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Every now and then, an idea or concept takes the productivity nerds of the internet by storm.

We get so obsessed that it breaks through to the mainstream, and you can’t seem to go anywhere online without seeing people talk about it.

It doesn’t happen often; the last time I remember it happening was with bullet journaling in the early 2010s.

But right now, it’s happening again.

Personal knowledge management is taking over the internet.

And even if you don’t get hearts in your eyes over productivity systems like me, this one’s something any digital marketer will want to pay attention to.

So here’s what you need to know.

What is Personal Knowledge Management?

Personal knowledge management is the concept of creating a process or system for collecting and storing information for future use, particularly for writing or content creation.

Digital hoarding doesn’t help you use the information you’re collecting; it makes it harder.

Personal knowledge management (PKM), on the other hand, involves creating systems, adding your own context, and making information easy to surface when you need to reference it.

While traditionally more popular in academic writing, it’s recently started gaining popularity in online writing as well.

Some of the established PKM systems popular with online creators and marketers include Zettelkasten, Building a Second Brain, and Linking Your Thinking.

But regardless of what popular framework you use (or whether you use one at all), there are a few steps you’ll want to make sure your personal knowledge management system includes:

Capturing information and ideas as you find them.

Processing them to add your own context.

Incubating the ideas until you need them.

Using them to create new things.

Let’s take a look at each one in detail.

Step 1. Capture Ideas and Information

The first step of personal knowledge management is to make a habit of saving any information or ideas you think are useful or inspiring as you come across them.

In the language of David Allen’s Getting Things Done method for planning and managing tasks, this is called developing a “capture habit.”

The ultimate capture goal is to have a way to easily save these things, no matter where you come across them. Don’t worry about adding detail. You can organize and filter them later.

For example, my own “capture” inboxes include:

A notebook that sits beside me when I’m working.

An iOS note I can access from my iPhone’s home screen and add to via Siri.

A similar note on my laptop.

Into these inboxes goes anything I think I might want to reference in my work. I add things manually as I come across them, and also have automations from IFTTT and Zapier sending things there.

In the past week, I’ve captured:

Articles I want to link to in my own as a reference (like this one).

Marketing campaign ideas based on conversations with customers.

A messaging and branding idea based on a recent competitive analysis.

Current requirements for Facebook ad copy length and image dimensions.

Screenshots of website and graphic design I like.

By making things easy to capture, you can keep it without taking you away from whatever you’re doing at the time.

However, without the rest of the process, it’s just digital hoarding.

This is where the other steps, like processing, comes in.

Step 2. Process and Add Your Own Context

Processing is when you go through your inboxes and deal with everything you’ve saved recently, adding enough context that Future-You will be able to find it and use it when you need it.

Depending on how much information you capture, you’ll probably want to do this weekly or biweekly.

As you process pieces of information, you can:

Delete anything you don’t find useful or relevant anymore.

Add notes to your future self to create context (why you saved something, what you like about it, which parts you want to use later and for what, etc.).

Add metadata like tags to make searching and filtering your PKM system easier.

Then, you’ll move the information from your inbox to wherever it should be stored more long-term.

For example, the items from my inbox notes will be moved to separate folders for reference articles, future project ideas, voice of customer data, inspiration, and my Facebook ad strategy.

This way, each piece of information is wherever I need it to be — where I’m going to use it.

Or when I’m planning my content calendar, the list of all saved campaign ideas will be there in my content dashboard for me to choose from.

Step 3: Incubate Your Ideas

Once you have things organized, you’ll want to let them sit there. Leave them be.

Yes, really.

When you’re actively engaging with an idea, like organizing it in your PKM system, you’re making new connections for your brain.

Your brain then needs time to passively process those connections and draw conclusions from them.

If you’ve ever had an “aha!” moment while doing something completely unrelated to your work, that was the incubation effect at work.

For information that you saved “just because,” or because it inspired you, you can let it sit until you need it — until you’re working on the relevant project or writing the relevant piece of content.

For things you’re actively working on, it can be harder to find that buffer time, but it’s still possible.

Even switching over to another task or taking your lunch break will help your brain with background processing related to the one currently at hand.

Step 4: Create New Things

Finally, it’s time to use the knowledge and information you’ve collected.

The reason PKM is so great for anyone whose job requires writing or creation is that it makes it possible to never start from scratch.

And the blank page is one of the most overwhelming parts of creating anything.

Having a knowledge management system gives you a way to store and organize ideas and references as building blocks.

Then any time you need to start a project, you just select and combine the relevant building blocks into a finished piece.

For example, writing a blog post might mean assembling a combination of personal thoughts, expert quotes and statistics, and examples you’ve saved to your PKM already.

Planning an ad campaign means pulling the relevant competitor information, graphics you like, and creative requirements you already have to easily put together a project brief.

Essentially, when you have a PKM system you regularly save things to and maintain, the research and brainstorming parts of any project will take a fraction of the time.

Start Building

The sooner you start building a personal knowledge management system, the sooner you’ll start saving time and effort on almost any creative task.

We’re consuming more content and information constantly, so you want to start your PKM system soon.

I hope you now have what you need to get started!

More Resources:

Featured Image: Andrew Krasovitckii/Shutterstock

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Why Personal Branding Is Must For Every Entrepreneur

Seth Godin, an American Author once said, “A brand is the set of expectations, memories, stories and relationships that, taken together, account for a consumer’s decision to choose one product or service over another.”

Personal Branding is a representation of one’s niche, goals, values and expertise. It helps people interpret what a brand (a person or a business) stands for.Branding also plays a crucial role in boosting the net worth of a business. According to Forbes, consistent branding across all channels increases revenue by up to 23%.

Importance of Personal Branding

People cannot buy what they don’t know. This is why individuals, groups, businesses and organizations are constantly striving for visibility. In this competitive world, one must be unique and authentic to stand out from the rest. Studies have shown that around 91% of the consumers prefer to buy from an authentic brand. Hence, Personal Branding is a weapon that every entrepreneur can use to grow their business.

If you are an Entrepreneur, you can implement the techniques of Personal Branding by establishing a strong online presence, either through Social Media or other platforms. Statistics show that 77% of the consumers are more likely to buy from a brand, if the CEO is active on Social Media. With the help of an interactive Social Media profile, you can gain the trust of your audience and add more value to your brand. All you need to do is spend some time to create good quality content, specific to your area of expertise

Why Every Entrepreneur must invest on Personal Branding

A good Personal branding strategy can clearly convey why people must choose you and your services over your competition. Personal Branding is highly essential for any entrepreneur looking to capture a large portion of the market. Setting up a personal brand can be tiresome, but the results are worthy of the efforts put in. Here are some reasons why every entrepreneur must learn  personal branding and digital marketing.

Adds Credibility

It is a known fact that credible people are taken more seriously than somebody who lacks credibility. Creating a sense of faith and dependability is what makes a person more credible and the best way do this is by having a strong personal brand. A person having credibility can expand the size of their audience, since more people start placing their trust in them. An example of an Entrepreneur who was successful in this regard would be Ratan Tata.

Ratan Naval Tata is an Indian Industrialist, Investor and Philanthropist, who was also a former Chairman of Tata Sons. He instilled trust amongst his audience by attending live Meetings, Events and Conferences, sharing his knowledge and expertise with Students, Businessmen and other Industrialists. He is also a recipient of the famous ‘Padma Bhushan’ and ‘Padma Vibhushan’ awards and is considered a Mentor and Role Model by many Entrepreneurs in India.

He made his online appearance on Instagram in late October of 2023. By enhancing his credibility offline through Personal Branding, he gained instant Instagram fame by garnering over 280K followers in less than a day of his joining. He currently has 781K followers on Instagram, where he gives an insight into his personal life. This is a brief example of how Personal branding when done, either online or offline or both means, can add to your credibility.

Showcases you as a Leader in the Industry

Irrespective of their specialization, every entrepreneur or business would want to portray themselves as a leader in their industries. An effective way to do this is by planning and executing a well-defined Personal Branding Strategy. This helps in gaining recognition and a good repute.

Some ways that Entrepreneurs and Businessmen can do this is by sharing posts about updates and current trends in their industries, writingbooks (can include E-books) and doing online lectures explaining complex topics associated with their chúng tôi person who is carrying out this aspect of Personal Branding is another renowned Indian Entrepreneur, Anand Mahindra.

Anand Mahindra is the Chairman of Mahindra Group, an Organization that primarily operates in Automotive components, Industrial Equipment, Hospitality and Retail. With a net worth of $1.7 Billion (approx), he has been listed as one of the leading Entrepreneurs by Several Magazines.

Through his interesting posts, he has gained the leader repute for himself in the Industry. People are constantly tagging him and asking questions about his latest works in the field.

Helps to Establish and Engage with a larger Audience

A top-notch Personal Branding Strategy is only obtained over time, with continuous hard work and efforts. However, as an Entrepreneur working on Personal Branding, you can reap results at every stage of the process. When you embark on the journey, people slowly start noticing your work and follow it if they see value and authenticity.

After a period of time, your following increases in number through referrals and word-of-mouth. You gain recognition and canbegin expanding your audience base. Once you see a considerable number of followers, you can then proceed onto using Social Media Platforms to engage with them consistently. This also helps you build a large influence circle.

Businessmen and Entrepreneurs have also started using Youtube for this very reason. Since Youtube is a Google-Partner site, maintaining a consistent Youtube account helps with Google chúng tôi Shetty is one such person who has smartly planned and executed his Personal Branding Strategy to build a huge network of influence.

Jay Shetty is a British-Indian Monk turned Entrepreneur, Motivational Speaker and Influencer who has appeared on several TV shows. He is famously known for his motivational and inspirational videos, addressing people from all walks of life. As a Social Media Enthusiast, he has a full-functioning and verified account on almost all social platforms. However, he uses Facebook and Youtube to directly interact with his audience through short videos. Let us have a deeper look into these two profiles.

His Official Facebook Page is verified and has around 25 Million Followers. His cover photo also promotes his podcast show ‘On Purpose’, where he interviews celebrities about the challenges that they face in their lives.

Increases your Value and Marked Price

People are willing to pay more for a product or service if they see value in it. This is why big brands like Gucci, Daniel Wellington, Apple and Mercedes-Benz charge their customers plenty. Despite their costs, these brands have a large following with loyal customers willing to pay any price. That is the power of branding.

Whether you are someone looking to showcase yourself as somebody worthy in your specific industry or an entrepreneur looking to brand your business, there is no better way to increase your value than by working on your Personal Branding. Once you have set the foundation of a good Personal Brand with added value, you can gradually increase the cost of your product or service.

A very good real-life example of this would be Gary Vaynerchuk, also known as Gary Vee by most people. Gary Vee is a Belarusian-American Entrepreneur, Author and a Keynote speaker with 7.4 Million followers on Instagram. He is also a trainer, consultant and a speaker, who has given talks in various well-known Business Organizations.

Knowing the value that he carries, Gary and his team charge a huge sum of money to attend events, seminars and conferences. It is estimated that he charges no less than $12,000 for a 60-minute consultation. (Although, the actual price may vary and one can only know the exact amount by contacting his Booking Manager)

Though this price seems like a lot of money, people are still fighting for an opportunity to collaborate with him. This wasonly possible because of the Personal Branding Strategies that he has been implementing over the years.

Gives you more freedom

With more credibility comes more value. With more value comes more freedom. Having a perfect Personal Branding Strategy in place can make anybody flexible with respect to time and money. But building the right strategy requires a lot of effort.

Imagine doing what you love, travelling to different places and still making money. Sounds unrealistic and unbelievable, right? Nicholas James will change your perspective.

Nicholas James Vujicic also known as Nick, is an Australian Entrepreneur, Author and a Motivational Speaker bornwith tetra-amelia syndrome. He has around 9 Million followers on Facebook and almost 2 Million Followers on Instagram. Despite the battles he faced throughout his life, Nick emerged as one of the most sought-after motivational speakers from Australia.

He has been invited to countless stage-events to talk about how he fought the obstacles that stood his way. It is estimated that he earns around $500K from the brand that he has created for himself. He is truly an inspiration, always pushing people to never give up.

The main reason why most people are willing to do whatever it takes to establish a powerful personal brand is because of the freedom it offers. If you want to have flexible work hours and pricing, Personal Branding is the way to go! Being a brand in your industry lets you charge people more, thereby increasing your worth. You can also choose when you want to work by framing a schedule of your preferred timings for consultation.

Allows you to network with other people in the Same Industry

Networking helps in developing your Personal Brand by growing your circle of contacts. Collaborating with the right groups will not only provide insight into their Personal Branding Strategies, but also more opportunities to work with like-minded Entrepreneurs and Businessmen.

When you start gaining recognition through your branding efforts, it is easier to connect with other leading figures in the same industry. Through constant interaction with the people in the field, you can start expanding the knowledge you have about your industry.

Meet Lilly Singh, a Youtuber, Talk-show host, Entrepreneur and comedian. She has close to 15 Million Subscribers and 788 videos on Youtube and 9.1 Million followers on Instagram. With a net worth of $16 Million, she is setting a new benchmark for all the women in the Industry. She also became more popular after her World tour and the initiation of her Production company ‘Unicorn Island’.

When asked about how she encountered opportunities to collaborate with well-know celebrities, she said that putting herself out there on youtube got her recognition. Her videos initially came to the attention of Dwayne’s daughter, which eventually led her work with Dwayne “The Rock” Johnson. From then onwards, she has collaborated and worked with several other celebrities including Reese Witherspoon, Selena Gomez, Hasan Minhaj and even Michelle Obama

Lilly’s life is the perfect example of how Personal Branding helps you connect with other people in the Industry. She is also friends with Jay Shetty, with whom she has collaborated on numerous occasions. They both met and connected through Youtube and began following each other’s work ever since. She has also connected with many other Youtubers through the platform and has worked with them.

Entice Better Clients

Using Personal Branding Strategies can get the ideal customers chasing after you and not the other way around. When you convey the value of your personal brand in a professional manner, you will be positioned as an expert in the industry.

Better clients, in this context, refers to the customers who are loyal to you and can make good use of your product or service. For example, an ideal customer for Apple would be a person requiring an electronic device (can be a phone, tablet, laptop or a computer) and can afford to pay the price of the product. Whereas in the case of a Marketing Consultant, an ideal customer would be somebody who owns a business and desperately needs a Marketing Strategy to boost their Business Performance.

Portraying yourself as a go-to expert through branding makes people stay loyal to you. In fact, a recent study showed that 65% of a company’s business comes from existing customers. When your customers share the same values as you, they have a sense of trust that keeps them coming back to you. Additionally, these customers are more likely to recommend or refer your brand to their friends and relatives, who could be your future clients. This helps you establish a new audience base.

Conclusion

In a nutshell, Personal Branding can do wonders for you and your business. Having a Personal Brand gives you an incentive to extensively study more about your industry. This inturn will motivate you to collaborate with other mentors and also mentor other people with your learnings.

 If you are looking to learn digital marketing and personal branding, check out the online and offline courses offered by Digital Scholar, India’s premium digital marketing training institute. At Digital Scholar, we adopt the agency-based training methodology, providing students with on-field, real-time experience.

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What Is& What Is It Used For?

What is chúng tôi & What is it Used for? All about the process and tips to reduce its CPU usage

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The UpdateCheck.exe process is generally linked to a third-party app that uses it to scan for newer versions.

Some notable apps that have a process by the same name include, Coupoon, Maxtor Manager, and RAD Studio.

The process triggers high CPU usage for many and, in some cases, affects the Internet speed.

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INSTALL BY CLICKING THE DOWNLOAD FILE

To fix Windows PC system issues, you will need a dedicated tool

Fortect is a tool that does not simply cleans up your PC, but has a repository with several millions of Windows System files stored in their initial version. When your PC encounters a problem, Fortect will fix it for you, by replacing bad files with fresh versions. To fix your current PC issue, here are the steps you need to take:

Download Fortect and install it on your PC.

Start the tool’s scanning process to look for corrupt files that are the source of your problem

Fortect has been downloaded by

0

readers this month.

Of the many background process running in Windows, most pose no harm or lead to any issues. But a few have been a cause of concern for users, especially the ones triggered by rather unknown third-party apps. One such is the chúng tôi process.

The UpdateCheck process is listed in the Task Manager and often results in high CPU usage. This automatically affects the PC’s performance, slows the Internet speed, and sometimes causes other apps to crash. Keep reading to find out all about the process!

UpdateCheck.exe, as the name suggests, looks for newer versions of the software that installs it. The catch is that several programs have the UpdateCheck process in their directory. The primary ones are:

So, chúng tôi is in no way a critical Windows process, and terminating or disabling it shouldn’t affect the core functioning of the PC, except for the app that triggers it. That, too, would only affect the automatic updates. You can still manually search for and install these.

We have had several instances where hackers disguised malware as a critical process to bypass detection. So, your primary approach should be to identify the file path and verify whether the process is stored in the program’s dedicated directory or in another location.

For the programs discussed earlier, here is the usual storage path:

Coupoon: C:Program Files (x86)Coupoon

Maxtor Manager: C:Program FilesMaxtorOneTouch Status

In case the chúng tôi process is not in the dedicated directory, use a reliable antivirus solution to run a full system scan.

If you find the process in the usual path, relax a bit! Though it doesn’t mean that the process won’t throw any errors. So, here are a few solutions to get things back to normal!

1. Scan for malware

When you are unsure whether chúng tôi is safe or if it’s a malware, a quick way to identify that is to run a virus scan. Though the built-in Windows Security is capable of handling such issues, for a deeper scan, you can use a third-party antivirus software.

2. Uninstall the program behind the process

While you could manually delete the chúng tôi file, there’s a good chance the program would fetch it all over again. So, it’s recommended that you uninstall the app altogether to get rid of the process.

For this, many prefer using an effective uninstaller software to eliminate any leftover files and registry entries.

3. Perform a system restore

If everything else fails to work, as a last resort, you can always restore the PC to a state where the chúng tôi issue didn’t exist. A system restore doesn’t affect the stored files, though some configured settings or installed apps may be removed.

Before you leave, check some quick tips to make Windows faster and get superior performance.

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How To Use Technical Seo To Optimize For Knowledge Panels

When a user enters a search query for an object, Google retrieves and analyzes relevant information from across the web and presents it in an easily digestible way on the screen’s right. If a user types in “Barack Obama,” the Knowledge Graph will provide results on the 44th president of the United States, including his complete name, birthdate, and other pertinent facts.

What Google Do

Google collects this data by parsing and analyzing content from other, trusted websites. Although the Knowledge Graph currently only provides data in limited areas, this may change as more data is added. While the Google Knowledge Graph is an excellent and novel addition to Google Search, it has caused some search marketers to worry about the future of their profession. In case you were unaware, Google employs a database known as the Knowledge Graph to provide detailed responses to user inquiries.

Whenever a user searches for a particular film, such as The Wizard of Oz, Google will supplement its standard link-based search results with a conspicuous box of information to the right. Important details concerning the user’s inquiry, such as the film’s original release year, director, and principal cast members, will be shown in this box.

Nevertheless, the Knowledge Graph isn’t simply a database for movies; it’s also slowly growing to include other forms of data. Luckily, there are a few measures you can take immediately to lessen the impact of Knowledge Graph traffic on your business. There is no specific method to ensure inclusion in a Google knowledge panel, but there are ways to increase your chances. Here are a few examples to get you going.

Establish Where Your Company Will Legally Reside

An “entity home” may be found for most subjects, including companies. Google will prioritize whichever website it considers to be the most reliable source of information on an entity.

It might be a Wikipedia article in many situations. It also refers to a prominent social media presence, such as one on LinkedIn or Twitter.

Nonetheless, in the vast majority of companies, it will be the business’s official website. Whether or not your company currently meets the requirements for a knowledge panel, you should still spend time optimizing your site with the information you’ve learned about the knowledge panel in mind.

Work On The Site’s Usability

If the material in the Knowledge Graph doesn’t directly answer a searcher’s inquiry, it won’t be used to generate a knowledge panel. That’s why it’s so essential to make your site as user-friendly as possible. As a first step, check that your site is intuitive to use, mobile-friendly, fast to load, and simple to read.

So, while creating content, keep the purpose of Google users in mind. To do so, you need to think about more than just the keywords a user types into a search bar. Create blog entries that respond to common user concerns, and use H2 and H3 headings to organize and optimize your material.

You Should Use Schema Markup To Further Optimize Your Site

When you’ve simplified your site for real people, you can shift your focus to Google. Schema markup is microdata that may be used to assist Google in understanding your site’s intent and structure.

You can make your listings stand out in the best possible manner by providing Google with specific information using Schema markup, which will then appear in your listings (as with rich snippets).

All of your meta components should be defined as well. (This may be anything from the name of a picture to its URL, title, description, alt text, etc.) Make sure that your keywords are used in a manner that makes sense to both Google and human readers.

Become Listed In The Most Important Regional Directories

Google also considers the information available on significant directories and other local listings when determining whether or not a company should be included in a knowledge panel. Make sure your business is included on all relevant platforms.

Yelp, Yahoo Local, and Bing Places for Business are just a few examples. Don’t forget to verify your business and keep your Google My Business page fresh and up-to-date. Your chances of being included in other prominent search engine results (SERP) components will increase if you maintain an active Google My Business page.

Use Feedback From Your Clients

If you know what a knowledge panel is and are trying to qualify for one of your own, reviews become a crucial part of your technical SEO strategy. Get in touch with recent buyers through email and ask for feedback on your product.

Encourage them to carry out your request by rewarding them monetarily or otherwise for their assistance. And make it as simple as possible by providing them with links to the places where their review may be written and published.

Increase The Number Of Profiles And Links To Your Site

Regarding inbound marketing, technical SEO isn’t your only option. Use other means of interaction and discovery to drive traffic to your site content. You could grow your social media following to make up for the decline in search engine traffic.

You may continue pursuing technical SEO success while using these measures. In truth, boosting your specialized SEO rankings is possible by focusing on off-site and social media promotion. Consider them insurance in case your organic search traffic suddenly drops.

Conclusion

The Knowledge Graph is altering how people think about and use search engines, but for now, businesses don’t have to worry too much about losing a substantial amount of traffic. Theoretically, Google might one day seek to centralize all of the web’s content, rendering separate websites and onsite conversions obsolete.

This is an extreme viewpoint, but it seems probable that the Knowledge Graph’s status will only increase with time. While you’re waiting for a permanent solution to this problem, it’s essential to think creatively about how to keep consumers coming to your data warehouse.

What Is Proof Of Burn?

As anyone who has paid any meaningful attention to the cryptocurrency market will tell you, the devil is always in the details. While public perception of the cryptocurrency market is that it exists like a homogenous whole — like the cryptocurrency rankings you see on coinmarketcap are no different from a Forex currency listing, with cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum and Cardano no more different from one another than the Pound from the Euro or the dollar.

They’re all just currencies, right? Different only in name, color, and value. But this vast oversimplification of cryptocurrencies and their evolving, highly specialized use-cases misses out on an entire world that exists under the hood of each currency.

Related: Proof of Stake vs. Proof of Work

What is Proof of Burn?

Here on Nerdschalk, we’ve talked about cryptocurrency quite a lot lately. We’ve put out a few guides on some of the bigger currencies, explaining how they work and how you can purchase some for yourself. We’ve talked about NFTs and how to invest in them. We’ve even talked about pure-blockchain topics like Forking and Sharding.

But we wouldn’t be writing about any of these things, and some guy in England wouldn’t be dreaming about the day he can finally go digging in the local garbage dump, if it weren’t for the consensus algorithms that made Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies possible. Down below, we’ll run you through exactly what Proof of Burn is, how it works, and why some are suggesting it as a better alternative to Proof of Work than the widely supported Proof of Stake protocol.

Related: What is Proof of Authority?

How Proof of Burn Works

Proof of Burn derives its name from a process called Coin Burning, in which tokens are sent to public addresses without private keys, rendering them forever unretrievable. These public addresses, known as Eater Addresses, are often randomly generated without private keys – meaning no one ever had, nor ever will have access to the funds stored inside them. This is why the process is called “burning” — you’re essentially consigning a certain amount of currency to oblivion just as effectively as you would be by setting fire to all the notes in your wallet.

The Proof of Burn protocol was first put forth by Iain Stewart in 2012 during an online discussion in the BitcoinTalk forum, in which he described the proof of burn protocol as a less energy-intensive alternative to Proof of Work and Proof of Stake, while asserting its similarity in design to the latter.

Often seen as Proof of Work without any real power consumption and the hefty equipment costs on the part of the miners, Proof of Burn endows the minors of a network with virtual mining power, rather than physical, proportionate to the value burned. In a traditional Proof of Work protocol, miners on a network compete in a race to solve computationally-intensive cryptographic puzzles in order to validate blocks on the networks.

Only the correct answer to the cryptographic puzzle will produce the accurate record of the transaction to be added to the distributed ledger that is the blockchain. The crux of the Proof of Work algorithm is that it is computationally-intensive — i.e. costly — for the individual node to find the correct answer but essentially effortless for every other note on the network to process and verify that the answer is correct – achieving consensus and adding the block to the chain.

Because it requires investment — through power and equipment — to take part in the validation process and reap the rewards that come with it, miners are naturally disincentivized to engage in fraudulent behavior and support the network. 

Proof of Burn essentially cuts out the physical hardware required to participate in the computational race to solve each puzzle and replaces it with a certain amount of virtual computing power commensurate to the amount of currency the miner verifiably burned. This retains the element of personal investment in the network on the part of the miner without driving up the total power consumption of the network, providing the same safeguards of Proof of Work without the economic footprint.

Advantages of Proof of Burn

That means ever more powerful hardware and soaring electricity costs which, when put together in the context of the major networks like bitcoin can bowed pretty poorly For the environment. This concern remains a major talking point for the mainstream acceptance of proof of work-based cryptocurrencies like bitcoin, and by solving it, proof of burn can potentially increase the speed at which cryptocurrencies finally achieve widespread legitimacy.

Because Proof of Burn endows virtual mining power relative to how much the node burned, there is no need for expensive, top-tier processing power and the cataclysmic power bills that accompany it. This accomplishes a secondary goal as well: it allows new blockchains to bootstrap off of previously generated “work.”

Because a Proof of Burn protocol hinges on burning coins that have, of course, been mined, the original computing power expended remains a source of scarcity even in the second blockchain with an entirely new currency when using Proof of Burn this way.

One of the most salient cons associated with a Proof of Burn protocol comes in the actual process of mining itself once coins have been burned. Mining on a Proof of Burn-based network can be slower than that of a Proof of Work-style blockchain. This is because the powerful equipment used in a Proof of Work Blockchain has been replaced with the virtual “mining rig” that the system endows, which inherently produces a lower hash rate than dedicated hardware setups.

A Proof of Burn protocol also poses an added risk to the individual miner; while Proof of Work is itself an incredibly risky venture, with immense upfront costs associated with achieving the computational power required for a viable mining operation, Proof of Burn provides no guarantee that the cost of the initial coin burning will be recovered through mining in a timely manner. Or at all. All the coin burn does is “purchase” you a virtual mining rig of a certain size; after that point, you’re in the same competitive mining race as any Proof of Work system.

As of yet, Proof of Burn also suffers from a similar drawback as proof of Stake, in which the system selects for those willing to immobilize or invest larger sums of currency — ostensibly as a means of collateral and disincentivizing any attempts fraudulent behavior.

This, of course, has some merit but the oft-pointed weakness of such a paradigm is that the selection process incorporates only the staked or burned amount, and not the amount relative to the holdings of the stakeholder or burner. Thus, what may be a considerably larger sum than another miner may in fact be much smaller in proportion to that individual’s total holdings, thus serving as a weaker guard against misbehavior than intended.

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What Is @Escaping In Swift

In Swift, a closure marked with @escaping means the closure can outlive the scope of the block of code it is passed into.

In a sense, @escaping tells the closure to “stay up even after the surrounding function is gone”.

But why is this useful?

Let’s say you are performing an (asynchronous) network request such that:

Function f() fetches information from a web page.

After completion, a closure function g() runs inside f().

The only way to make this possible is to pass the function g() as an escaping closure into the function f().

This tells the Swift compiler after calling f() to keep g() alive to wait for the network request to complete and the response to arrive.

In this guide, we are going to take a look at non-escaping closures and escaping closures in detail.

Also, you are going to see a demonstrative example to support understanding.

Closures in Swift

In Swift, closures are non-escaping by default.

If you pass a non-escaping closure into a function, it is called right away.

The life of the non-escaping closure ends when the function call finishes.

As a result, there will be no trace of that closure.

This is the default behavior.

Let’s see a simple example of a non-escaping closure and its behavior.

Please repeat the actions in this guide in your own code editor to truly understand what happens.

Let’s write a function add that takes:

Integers a and b

A closure called action

Right after summing the numbers up, the function add calls the action.

var sum = a + b action(sum) }

Let’s call this function with integers 10 and 20 and a closure that prints the result into the console:

add(a: 10, b: 20, { res in print(res) })

Output:

30

As you can see, the result of adding 10 and 20 gets printed to the console right away.

However, this default behavior of a closure can be an issue when dealing with asynchronous code.

In an asynchronous function, you might not want to execute the closure right away. Instead, you want to wait for the asynchronous task to complete before calling a function.

This is where escaping comes in handy.

@escaping: Escaping Closures in Swift

Escaping makes it possible for the closure to outlive the function surrounding it.

This means the closure can stay around to catch a network request-response that arrives later.

To make a closure escaping, use the @escaping keyword modifier in front of the closure type.

Let’s see an example of how using a non-escaping closure fails in the context of an async function, and how to fix it using an escaping closure.

Example

Say you are using an app to message your friend and you ask them “How are you?”.

As you know, it always takes a while to get a response.

For the sake of demonstration, let’s say it takes 2 seconds for your friend to reply back.

Let’s simulate this conversation in Swift code.

To mimic this behavior, you need a function that takes a response handler closure as a parameter.

This response handler is simply responsible for taking care of handling your friend’s response that arrives 2 seconds later.

Here is how it looks in code:

print(“Hey, how are you?”)

DispatchQueue.main.asyncAfter(deadline: .now() + 2, execute: { responseHandler(“Hi, I’m doing really good.”) })

print(“Responding takes a while…”) }

howAreYou({ friendResponse in print(friendResponse) })

But this code causes a compiler error.

This is because you are trying to execute the responseHandler function 2 seconds after the howAreYou function has executed.

This is a problem because 2 seconds after calling the howAreYou, there is no trace of that function or the responseHandler closure.

Thus the responseHandler never has a chance to handle your friend’s response. It gets destroyed before the response even arrives.

The Swift compiler is clever. It knows this is about to happen. Thus it shows you an error and does not run the code.

To make it work, you should make the responseHandler closure outlive the context of the howAreYou function to see the response arrive.

To do this, you need to turn it into an escaping closure:

print(“Hey, how are you?”)

DispatchQueue.main.asyncAfter(deadline: .now() + 2, execute: { responseHandler(“Hi, I’m doing really good.”) })

print(“Responding takes a while…”) }

howAreYou({ friendResponse in print(friendResponse) })

This way you tell the program that the responseHandler is an asynchronous closure and you want it to stay alive even after howAreYou call completes.

Now the compiler error is gone and the code works as intended.

It is as simple as that!

Now your responseHandler closure is able to show your friend’s response as it can out-live the howAreYou function’s scope!

But this example is quite arbitrary.

The next logical question is when is an escaping closure actually useful.

Let’s take a look.

When Are Escaping Closures Actually Useful

Escaping closures are useful whenever you want the closure to be able to outlive the function’s scope from where you are calling it.

A great example is when dealing with network requests.

When fetching data over a server, it takes a while for a network request to complete, and thus, the response to arrive.

To perform actions on the response, you need to wait for it to arrive.

To make a closure wait for the data, it has to be able to outlive the function’s scope where it is called.

To do this, you need to use an escaping closure.

To perform actions on the response, you need to

Conclusion

Today you learned what is @escaping in Swift.

In short, @escaping is a keyword modifier that turns a closure into an escaping closure.

An escaping closure is useful in asynchronous tasks when the closure has to wait for the function to complete.

When you use an escaping closure, the closure outlives the function in which it is called. In other words, when the function completes, the closure stays up and keeps waiting for the response.

Thanks for reading. Happy coding!

Further Reading

50 Swift Interview Questions

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