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Introduction to tomcat timeout

When there are long idle sessions where nothing is happening, the tomcat webserver raises the session timeout after a certain period, leading to the closing of the session waiting time. The configuration of this timeout parameter is specified in the chúng tôi file present inside the tomcat installation home path. We can change the value by changing the attribute’s value in chúng tôi One of the tricky things is to find the reason behind the timeout error, which we will try to understand in this session.

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In this article, we will individually discuss the things of tomcat timeout and timeout error.

What is tomcat timeout?

Tomcat timeout is the configuration setting specified in chúng tôi which helps determine the maximum time the server should wait in a particular idle session with none of the process happening inside it. It is always a good practice to close this session for the benefits of maintaining security over the session and also the management of memory. After this idle time, the tomcat webserver raises a session timeout error, and the person is navigated out of the session.

tomcat timeout configure session

The configuration of the session timeout attribute can be found in the chúng tôi file of the tomcat server. This file can be located inside the home directory of tomcat installation and the conf folder. Usually, in windows, the file is present in the C drive’s Program Files/ Apache Software Foundation/ Tomcat (version installed)/ conf folder. In the Linux platform, the file can be found inside the /opt/ tomcat (version installed), inside which you will find the conf folder inside which the chúng tôi file will be there.

tomcat timeout configures session error

Usually, when our application takes a long time to retrieve the response and the browser does get the response from the webserver in a stipulated time of the session time out, then an error named session timeout is thrown on the user’s side, and the user is navigated back to the login page as can be seen from the below screenshot –

Usually, when your request to bring certain data or perform certain manipulation may take a long time due to huge data or improper management in coding the feature, the best solution is to increase the session timeout value set in the tomcat configurations. Hence, avoiding the session timeout error when your feature will take a long time to become successful can be done by manipulating the session timeout value of the tomcat web server’s configurations.

Changing the existing or default value of session timeout is easy and can be understood from the below point.

We change the session timeout value.

It is always suggested to take the backup of the existing chúng tôi file before you make any changes to it. This is just in case the configurations you set or modify in the file do not work out as expected; then, you can revert the file to the previously provided if you have a backup.

We can also set the unlimited timeout configuration for the session or mean no timeout of sessions in tomcat by changing the value mentioned in the session-timeout element of chúng tôi to -1. Though doing so is not suggested, your session details may then get accessible by the attacker, which will lead to leakage of information about your credentials and related applications. Hence, for security reasons, never set the value to unlimited timeout.

tomcat timeout examples

Let us first understand the need to change the timeout value of tomcat using an example. If the specified timeout value is over, the session is closed, and the user is again brought back to the login page to initiate a new session, as shown in the below screen –

First, open the chúng tôi file and search for the session-timeout element. It looks by default as shown here –

If I know that my request will take 45 minutes to serve. With a safer value considering the worst-case scenarios of the network, let’s set the value to 50 minutes inside the chúng tôi as shown below –

After doing so, my feature will work properly and perform the necessary task without exiting the session.


Tomcat timeout or session timeout is the value for which a particular session on the browser side waits until it gets the response from the server. We can manipulate this value from configurations.

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What Is Happening With The Oroville Dam Spillway?

Update, Feb. 15: This piece been updated to reflect additional information released since its original publication.

On Sunday more than 200,000 people were evacuated from the area surrounding California’s Oroville damn. After weeks of storms, authorities feared that a never-before-used emergency system in place to direct excess water – that is water beyond the capacity of the system’s reservoir to hold – would fail. On Feb. 14, the evacuation order was lifted. But here’s what went down, and why the region isn’t totally in the clear.

Last week, a sinkhole formed in the middle of the reservoir’s spillway, or the paved pathway meant to handle the lake’s overflow. This sinkhole measures roughly 250 feet long, 170 feet wide, and 40-50 feet deep—it’s as long as a Manhattan city block, as wide as a football field, and as deep as the deep end of six Olympic-sized pools stacked on top of each other. Needless to say, it’s not an easy fix. Officials are stating that proper repairs can’t begin until the dry season.

Spillover at Oroville dam surges into Feather River, start of 600-mile route to south. From Popular Science, September 1972. Popular Science, 1972

Under normal circumstances this wouldn’t be a problem. The spillway is only used when Lake Oroville, which is north of Sacramento and East of Chico, is at capacity. The goal of the spillway is to stop “uncontrolled water releases.” Said another way: the spillway is supposed to stop the lake from spilling willy nilly onto the communities and farms below. But after years of drought, the recent weeks of heavy precipitation mean many parts of California are now awash in more water than its infrastructure can handle.

Over the weekend, the situation became dire. Lake Oroville reached 100-percent capacity—148-percent of its historical capacity on this date. To get a sense of how much water is at play, it helps to understand that the Oroville Dam is the tallest dam in the United States. It stands 40-feet taller than the Hoover Dam.

Lake Oroville overflowed, sending an uncontrolled release down its emergency spillway for the first time in the dam’s 48-year history. Parallel to the regular spillway (the one with the sinkhole), the emergency spillway is little more than an earthen route. It’s a Hail Mary designed to guide water out of the way of people. As the water washed over the spillway, officials warned that the emergency spillway could fail because it had already began eroding. Specifically, they’d discovered a hole under a 30 foot retaining wall forms the emergency spillway system the emergency spillway system (the Los Angeles times has an illustration that you can see here). If it collapsed entirely it’d send waves of water onto the communities below, and it was enough of a threat that they told 188,000 people to evacuate.

In an interview with the Sacramento Bee Joe Countryman, a former engineer with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and member of the Central Valley Flood Protection Board, noted that if the emergency spillway failed that much of the area around Highway 70 will disappear as well. The dam supplies water to the Central Valley – which grows the bulk of U.S. fruits and veggies which suggests the effects of a failure would be felt far outside of California. Twelve years ago, three environmental groups – Sierra Club, Friends of the River, and the South Youba Citizens League filed a motion with the federal government warning that the earthen emergency spillway might collapse under heavy rains reported the Mercury News. Officials ignored the warning. More storms are expected to arrive on Thursday. In the meantime workers have been scrambling to fill the sinkhole on the main spillway with rocks and sandbags to act as a temporary patch so they can send more water down it, both reducing the amount of water in Lake Oroville and halting the flow of water on the emergency spillway.

They were able to stabilize the main spillway enough to send small, controlled releases down it, lowering the level of Lake Oroville from 100% capacity to 92-percent capacity where it currently stands. While the level is lower it’s still at 137-percent of historical levels.

This chart shows the lowered water levels of the Oroville reservoir Department of Water Resources California Data Exchange Center

To get a feel for the scale and influence of the Oroville Dam, we pulled a story from our September 1972 issue about how the engineering marvel brought water to a region short on it. You can read it below.

Slaking California’s mammoth thirst with the world’s largest water project

Surplus water from the north now flows to arid regions via this gigantic $2.3 billion project

By Joseph Zmuda Drawings by Ray Pioch

Northern reservoir for water is 15,800-acre Lake Oroville. At center-spillway for 770-foot-high dam. Popular Science, 1972

From a cliff edge high in California’s Tehachapi Mountains, the parched terrain of the southern San Joaquin Valley stretches out before you. There, one hot noonday, I scanned the V-shaped concrete aqueduct I had followed some 300 miles from the state’s water rich north. The Canal promises new life for this water hungry valley and the densely populated land to the south.

Far below me, at the A.D. Edmonston Pumping Plant, huge pumps were overcoming the last water-flow barrier north of Los Angeles: A gigantic water column 12 ½ to 14 feet in diameter was being rammed 1970 feet up the mountain. The water would then cross the Tehachapis, which are ridden with active earthquake faults, for distribution to the reservoirs in arid Southern California.

One arm of twin-wing. Edmonston pumping plant, designed for half the station’s 14 pumps (eventual full capacity). Water enters pumps 77 feet below surface of pool. Tremendous pressure boost can force three billion gallons daily over Tehachapi range, drawing 830,000 kw. PopSci

Both the California Aqueduct and the engineering marvels for the Tehachapi crossing are major elements of the California State Water Project conceived some 25-years ago. Now in limited operation – with portions still under design and construction – the project won this year’s American Society of Civil Engineers Outstanding Achievement Award. Among its superlatives when completed:

Six power plants, 22 dams and reservoirs, six major aqueduct systems, and 23 pumping plats.

A bigger volume of water (4.23 million acre feet) delivered annually to users than with any other distribution system.

At Lake Oroville, the highest earthfill dam in the country. [PS, Feb. ’67].

At the Edmonston pumping plant, a greater volume of water lifted higher than ever before attempted anywhere in the world.

Not only does the project assure a firm supply of quality water, it provides flood control in winter and spring, clean hydroelectric power, recreational sites readily available to urban areas, and improved fish and wildlife habitats through water management.

It all begins in the northern section of the state. There, winter rains and runoffs from the Sierra Nevada Mountain snowpacks fill reservoirs on three forks of the Feather River, flowing into Lake Oroville basin. In summer and fall, water stored at Oroville is released to supply downstate demands. Spilloff at Oroville Dam generates electricity at the underground Edward Hyatt Powerplant, and, at night during off-peak power use, surplus electric power runs pumps that store additional water in Thermolito Afterbay. During peak electrical demand, water is released to furnish inexpensive energy.

Most of the time, a regulated flow from the Feather River’s main branch moves into the Sacramento River, then to San Francisco Bay and out to sea. But at a pumping plant on the Sacramento Delta, surplus water is raised 213 feet above sea level to the beginning of the California Aqueduct – a wide V channel that can accommodate more than 10,000 cubic feet of water flow per second.

Once in the aqueduct, water runs by gravity to other plumbing plants where the level is eventually boosted 3480 feet above sea level. Miniature pumping plants diver water to local districts and private users.

To regulate facilities along 600 miles of aqueduct canals, engineers designed a system of computer monitoring and control involving 12,000 separate functions. When fully operational, sensors will continuously read water levels, gate positions, flow rates, status of pumping and generating units, and other essential data.

Monitoring at central control. Responsibility for this automation is divided among control centers at five major field divisions. In addition, the project control center monitors and logs all operational data, develops overall system water and power schedules, and coordinates operations of individual centers.

The scope of the Water Project is awesome; nowhere is the sheer complexity of the effort more evident than at the Edmonston Plumbing Plant. My guide there was engineer Bill Curry from the San Joaquin field division.

The swept swings of the pump building encompass a deep pool into which the aqueduct flows. Water is drawn into each wing of the plant through separate intakes and past steal trash racks that screen out debris. A six-bay electrical switchyard receives 230,000-volt power from all four California suppliers.

When I visited the plant, only three motor-pump combinations were fully operational. Eleven pumps of the stations maximum 14 have been contracted for to meet future demands. One pump runs all day; two others go online at nigh to utilize cheaper electrical power. Similarly, while the evacuation order has been lifted that’s contingent on the water levels at Lake Oroville remaining lower. It’s supposed to start raining on Thursday and through the weekend.

The pumping plant itself, with concrete walls six or 12-feet thick, is like an iceberg – what’s visible at the surface is a small part of what’s underneath. When Curry and I entered the top observation gallery, men far below us were stacking individual rotor plates of another motor. A portable oven would later be placed over the stack to achieve the 1/20,000-inch sweat fit that holds it to the main shaft. The second floor provides access to the pump-motor coupling; the third contains the sealed compartments for each electric motor. As I opened a compartment door I felt my ears pop at the sound: over 100db produced by the 80,000-hp Westinghouse synchronous motor. The motor is directly coupled just above the pump. Each pump-motor combination towers 65 feet and totals 420tons.

To prevent a potential brownout when starting each motor, one of two motor-generation (MG) sets is put on the line first. Then, outside power is removed and the MG set is connected to the pump-motor. When the units lock together at 120 rpm, the MG set is reconnected to the utility-system power supply and both units brought up to 600rpm. The MG set is then used to start the next motor at a rate of one every six minutes.

While the operation of the Water Project appears relatively smooth, getting this far hasn’t been all clear sailing. Animals are constantly falling into the aqueduct and even the romantic tumbleweed clogs up trash racks to seriously impede water flow.

Most setbacks involving the human element initiate some ingenious countermeasures. Once a discharge valve arrived with a large crack because water trapped in a lower cavity after testing had frozen during shipment. Later valves were designed with drainage holes.

Valve failure and labor walkoffs. Bill Curry relates a near tragedy caused by poor design on the drainage valve for the Edmonston discharge lines. Back pressure of 800psi – enough to cut a man in half – is reduce to 50psi in the operation. But, when the valve was tested the surge proved too great. The pip leading back into the pumping pool whipped out of the concrete wall and burst, showering everyone in the lower vault with water. Fortunately, no one was near enough to be injured.

Labor disputes also have presented problems. In fact, just as I was preparing to leave Southern California I was told some workers were planning to walk off the job.

Don McKillup, chief program liaison control officer, was quick to remind me of Murphy’s law: Anything that can go wrong will go wrong.

Says McKillup: “It’s hard to believe that NASA made it to the moon with all the trouble we on the Water Project have had.” But he happily conceded that despite every setback, they are close to making all schedules.

Next year, by the time of its first-phase completion, the California Water Project will be routinely redistributing water to the southern two-thirds of the state, where 60 percent of the need is. The country’s first statewide water, at a completion of $2.3 billion, will help slake California’s thirst well into the 21st century.

What Is& What Is It Used For?

What is chúng tôi & What is it Used for? All about the process and tips to reduce its CPU usage




The UpdateCheck.exe process is generally linked to a third-party app that uses it to scan for newer versions.

Some notable apps that have a process by the same name include, Coupoon, Maxtor Manager, and RAD Studio.

The process triggers high CPU usage for many and, in some cases, affects the Internet speed.



To fix Windows PC system issues, you will need a dedicated tool

Fortect is a tool that does not simply cleans up your PC, but has a repository with several millions of Windows System files stored in their initial version. When your PC encounters a problem, Fortect will fix it for you, by replacing bad files with fresh versions. To fix your current PC issue, here are the steps you need to take:

Download Fortect and install it on your PC.

Start the tool’s scanning process to look for corrupt files that are the source of your problem

Fortect has been downloaded by


readers this month.

Of the many background process running in Windows, most pose no harm or lead to any issues. But a few have been a cause of concern for users, especially the ones triggered by rather unknown third-party apps. One such is the chúng tôi process.

The UpdateCheck process is listed in the Task Manager and often results in high CPU usage. This automatically affects the PC’s performance, slows the Internet speed, and sometimes causes other apps to crash. Keep reading to find out all about the process!

UpdateCheck.exe, as the name suggests, looks for newer versions of the software that installs it. The catch is that several programs have the UpdateCheck process in their directory. The primary ones are:

So, chúng tôi is in no way a critical Windows process, and terminating or disabling it shouldn’t affect the core functioning of the PC, except for the app that triggers it. That, too, would only affect the automatic updates. You can still manually search for and install these.

We have had several instances where hackers disguised malware as a critical process to bypass detection. So, your primary approach should be to identify the file path and verify whether the process is stored in the program’s dedicated directory or in another location.

For the programs discussed earlier, here is the usual storage path:

Coupoon: C:Program Files (x86)Coupoon

Maxtor Manager: C:Program FilesMaxtorOneTouch Status

In case the chúng tôi process is not in the dedicated directory, use a reliable antivirus solution to run a full system scan.

If you find the process in the usual path, relax a bit! Though it doesn’t mean that the process won’t throw any errors. So, here are a few solutions to get things back to normal!

1. Scan for malware

When you are unsure whether chúng tôi is safe or if it’s a malware, a quick way to identify that is to run a virus scan. Though the built-in Windows Security is capable of handling such issues, for a deeper scan, you can use a third-party antivirus software.

2. Uninstall the program behind the process

While you could manually delete the chúng tôi file, there’s a good chance the program would fetch it all over again. So, it’s recommended that you uninstall the app altogether to get rid of the process.

For this, many prefer using an effective uninstaller software to eliminate any leftover files and registry entries.

3. Perform a system restore

If everything else fails to work, as a last resort, you can always restore the PC to a state where the chúng tôi issue didn’t exist. A system restore doesn’t affect the stored files, though some configured settings or installed apps may be removed.

Before you leave, check some quick tips to make Windows faster and get superior performance.

Still experiencing issues?

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What Is Digital Marketing: A Detailed Study With Components & Strategy

What is Digital Marketing: A Detailed Study with Components & Strategy

Well, your customer is on the Internet today and that’s the right place to connect with them at the right time. Here, digital marketing is the solution you should opt for.

So, what is digital marketing?

Well, if you are marketing products or services using one or another electronic device or on the Internet, you are leveraging the benefits of digital marketing. Here, you can make good use of different digital channels such as search engines, email, social media, websites, and more to connect with your current or prospective customers.

Digital marketing is equally beneficial for local businesses or big industries as it gives freedom to connect with the end-user effortlessly where they are (on the Internet).

What is the difference between digital marketing and online marketing?

Well, digital marketing could be divided into two parts i.e. online and offline marketing.

Offline marketing includes platforms like radio, television, phone, billboards, or similar mediums.

What is the difference between digital marketing and inbound marketing?

In this context, inbound marketing is a process followed by marketers to use online content to attract target audiences/customers onto their websites. Here, marketers try to provide useful content that is helpful to solve customer’s queries and fulfill their needs. You can consider inbound marketing as a methodology that is used to attract, engage, and delight customers using different digital marketing assets.

While inbound marketers try to attract customers to their websites, outbound marketers try to send marketing messages to as many people as possible no matter whether they are relevant or welcomed.

On the other hand, digital marketing could be used as an umbrella term for all online marketing tactics no matter whether they are inbound or outbound.

What is the difference between digital marketing and Internet marketing?

As discussed, digital marketing could be separated into two major parts i.e. online marketing and offline marketing. Both consists of various tactics. Internet marketing solely relies on marketing products & services using Internet. Here, your sole idea is to attract, engage, and delight your customers by reaching them through Internet on their device.

Digital Marketing Components

As we have discussed digital marketing, it’s time to know about the key components of digital marketing. Digital marketing can be broadly categorized into two categories i.e. online marketing and offline marketing, that we have already discussed.

As we move further, we will cover key elements of digital marketing vis-à-vis online marketing.

Key Elements of Online Marketing

Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

Social Media Marketing (SMM)

Search Engine Marketing (SEM)

Content Marketing

Email Marketing

Affiliate Marketing

Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

We can elaborate “SEO as a process to optimize online content for search engines. All this is done to get better visibility on search engine results pages (SERPs). Here, you may target specific keywords or bunch of keywords to rank.”

Let’s take this post as an example, here, this post can rank for multiple keywords like “what is digital marketing”, broad term “digital marketing”, “digital marketing components”, “digital marketing examples” “online marketing” and similar terms.

SEO could be divided into three important parts including on-page SEO, off-page SEO, and technical SEO. In addition to that, black hat and white hat SEO techniques are followed by different marketers. While white hat SEO techniques are highly recommended, black hat techniques may cause serious damage to your site reputation in the long-term.

We have discussed more about SEO in this beginner’s guide to SEO.

Social Media Marketing (SMM)

Social media marketing or SMM could be described as a process to connect & communicate with people in social context on different digital platforms. It is done to create brand awareness, lead generation, and attract end-user in real-time.

While the majority of people are on social media platforms, it becomes necessary for businesses to contact their users on these platforms. Social media marketing (SMM) not only helps increase brand awareness, but it also boosts website traffic and generate more sales for you. Here, you need to post right content on the right platform at the right time to attract more users.

We have discussed more about social media marketing in this beginner’s guide to SMM.

Search Engine Marketing (SEM)

The primary benefits of using search engine marketing are that you can use it to reach targeted audience, it delivers quick results, better for testing, accurate results tracking, and more.

We have discussed search engine marketing (SEM) in detail in this beginner’s guide to SEM.

Content Marketing

When you are generating brand awareness through content, it is content marketing.

Pretty simple, right?

Well, ahead of this quick definition, content marketing should be elaborated in two major parts.

Content Strategy

Content Marketing

Here, content strategy helps find answers to what, how, why, and when about content creation. Moreover, it also helps manage, update, and archive content when needed.

When it comes to content marketing, it simply focuses on tactics and execution of content strategy. Here, you need to create & curate content, edit it, and market it with all available means. You may find written content to educate, update, or entertain. You may also find different content types including blog posts, audio, video, podcasts, Infographics, and more. There are numerous benefits of content marketing as it helps add brand value, it is also cost-effective technique, it helps build relationship with user, it brings traffic & business, and more.

We have discussed more about content marketing in this beginner’s guide to content marketing.

Email Marketing

It is important to remember that subscribers you have chosen to send email have personally opted-in to receive an email from you. It should also have some value for them. To create an effective email marketing campaign a few things you should remember includes:

Personalize the email content

Use responsive designs

Interactive call-to-action, and more.

HubSpot has well-described email marketing in this guide.

Affiliate Marketing

Affiliate marketing is simply selling others products to earn quick commission. Here, you put your marketing efforts to help sell products of others on your blog, website, social media platform, or on other medium.

It includes four important parties including the merchant, the network, the publisher, and the customer. While two important parties’ seller and the affiliate marketer makes it possible to create & sell product other parties are also important to complete the process.

Neil Patel has well-discussed affiliate marketing in his blog.

How to create a digital marketing strategy?

Now that we know digital marketing plays a crucial role to help build your brand today. Let’s discuss how to create a digital marketing strategy that should deliver results.

Work on buyer persona

According to HubSpot, “A buyer persona is a semi-fictional representation of your ideal customer”.

Here, you perform market research and gather real-data to create this buyer persona for your business. To build buyer persona important elements you should consider includes:

Customer’s demographics

Goals, motivations, and behavior patterns.

Here, you should perform detailed study to get better results.

Identify your goals

Identify existing marketing assets you have

Next is to evaluate your existing digital channels and assets you own. It will help streamline your efforts and get effective results. Here, you need to identify:

Owned media that your company or brand already owns like website, social media profiles, etc.

Earned media includes your brand mentions on third-party sites through PR, guest posts, reviews, etc.


In the next step, you will need to audit all your owned, earned, and paid media campaigns to get a clear picture of where you stand and how to go ahead. Here, you need to determine which media is working fine and which ones you should include in your digital marketing campaign.

Create well-informed digital marketing plan

Now that you know everything about your buyer persona, you have set goals, identified existing marketing assets, and audited them, it’s time to draw a well-informed digital marketing plan. To do this, you can use the best marketing tools to run different campaigns successfully.


Now that you know what digital marketing is and how important it is today to bring business, it’s time you should create a well-informed digital marketing strategy to get more business.

If you are a digital marketing company owner or even planning to run Google digital marketing campaign at a basic level, this guide could be of great use for you.

Remember, investing in digital marketing strategy today can help you grow business tomorrow.

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Dinesh Lakhwani

How To Install And Configure Nfs Server On Linux

In this article we will learn and configure NFS (Network File System) which is basically used to share the files and folders between Linux systems. This was developed by Sun Microsystems in 1980 which allows us to mount the file system in the network and remote users can interact and the share just like local file and folders.

Features of NFS

NFS can be configured as a centralized storage solution.

No need of running the same OS on both machines.

Can be secured with Firewalls.

It can be shared along with all the flavors of *nix.

The NFS share folder can be mounted as a local file system.

Setup NFS

NFS mount needed at least two machines. The machine hosting the shared folders is called as server and which connects is called as clients.

IP address Details of Server & Client



Configuring NFS Server

We needed to install the packages for NFS

# yum install nfs-utils nfs-utils-lib Output: Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, security Setting up Install Process Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile * epel: Resolving Dependencies Dependencies Resolved ================================================================================================ Package             Arch             Version             Repository                Size ================================================================================================ Installing: nfs-utils          x86_64             1:1.2.3-64.el6       base                   331 k nfs-utils-lib      x86_64             chúng tôi         base                   68 k Transaction Summary ================================================================================================ Install 2 Package(s) Total download size: 399 k Installed size: 1.1 M Is this ok [y/N]: y Downloading Packages: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Running rpm_check_debug Running Transaction Test Transaction Test Succeeded Running Transaction Installing : nfs-utils-lib-1.1.5-11.el6.x86_64 1/2 Installing : 1:nfs-utils-1.2.3-64.el6.x86_64 2/2 Verifying : 1:nfs-utils-1.2.3-64.el6.x86_64 1/2 Verifying : nfs-utils-lib-1.1.5-11.el6.x86_64 2/2 Installed: nfs-utils.x86_64 1:1.2.3-64.el6 nfs-utils-lib.x86_64 0:1.1.5-11.el6 Complete!

After this run the below commands to start the NFS servers and make sure it start at boot time.

# chkconfig nfs on # service rpcbind start # service nfs start Output: Starting NFS services: [ OK ] Starting NFS quotas: [ OK ] Starting NFS mountd: [ OK ] Starting NFS daemon: [ OK ] Starting RPC idmapd: [ OK ] Exporting the Share Directory

We need to decide a directory which we want to share with the client. The directory should be added to /etc/exports

# vi /etc/exports

All the below lines to the file.

/share,sync,no_root_squash,no_subtree_check) Explanation

/share – is the share folder which server wants to share – is the IP address of the client to whom want to share

rw – This will all the clients to read and write the files to the share directory.

sync – which will confirm the shared directory once the changes are committed.

no_subtree_check – Will prevents the scanning the shared directory, as nfs performs the scans of every share directory, Disabling the subtree check will increase the reliability, but reduces the security.

no_root_squash – This will all the root user to connect to the designated directory.

Once, we enter the details of the share in config file, run the below command to export them

# exportfs -a Configure Client

Install the required packages to connect to NFS

# yum install nfs-utils nfs-utils-lib -y Creating Mount Point for Share Directory

Once the packages are installed on the client, create the directory to mount point the shared folder

# mkdir -p /mnt/share Mounting the Share Directory # mount /mnt/share/

To confirm if the share is mounted or not run the command ‘df -h’, this will show the list of mounted folders.

# df -h Output: Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root 50G 5.2G 42G 12% / tmpfs 427M 80K 427M 1% /dev/shm /dev/sda1 477M 42M 410M 10% /boot /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_home 95G 60M 90G 1% /home 18G 2.0G 15G 13% /mnt/share

To see the list of all the mounted file systems.

# mount Output: /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root on / type ext4 (rw) proc on /proc type proc (rw) sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw) devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620) tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw) /dev/sda1 on /boot type ext4 (rw) /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_home on /home type ext4 (rw) none on /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc type binfmt_misc (rw) sunrpc on /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs type rpc_pipefs (rw) on /mnt/share type nfs (rw,vers=4,addr=,clientaddr= To Check the NFS Mount

Create a file and folders in the server share directory

# touch test1 # mkdir test

Then goto the client side machine and check the /mnt/share folders

# ls /mnt/share/ -lh total 4.0K drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4.0K Apr 20 2023 test -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Apr 20 2023 test1

To automatically mount the share folder permanently while boot in the client machine, add the entries in the /etc/fstab file

# vi /etc/fstab # # /etc/fstab # Created by anaconda on Sat Apr 2 00:11:04 2023 # # Accessible filesystems, by reference, are maintained under '/dev/disk' # See man pages fstab(5), findfs(8), mount(8) and/or blkid(8) for more info # /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root / ext4 defaults 1 1 UUID=1adb2ad5-d0c7-48a5-9b10-f846a3f9258c /boot ext4 defaults 1 2 /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_home /home ext4 defaults 1 2 /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_swap swap swap defaults 0 0 tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 devpts /dev/pts devpts gid=5,mode=620 0 0 sysfs /sys sysfs defaults 0 0 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0 /mnt/share nfs auto,noatime,nolock,bg,nfsvers=3,intr,tcp,actimeo=1800 0 0

Some options and important command of NFS

# showmount -e Export list for localhost.localdomain: /share

This will show the available share on the local machine, so needed to run on the server side.

# showmount -e Export list for /share

This will show the remote server shared folders needed to run on the client side –

# exportfs -v /share,wdelay,no_root_squash,no_subtree_check,sec=sys,rw,no_root_squash,no_all_squash)

List all the share files and folders with options on the server

# exportfs -u /share

This will un-export the shared folders or files which are in /etc/exports

# exports -r

This will refresh the servers list and check for the changes if any.

After this configuration and setup, you should be able to use NFS to share the files between *inx machines without any problem, then we should be able share the folders to only the client to whom we want to share the folder, this will improve the security.

What Is Shared With You In Photos App? How Does It Work?

Apple’s much anticipated annual WWDC event definitely gave us a lot to ruminate over. The extensive set of features that have been introduced in the iOS 15 update reflect on just how monstrously intelligent Apple’s neural network has become over time. Apple’s software is an ode to the benefits of having an exclusive ecosystem in an exclusive device. So while Apple may be late to the game on some features, it’s leaps and bounds ahead in terms of others.

One feature that, while it may not have received as much face time as Apple’s own Facetime app, is undoubtedly a cool everyday feature that will make the general Apple user’s life easier. Here’s a look at the Shared with You feature that has been introduced as part of iOS 15. 

What is the ‘Shared with You’ feature in iOS 15?

The Shared with You feature is a curator of all content that has been shared with you by others on the Messages app. The feature will make the content accessible to you on their assigned application. Whether it is a link, a music suggestion, an article, a podcast, photos, or news that is shared by someone on the Messages app; the Share with You feature will include the content in its compatible application along with the information of the sender of the content in case you want to interact with the content.

For example, when someone shares an article link with you, the article will be available in Safari under the Shared with You section. The article will also appear with the name of the sender who shared it with you.

When you open the article, it will appear with the name of the sender under the title. You can tap the name of the sender and be redirected to the Messages app to interact with them about the article. 

So after reading the article, you can directly text the sender on the Messages app. By this same principle, you will be able to see the music recommendation under Shared with You in Apple Music and Photos in the Photos App. We’ve covered how the feature works on the Photos app.   

What is the Shared with You feature in the Photos app in iOS 15?

Suppose someone sends photos on the Messages app, the Shared with You feature will identify whether the photos are connected to you and then add the images to the Photos app, directly to the album that you have made of the same event. The Shared with You feature is intelligent enough to add only those photos of the event in which you were present.

This means that there won’t be any memes or generic pictures that are not relevant to you in the Photos app. It is almost an organizer in terms of how it handles your photos.  

How does the Shared with You feature work in the Photos app

When someone shares a photo with you on the Messages app, the Shared with You feature will first identify whether the photo is directly relevant to you. Once the identification has been done, the photos will be automatically added to the Photos app. 

In the Photos app, you will be able to locate the pictures that have been shared with you in the Shared with You section of the app. Depending on the nature of the photos, they will also be added to your Featured images along with the name of the contact that shared those pictures with you. 

Besides this, the photos will also be available in your library, right along with your own collection of the photos that you took. These photos will have a bubble icon to indicate that they have been share with you. 

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