You are reading the article What Is Non Functional Testing? (Types) updated in December 2023 on the website Tai-facebook.edu.vn. We hope that the information we have shared is helpful to you. If you find the content interesting and meaningful, please share it with your friends and continue to follow and support us for the latest updates. Suggested January 2024 What Is Non Functional Testing? (Types)What is Non-Functional Testing?
Non-Functional Testing is defined as a type of Software testing to check non-functional aspects (performance, usability, reliability, etc) of a software application. It is designed to test the readiness of a system as per nonfunctional parameters which are never addressed by functional testing.
An excellent example of non-functional test would be to check how many people can simultaneously login into a software.
Non-functional testing is equally important as functional testing and affects client satisfaction.Objectives of Non-functional testing
Non-functional testing should increase usability, efficiency, maintainability, and portability of the product.
Helps to reduce production risk and cost associated with non-functional aspects of the product.
Optimize the way product is installed, setup, executes, managed and monitored.
Collect and produce measurements, and metrics for internal research and development.
Improve and enhance knowledge of the product behavior and technologies in use.Characteristics of Non-functional testing
Non-functional testing should be measurable, so there is no place for subjective characterization like good, better, best, etc.
Exact numbers are unlikely to be known at the start of the requirement process
Important to prioritize the requirements
Ensure that quality attributes are identified correctly in Software Engineering.
Non-functional testing Parameters1) Security:
The parameter defines how a system is safeguarded against deliberate and sudden attacks from internal and external sources. This is tested via Security Testing.2) Reliability:
The extent to which any software system continuously performs the specified functions without failure. This is tested by Reliability Testing3) Survivability:
The parameter checks that the software system continues to function and recovers itself in case of system failure. This is checked by Recovery Testing4) Availability:
The parameter determines the degree to which user can depend on the system during its operation. This is checked by Stability Testing.5) Usability:
The ease with which the user can learn, operate, prepare inputs and outputs through interaction with a system. This is checked by Usability Testing6) Scalability: 7) Interoperability:
This non-functional parameter checks a software system interfaces with other software systems. This is checked by Interoperability Testing8) Efficiency:
The extent to which any software system can handles capacity, quantity and response time.9) Flexibility:
The term refers to the ease with which the application can work in different hardware and software configurations. Like minimum RAM, CPU requirements.10) Portability:
The flexibility of software to transfer from its current hardware or software environment.11) Reusability:
It refers to a portion of the software system that can be converted for use in another application.Type of Software Testing
In general, there are three testing types
Non – Functional
Under these types of testing, you have multiple TESTING Level’s, but usually, people call them as Testing Types. You may find some difference in the above classification in different books and reference materials.
The above list is not the complete as there are more than 100 Types of Testing and counting. No need to worry, you will pick them up as you age in the testing industry. Also, note that not all testing types apply to all projects but depend on the nature & scope of the project. More on this in a later tutorial.
Non Functional Testing Types
Following are the most common Types of Non Functional Testing :
Disaster Recovery Testing
Example Test Cases Non-Functional Testing
Following are examples of Non-Functional Testing
Test Case #
Application load time should not be more than 5 secs up to 1000 users accessing it simultaneously
Software should be installable on all versions of Windows and Mac
All web images should have alt tags
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Dynamic Testing is a software testing method used to test the dynamic behaviour of software code. The main purpose of dynamic testing is to test software behaviour with dynamic variables or variables which are not constant and finding weak areas in software runtime environment. The code must be executed in order to test the dynamic behavior.
We all know that Testing is verification and validation, and it takes 2 Vs to make testing complete. Out of the 2 Vs, Verification is called a Static testing and the other “V”, Validation is known as Dynamic testing.
Let’s understand How to do Dynamic Testing with an example:
Suppose we are testing a Login Page where we have two fields say “Username” and “Password” and the Username is restricted to Alphanumeric.
When the user enters Username as “Guru99”, the system accepts the same. Where as when the user enters as Guru99@123 then the application throws an error message. This result shows that the code is acting dynamically based on the user input.
Dynamic testing is when you are working with the actual system by providing an input and comparing the actual behavior of the application to the expected behavior. In other words, working with the system with the intent of finding errors.
So based on the above statements we can say or conclude that dynamic testing is a process of validating software applications as an end user under different environments to build the right software.
What does dynamic testing do?
The main aim of the Dynamic tests is to ensure that software works properly during and after the installation of the software ensuring a stable application without any major flaws( this statement is made because no software is error free, testing only can show presence of defects and not absence)
The main purpose of the dynamic test is to ensure consistency to the software; lets discuss this with an example.
In a Banking Application, we find different screens like My Accounts Section, Funds Transfer, Bill Pay, etc.. All these screens contain amount field which accepts some characters.
Let’s say My Accounts field displays amount as 25,000 and Funds Transfer as $25,000 and Bill pay screen as $25000 though the amount is the same, the way amount is displayed is not the same hence making the software nonconsistent.
Consistency is not only limited to the functionality it also refers to different standards like performance, usability, compatibity etc, hence it becomes very important to perform Dynamic Testing.Types of Dynamic Testing
Dynamic Testing is classified into two categories
White Box Testing
Black Box Testing
The below pictorial representation gives us an idea about types of Dynamic Testing, Levels of Testing, etc.
Let us discuss briefly each type of testing and it’s intended purpose
White Box Testing – White Box Testing is a software testing method in which the internal structure/ design is known to the tester. The main aim of White Box testing is to check on how System is performing based on the code. It is mainly performed by the Developers or White Box Testers who has knowledge on the programming.
Black Box Testing – Black Box Testing is a method of testing in which the internal structure/ code/design is NOT known to the tester. The main aim of this testing to verify the functionality of the system under test and this type of testing requires to execute the complete test suite and is mainly performed by the Testers, and there is no need of any programming knowledge.
The Black Box Testing is again classified into two types.
Functional testing is performed to verify that all the features developed are according to the functional specifications, and it is performed by executing the functional test cases written by the QA team, in functional testing phase, system is tested by providing input, verifying the output and comparing the actual results with the expected results.
There are different Levels of Functional Testing out of which the most important are
Unit Testing – Generally Unit is a small piece of code which is testable, Unit Testing is performed at individual unit of software and is performed by developers
Integration Testing – Integration Testing is the testing which is performed after Unit Testing and is performed by combining all the individual units which are testable and is performed either by developers or testers
System Testing – System Testing is a performed to ensure whether the system performs as per the requirements and is generally performed when the complete system is ready, it is performed by testers when the Build or code is released to QA team
Acceptance Testing – Acceptance testing is performed to verify whether the system has met the business requirements and is ready to use or ready for deployment and is generally performed by the end users.
Non- Functional Testing: Non-Functional testing is a testing technique which does not focus on functional aspects and mainly concentrates on the nonfunctional attributes of the system such as memory leaks, performance or robustness of the system. Non-Functional testing is performed at all test levels.
There are many Non-Functional Testing Techniques out of which the most important are
Performance Testing – Performance Testing is performed to check whether the response time of the system is normal as per the requirements under the desired network load.
Recovery Testing – Recovery testing is a method to verify on how well a system is able to recover from crashes and hardware failures.
Compatibility Testing – Compatibility testing is performed to verify how the system behaves across different environments.
Security testing – Security testing is performed to verify the robustness of the application, i.e to ensure that only the authorizes users/roles are accessing the system
Usability testing – Usability testing is a method to verify the usability of the system by the end users to verify on how comfortable the users are with the system.
Dynamic Testing Techniques in STLC consists of different tasks like Requirements Analysis for the tests, Test Planning, Test case design and implementation, Test environment setup, Test case execution, Bug reporting and finally Test closure. All the tasks in dynamic testing techniques are dependent on the completion of the previous task in the testing process.
In STLC, we can say that actual Dynamic Testing Process starts from Test Case Design, let’s discuss each activity in details.
Before getting into the process lets discuss the strategy that needs to be followed for Dynamic Testing.
Test Strategy should mainly focus on the resources available and the timeframe. Based on these factors, the objective of the testing, the scope of testing, phases or cycles of testing, type of environment, assumptions or challenges that might be faced, risks, etc. has to be documented.
Once the strategy is defined and is accepted by the management then the actual process test case design starts
What is Test design and Implementation
In this phase we identify the,
Features to be tested
Derive the Test Conditions
Derive the coverage Items
Derive the Test Cases
Test Environment Setup
We have to ensure that Testing Environment should always be similar to the Production environment, in this phase we have to install the build and manage the test machines.
During this phase, test cases are actually executed.
Bug report captured
Based on the Execution if the Expected and Actual Results are not same then the Test case has to be marked as Fail and a Bug should be logged.Advantages of Dynamic Testing
Dynamic Testing can reveal the uncovered defects that are considered to be too difficult or complicated and which cannot be covered through static Analysis
In Dynamic Testing, we execute the software, end to end, ensuring error free software which in turn increases the quality of a product and project.
Dynamic Testing becomes an essential Tool for detecting any security Threats
Dynamic Testing is Time Consuming because it executes the application/software or code which requires huge amount of Resources
Dynamic Testing increases the cost of project/product because it does not start early in the software lifecycle and hence any issues fixed in later stages can result in an increase of cost.
In Software Engineering, Verification and Validation are two measures used to check that the software product meets the requirements specifications. Static testing involves verification whereas dynamic testing involves validation. Together they help to deliver a cost effective Quality Software.
Stress Testing is a type of software testing that verifies stability & reliability of software application. The goal of Stress testing is measuring software on its robustness and error handling capabilities under extremely heavy load conditions and ensuring that software doesn’t crash under crunch situations. It even tests beyond normal operating points and evaluates how software works under extreme conditions.
In Software Engineering, Stress Testing is also known as Endurance Testing. Under Stress Testing, AUT is be stressed for a short period of time to know its withstanding capacity. A most prominent use of stress testing is to determine the limit, at which the system or software or hardware breaks. It also checks whether the system demonstrates effective error management under extreme conditions.
The application under testing will be stressed when 5GB data is copied from the website and pasted in notepad. Notepad is under stress and gives ‘Not Responded’ error message.
Need for Stress Testing
Consider the following real-time examples where we can discover the usage of Stress Testing-
During festival time, an online shopping site may witness a spike in traffic, or when it announces a sale.
When a blog is mentioned in a leading newspaper, it experiences a sudden surge in traffic.
It is imperative to perform Stress Testing to accommodate such abnormal traffic spikes. Failure to accommodate this sudden traffic may result in loss of revenue and repute.
Stress testing is also extremely valuable for the following reasons:
To check whether the system works under abnormal conditions.
Displaying appropriate error message when the system is under stress.
System failure under extreme conditions could result in enormous revenue loss
It is better to be prepared for extreme conditions by executing Stress Testing.Goals of Stress Testing
The goal of stress testing is to analyze the behavior of the system after a failure. For stress testing to be successful, a system should display an appropriate error message while it is under extreme conditions.
To conduct Stress Testing, sometimes, massive data sets may be used which may get lost during Stress Testing. Testers should not lose this security-related data while doing stress testing.
The main purpose of stress testing is to make sure that the system recovers after failure which is called as recoverability.Load Testing Vs Stress Testing
Load Testing Stress Testing
Load Testing is to test the system behavior under normal workload conditions, and it is just testing or simulating with the actual workload Stress testing is to test the system behavior under extreme conditions and is carried out till the system failure.
Load testing does not break the system stress testing tries to break the system by testing with overwhelming data or resources.Types of Stress Testing:
Following are the types of stress testing and are explained as follows:Distributed Stress Testing:
In distributed client-server systems, testing is done across all clients from the server. The role of stress server is to distribute a set of stress tests to all stress clients and track on the status of the client. After the client contacts the server, the server adds the name of the client and starts sending data for testing.
Meanwhile, client machines send signal or heartbeat that it is connected with the server. If the server does not receive any signals from the client machine, it needs to be investigated further for debugging. From the figure, a server can connect with the 2 clients (Client1 and Client2), but it cannot send or receive a signal from Client 3 & 4.
Night run is the best option to run these stress testing scenarios. Large server farms need a more efficient method for determining which computers have had stress failures that need to be investigated.Application Stress Testing:
This testing concentrate on finding defects related to data locking and blocking, network issues and performance bottlenecks in an application.Transactional Stress Testing:
It does stress testing on one or more transactions between two or more applications. It is used for fine-tuning & optimizing the system.Systemic Stress Testing:
This is integrated stress testing which can be tested across multiple systems running on the same server. It is used to find defects where one application data blocks another application.Exploratory Stress Testing:
This is one of the types of stress testing which is used to test the system with unusual parameters or conditions that are unlikely to occur in a real scenario. It is used to find defects in unexpected scenarios like
A large number of users logged at the same time
If a virus scanner started in all machines simultaneously
If Database has gone offline when it is accessed from a website,
When a large volume of data is inserted to the database simultaneouslyHow to do Stress Testing?
Stress Testing process can be done in 5 major steps:
Step 1) Planning the Stress Test: Here you gather the system data, analyze the system, define the stress test goals
Step 2) Create Automation Scripts: In this phase, you create the Stress testing automation scripts, generate the test data for the stress scenarios.
Step 3) Script Execution: In this stage, you run the Stress testing automation scripts and store the stress results.
Step 4) Results Analysis: In this stage, you analyze the Stress Test results and identify bottlenecks.
Step 5) Tweaking and Optimization: In this stage, you fine-tune the system, change configurations, optimize the code with goal meet the desired benchmark.
Lastly, you again run the entire cycle to determine that the tweaks have produced the desired results. For example, it’s not unusual to have to 3 to 4 cycles of the Stress Testing process to achieve the performance goalsTools recommended for Stress Testing
LoadRunner from HP is a widely-used Load Testing tool. Load Test Results shaped by Loadrunner are considered as a benchmark.
Jmeter is an Open Source testing tool. It is a pure Java application for stress and Performance Testing. Jmeter is intended to cover types of tests like load, functional, stress, etc. It needs JDK 5 or higher to function.Stress Tester
This tool provides extensive analysis of the web application performance, provides results in graphical format, and it is extremely easy to use. No high-level scripting is required and gives a good return on investment.Neo load
This is a popular tool available in the market to test the web and Mobile applications. This tool can simulate thousands of users in order to evaluate the application performance under load and analyze the response times. It also supports Cloud-integrated – performance, load and stress testing. It is easy to use, cost-effective and provides good scalability.Metrics for Stress Testing
Metrics help in evaluating a System’s performance and generally studied at the end of Stress Test. Commonly used metrics are –
Measuring Scalability & Performance
Pages per Second: Measures how many pages have been requested / Second
Throughput: Basic Metric – Response data size/Second
Rounds: Number of times test scenarios have been planned Versus Number of times a client has executed
Hit time: Average time to retrieve an image or a page
Time to the first byte: Time is taken to return the first byte of data or information
Page Time: Time is taken to retrieve all the information in a page
Failed Connections: Number of failed connections refused by the client (Weak Signal)
Failed Rounds: Number of rounds it gets failed
Failed Hits: Number of failed attempts done by the system (Broken links or unseen images)Conclusion
Stress testing’s objective is to check the system under extreme conditions. It monitors system resources such as Memory, processor, network etc., and checks the ability of the system to recover back to normal status. It checks whether the system displays appropriate error messages while under stress.
Example of Stress Testing
E-commerce website announces a festival sale
News website at the time of some major events
Education Board’s result website
Social networking sites or blogs, apps, etc
90 percent of online content may be synthetically generated by AI algorithms in 2026
The Internet of the future might be something completely different from what we know currently. But this change will be for the better good or worse. The use cases of AI are growing immensely around the world. According to some reports experts estimate that as much as 90 percent of online content may be synthetically generated by artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms in 2026. And that can lead to a lot of misinformation. The presence of bots, and AI-generated text-to-image programs have certainly been making big waves. It will start stuffing the internet with enormous amounts of targeted misinformation.90 % of internet content may be synthetically generated by AI:
Artificial Intelligence is quickly evolving and is already being used to support and improve health services in many high-income countries. Experts believe that by 2026 the majority of texts, pictures, and videos on the web will be generated, especially if models such as OpenAI’s GPT-3 witness a wider use. The increase in synthetic media and improved technology has given rise to disinformation possibilities. AI can create virtual worlds that are more inclusive around topics such as culture, race, and gender. AI ethics are important to make an AI that trustworthy, but that’s just one part of it required to help organizations adopt the technology responsibly. An expert system, also sometimes referred to as a knowledge-based system, is an AI program that has expert-level competence in solving specific problems.
The Internet of the future might be something completely different from what we know currently. But this change will be for the better good or worse. The use cases of AI are growing immensely around the world. According to some reports experts estimate that as much as 90 percent of online content may be synthetically generated by artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms in 2026. And that can lead to a lot of misinformation. The presence of bots, and AI-generated text-to-image programs have certainly been making big waves. It will start stuffing the internet with enormous amounts of targeted misinformation.Artificial Intelligence is quickly evolving and is already being used to support and improve health services in many high-income countries. Experts believe that by 2026 the majority of texts, pictures, and videos on the web will be generated, especially if models such as OpenAI’s GPT-3 witness a wider use. The increase in synthetic media and improved technology has given rise to disinformation possibilities. AI can create virtual worlds that are more inclusive around topics such as culture, race, and gender. AI ethics are important to make an AI that trustworthy, but that’s just one part of it required to help organizations adopt the technology responsibly. An expert system, also sometimes referred to as a knowledge-based system, is an AI program that has expert-level competence in solving specific problems. Whatever the most current information was, it is a hot issue. In most cases, synthetic media is generated for gaming, to improve services, or to improve the quality of life. However, by default, we do not assume that almost everything we deal with on the Internet can be fake. There is no such thing as a good AI, only good and bad humans. Then we will have to treat the verification of information much more carefully.
What is chúng tôi & What is it Used for? All about the process and tips to reduce its CPU usage
The UpdateCheck.exe process is generally linked to a third-party app that uses it to scan for newer versions.
Some notable apps that have a process by the same name include, Coupoon, Maxtor Manager, and RAD Studio.
The process triggers high CPU usage for many and, in some cases, affects the Internet speed.
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Fortect is a tool that does not simply cleans up your PC, but has a repository with several millions of Windows System files stored in their initial version. When your PC encounters a problem, Fortect will fix it for you, by replacing bad files with fresh versions. To fix your current PC issue, here are the steps you need to take:
Download Fortect and install it on your PC.
Start the tool’s scanning process to look for corrupt files that are the source of your problem
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Of the many background process running in Windows, most pose no harm or lead to any issues. But a few have been a cause of concern for users, especially the ones triggered by rather unknown third-party apps. One such is the chúng tôi process.
The UpdateCheck process is listed in the Task Manager and often results in high CPU usage. This automatically affects the PC’s performance, slows the Internet speed, and sometimes causes other apps to crash. Keep reading to find out all about the process!
UpdateCheck.exe, as the name suggests, looks for newer versions of the software that installs it. The catch is that several programs have the UpdateCheck process in their directory. The primary ones are:
So, chúng tôi is in no way a critical Windows process, and terminating or disabling it shouldn’t affect the core functioning of the PC, except for the app that triggers it. That, too, would only affect the automatic updates. You can still manually search for and install these.
We have had several instances where hackers disguised malware as a critical process to bypass detection. So, your primary approach should be to identify the file path and verify whether the process is stored in the program’s dedicated directory or in another location.
For the programs discussed earlier, here is the usual storage path:
Coupoon: C:Program Files (x86)Coupoon
Maxtor Manager: C:Program FilesMaxtorOneTouch Status
In case the chúng tôi process is not in the dedicated directory, use a reliable antivirus solution to run a full system scan.
If you find the process in the usual path, relax a bit! Though it doesn’t mean that the process won’t throw any errors. So, here are a few solutions to get things back to normal!1. Scan for malware
When you are unsure whether chúng tôi is safe or if it’s a malware, a quick way to identify that is to run a virus scan. Though the built-in Windows Security is capable of handling such issues, for a deeper scan, you can use a third-party antivirus software.2. Uninstall the program behind the process
While you could manually delete the chúng tôi file, there’s a good chance the program would fetch it all over again. So, it’s recommended that you uninstall the app altogether to get rid of the process.
For this, many prefer using an effective uninstaller software to eliminate any leftover files and registry entries.3. Perform a system restore
If everything else fails to work, as a last resort, you can always restore the PC to a state where the chúng tôi issue didn’t exist. A system restore doesn’t affect the stored files, though some configured settings or installed apps may be removed.
Before you leave, check some quick tips to make Windows faster and get superior performance.
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Writing working code can be a challenge. Even relatively easy languages like HTML require the coder to understand the specific syntax and available tools. Writing code to control robots is even more involved and often has multiple steps: There’s code to detect objects, code to trigger the actuators that move the robot’s limbs, code to specify when the task is complete, and so on. Something as simple as programming a robot to pick up a yellow block instead of a red one is impossible if you don’t know the coding language the robot runs on.
But Google’s robotics researchers are exploring a way to fix that. They’ve developed a robot that can write its own programming code based on natural language instructions. Instead of having to dive into a robot’s configuration files to change block_target_color from #FF0000 to #FFFF00, you could just type “pick up the yellow block” and the robot would do the rest.
To get CaP to write new code for specific tasks, the team provided it with “hints,” like what APIs or tools were available to it, and a few instructions-to-code paired examples. From that, it was able to write new code for new instructions. It does this using “hierarchical code generation” which prompts it to “recursively define new functions, accumulate their own libraries over time, and self-architect a dynamic codebase.” This means that given one set of instructions once, it can develop some code that it can then repurpose for similar instructions later on.
[Related: Google’s AI has a long way to go before writing the next great novel]
CaP can also use the arithmetic operations and logic of specific languages. For example, a model trained on Python can use the appropriate if/else and for/while loops when needed, and use third-party libraries for additional functionality. It can also turn ambiguous descriptions like “faster” and “to the left” into the precise numerical values necessary to perform the task. And because CaP is built on top of a regular language model, it has a few features unrelated to code—like understanding emojis and non-English languages.
For now, CaP is still very much limited in what it can do. It relies on the language model it is based on to provide context to its instructions. If they don’t make sense or use parameters it doesn’t support, it can’t write code. Similarly, it apparently can only manage a handful of parameters in a single prompt; more complex sequences of actions that require dozens of parameters just aren’t possible. There are also safety concerns: Programming a robot to write its own code is a bit like Skynet. If it thinks the best way to achieve a task is to spin around really fast with its arm extended and there is a human nearby, somebody could get hurt.
Still, it’s incredibly exciting research. With robots, one of the hardest tasks is generalizing their trained behaviors. Programming a robot to play ping-pong, doesn’t make it capable of playing other games like baseball or tennis. Although CaP is still miles away from such broad real world applications, it does allow a robot to perform a wide range of complex robot tasks without task-specific training. That’s a big step in the direction of one day being able to teach a robot that can play one game how to play another—without having to break everything down to new human-written code.
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