the benefit of the treatment.

When studying a new treatment, researchers must demonstrate that it is more effective than can just be explained by the placebo effect. To do so, they compare the results from those taking the new treatment with those from the placebo. In order to accurately compare the two groups, participants in clinical trials must not know whether they received the treatment or the placebo. If the two groups have the same reaction, the effectiveness of the new treatment is not supported.

NoteAlthough the placebo effect has been associated with failure for a long time, recent studies are trying to establish whether people may experience a benefit from a placebo even when they know that they are taking one.

Studies on so-called “open-label” or “honest” placebos, in which people are aware that they are being prescribed placebo medication for their condition, have shown that placebos can improve symptoms among people with irritable bowel syndrome or lower back pain. This suggests that people may experience the placebo effect regardless of whether they know that they are taking a placebo or not.

How does the placebo effect work?

Although the exact reasons for the positive effects of placebos are still being researched, a number of factors contribute to the phenomenon. These include:

A person’s expectations or beliefs that they will get better. People who are motivated and expect their treatment to work are more likely to experience the placebo effect.

The feeling of receiving attention and care due to participation in the study. This may reduce stress levels and trigger the body’s own pain-relieving chemicals.

Classical conditioning, or the association people build over the years between a certain action, such as pill-taking, and positive results.

A trusting relationship between doctors and patients or researchers and study participants from the sample. Listening to an expert you trust talk enthusiastically about a treatment can impact how you respond to it.

However, researchers do not attribute the placebo effect exclusively to psychology. A few other possible explanations include:

Regression to the mean: When people first visit a doctor or start on a clinical trial, their symptoms might be particularly bad. But in the natural course of an illness, symptoms may subside on their own.

Confirmation bias: Feelings of hopefulness about a new treatment may lead people to pay more attention to signs that they’re getting better and less attention to signs that they’re getting worse.

Placebo effect examples

The placebo effect illustrates how the mind can trigger changes in the body.

Example: The power of suggestionIn a study, participants are given a placebo but are told it’s a stimulant. While talking about the “medication,” researchers are convincing and positive about the expected results.

After participants take the pill, their blood pressure and pulse rate increases, and their reaction speeds are improved.

However, when the same people are given the same pill and told it will help them relax and sleep, they report experiencing relaxation instead.

If a person expects a treatment to do something, it’s possible that the body’s own chemistry can cause effects similar to what a medication might have caused. Additionally, researchers’ enthusiasm can contribute to the placebo effect.

The placebo effect can also explain the popularity of non-FDA-approved products.

Example: Healing expectationsCBD oil is an example of a popular self-medication that is marketed as effective at varying doses. However, there is not enough evidence from randomized double-blind placebo-control studies to support this, with the exception of one product. Even so, people claim that CBD oil has helped them deal with various conditions, including depression, insomnia, and seizures.

Evidence from published studies show that it takes extremely high doses for CBD to be effective. Documented benefits of CBD in placebo-control trials require anywhere from hundreds to thousands of milligrams per day. This is the equivalent of taking almost an entire bottle each day, depending on the concentration.

Most people take 15 milligrams or less per day, far less than what the studies deem an effective dose. The placebo effect seems to play a role here: the expectation is so high that people start to believe it’s working.

Unless more research is conducted, there is no way to know for sure whether CBD products have real and measurable effects, or whether it’s the placebo effect that’s providing relief.

Downside of the placebo effect

The response of people assigned to the placebo control group may not always be positive. They may experience what is called a “nocebo effect,” or a negative outcome, when taking a placebo. The same explanation applies here. If you expect a negative outcome, it’s more likely you’ll have a negative outcome.

For example, in a clinical trial, participants who are given a placebo but are told what side effects the “treatment” may cause. They may have the same side effects as the participants who are given the active treatment, only because they expect them to occur.

Other types of research bias Frequently asked questions about the placebo effect

What causes the placebo effect?

Although there is no definite answer to what causes the placebo effect, researchers propose a number of explanations such as the power of suggestion, doctor-patient interaction, classical conditioning, etc.

Why are placebos used in research?

Placebos are used in medical research for new medication or therapies, called clinical trials. In these trials some people are given a placebo, while others are given the new medication being tested.

The purpose is to determine how effective the new medication is: if it benefits people beyond a predefined threshold as compared to the placebo, it’s considered effective and not the result of a placebo effect.

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