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We have various definitions in TDL, which control the construction of the interfaces. The various visible elements on the Tally screen are Menu, Report, Button and Tables. Report is the primary interface element which is used for    display, edit and printing of data. In order to create a report, the other sub elements will be required which have a predefined containership and cannot exist on their own. They are form, part, line and field definitions. The various specifications on sizing, alignment, positioning and formatting attributes applied for these elements. In this topic, we will cover the various dimensional aspects of the screen design. The various attributes, which control the appearance, will also be covered subsequently.

Any physical quantity would require a unit of measurement for its measurement. In TDL the measurements for various report elements are specified using the following UOM’s:

A Unit of Measurement can be any of the following:

Millimeters/mms

Centimeters/cms

Inch(es)

Number of Characters/Number of Lines

% Screen/Page

Number – Points (where 1 Point = 1/72 Inch)

Dimensional attributes can be classified into two, i.e., Specific and General Attributes.

Definitions

Specific Dimensions

General Dimensions

Form

Height, Width, Space Top, Space Bottom, Space Left, Space Right

Horizontal Align, Vertical Align, Full Height

Part

Height, Width, Space Top, Space Bottom, Space Left, Space Right

Horizontal Align, Vertical Align, Top Parts, Bottom Parts, Left Parts, Right Parts

Line

Height, Space Top, Space Bottom, Indent

Full Height, Top Line, Bottom Lin

Field

Width, Space Left, Space Right, Indent

Full Width, Left Field, Right Field, Widespaced

The various dimensional attributes are as s h own in the given table.

This category includes all attributes which help in specifying the size of the various elements on the screen. All these sizing specifications are provided with respect to the overall screen/paper size as reference.

The attribute Height is used to specify the height required for the Form, Part, and Line definitions, whereas the attribute Width is used to specify the width required for the Form, Part, and Field definitions. The Height and Width can be specified in terms of any of the above Units of Measurement. In the absence of any Unit of Measurement, the height assumes a certain number of lines and similarly, the Width assumes number of characters. The entire height and width are in the proportion of the available paper/screen dimensions.

Syntax

in a specified unit of measurement.

The Height and Width, when specified in a Form definition, implies that it is the available height and width which can be utilized by all the Parts, Lines and Fields within the Form. If the contents of the Part and Line exceed the available Height and/or Width, the contents of the Form are squeezed to accommodate the same within the available Height and Width. In the absence of any Height and Width specified, the Form Definition assumes the Height and Width required by the contents of the Form, comprising of Parts, Lines and Fields.

Example :

Height : 10 inch

Width : 8.50 inch

Subsequently, Height and Width, when specified in a Part Definition, implies that it is the available Height and Width that can be utilized by all its Sub-Parts, Lines and Fields. If the contents of the Sub-Parts, Lines and Fields exceed the available Height and Width, the contents of the Part are squeezed to accommodate the same within the available Height and Width.

Example:

Height : 10% Page

Width : 60% Page

Similarly, the Height, when specified within a Line definition, restricts the contents of the Lines to the available line height. Generally, specifying the Line Height is not required since the contents of the lines are controlled by the given Part Height.

Width, when specified within a Field definition, limits the contents of the Field within the defined boundary. If the contents are longer than the available Width, the Field contents are squeezed to accommodate the same within the defined width.

The attribute FullHeight can be specified in a Form or a Line Definition, and the Attribute FullWidth can be specified in a Form or a Field Definition. FullHeight is used to instruct the Form or the Line to utilize the full Height, while FullWidth is used to instruct the Form or the Field to utilize the full Width.

Syntax

Example:

FullHeight: No

FullWidth : No

The attribute FullHeight decides whether to allow the form to consume the full Height or not, depending on the logical value set. By default, the value set for this attribute is YES. If the current Form uses Bottom Parts or Bottom Lines, then the Height required/utilized by the Form will be 100% Page/Screen.

Similarly, the attribute FullWidth decides whether to allow the Form to consume the full Width or not, depending on the logical value set. By default, the value set for this attribute is YES. If the current Form uses the Right Par t s or Right Lines, then the Wi d th required/utilized by the Form will be 100% Page/Screen.

The attribute FullHeight decides whether the line can consume the full available Height or not, depending on the logical value set. By default, the value set to this attribute is YES.

The attribute FullWidth decides whether the Field can consume the full available Width or not, depending on the logical value set. By default, the value set to this attribute is YES.

Attributes Space Top, Space Bottom, Space Left and Space Right are used to specify the spaces to be kept to the Top, Bottom, Left and Right of the definition. Space Top and Space Bottom can be used in Form, Part and Line Definitions. Space Left and Space Right can be used in Form, Part and Field Definitions.

When Space Top, Space Bottom, Space Left and Space Right are used in a definition, these spaces are included in the Height and Width specified within the definition.

Syntax

Example

Space Top    : 1.5 inch

Space Bottom : If ($$IsStockJrnl:##SVVoucherType OR $$IsPhysStock:##SVVoucherType)+

               then 0 else 0.25

Space Left   : @@DSPCondQtySL + @@DSPCondRateSL + @@DSPCondAmtSL

Space Right  : 1

The attributes Space Top, Space Bottom, Space Left and Space Right are specified in a Form or a Part Definition, by leaving the appropriate spaces before displaying/printing a Form. These spaces are included in the Height/Width of the Form Definition.

The attributes Space Top and Space Bottom, when specified in a Line Definition, leave the appropriate spaces before/after the Line. These spaces are inclusive within the Height of the specific Part in which the current Line Definition resides. If the Height of the Part is unable to accommodate the same, it compresses the line to fit it within the available Height.

The attributes Space Left and Space Right, when specified in a Field Definition, leave the appropriate spaces before/after the Field. These spaces are inclusive within the Width of the Part and Field. If the Width of the Part is unable to accommodate the same, it compresses the Fields within the Parts and Lines, to fit it within the available Width.

An Indent can be specified either in a Line or a Field definition. It is similar to the Tab Key which is used to specify a starting point for a Line or a Field.

Syntax

Example:

Indent : @@IndentByLevel

This attribute in the Line Definition specifies the space to be left from the Left margin before the contents of the line begin.

This attribute in the Field definition is similar to the Space Left attribute, except that it indents the field independent of width of the field. Space Left indents the field within the width available. However, Indent indents the field exclusive of the width. It can either take a formula as a parameter, or the expression itself. The formula can decide as to what extent each instance of the field has to be indented from the initial place. This attribute is typically used while displaying reports like List of Accounts, Trial Balance, etc., where the groups and ledgers under a particular group are recursively indented inside the group, based on the order of the groups and ledgers.

These attributes are used to place different parts at different positions in a particular Form or Part. The attributes Top Parts and Bottom Parts can be specified in Form as well as Part Definitions, whereas attributes Left Parts and Right Parts can be specified only in the Part Definition.

Syntax

Example:

Top Parts    : ACLSFixedLed, TDSAutoDetails

Bottom Parts : PJR Sign

Left Parts   : EXPINV Declaration

Right Parts  : STKVCH Address

In cases where the Top Part or Bottom Part is specified within a Form Definition, it occupies the Top Section or Bottom Section of the Form respectively, keeping in account the Space Top and Space Bottom of the Form. The attribute Space Bottom impacts the Bottom Parts by moving them from the bottom, in order to leave appropriate spaces. Similarly, Space Top impacts the Top Parts by moving them from the top, in order to leave appropriate spaces. The Bottom Parts/Bottom Lines start printing from bottom to the top of the Form. If Height is specified at the Form Definition, then the Bottom Parts/Lines start printing from the bottommost line within the specified Height.

In cases where the Left Part or Right Part is specified within a Part Definition, it occupies the Left Section or Right Section of the Part respectively, keeping in view the Space Left and Space Right of the Part. The attribute Space Right impacts the Right Parts by moving them from Right, in order to leave appropriate spaces. Similarly, Space Left impacts the Left Parts by moving them from

Left, in order to leave appropriate spaces. If the intent is to have multiple parts printed horizontally, then the Part Attribute Vertical should be set to NO. In cases where the Vertical Attribute is set to YES, all the parts within this part will be printed vertically. In such cases, the Left Parts will position at the Top of the Screen/Page and the Right Parts at the Bottom of the Screen/Page.

In cases where the Top Part or Bottom Part is specified within a Part Definition, it occupies the Top Section or Bottom Section of the Part respectively, keeping Space Top and Space Bottom of the Part in account. The attribute Space Bottom impacts the Bottom Parts by moving them from the bottom in order to leave appropriate space. Similarly, the attribute Space Top impacts the Top Parts by moving them from the Top in order to leave appropriate spaces. If the intent is to have multiple parts printed vertically, then the Part Attribute Vertical should be set to Yes. If the Vertical Attribute is set to No, then all the parts within this part will be printed horizontally. In such circumstances, the Top Parts will be positioned at the Left of the Screen/Page while the Bottom Parts are positioned at the Right of the Screen/Page.

Both Parts and Lines are not allowed together within a Part. They are mutually exclusive entities. Either Parts or Lines can be specified at a time, within a Part.

These attributes are used to place different lines at different positions in a particular Part Definition. The attributes Top Lines and Bottom Lines can be specified in a Part Definition. However, the attributes Top Lines/Lines can only be used in a Line and Field Definition.

Syntax

Example:

Top Lines    : Form SubTitle, CMP Action

Bottom Lines : VCHTAXBILL Total

Attribute Top Lines is used to place lines at the top, while attribute Bottom Lines is used to place lines at the bottom of the Part, with respect to the Height specified within the Part definition.

The attribute Left Fields can be specified in both Line and Field Definition whereas the attribute Right Fields can only be specified in a Line Definition.

Syntax

Example:

Left Fields  : Medium Prompt, Chg SVDate, Chg VchDate

Right Fields : Trader TypeofPurchase, Trader QtyUtilisedTotal

The attribute Left Fields and Right Fields specified in a Line Definition, places the fields at their respective position. Left Fields starts printing from the Left to the Right of the Line, while Right Fields starts printing from the Right to the Left of the Line. If Repeat Attribute is used in a Line, specification of Right Fields is not allowed, as by default, the Repeat Attribute places the Field specified to the Right of the Screen/Page.

The attribute Field is used to create fields containing one or more fields, like Group fields. We can create multiple fields inside a single field, using the Fields attribute. The attribute Fields is useful when multiple Fields are required to be repeated in a Line. For example, in case of a Trial Balance, two Fields, i.e., Debits and Credits, are required to be repeated together if a new column is added by a user. The new column thus added, should again contain both these fields, i.e., Debit and Credit. In a Line Definition, only one Field can be repeated. So, a Field is required within a Field if more than one field requires to be repeated.

The attribute Align aligns the contents of a Field as specified. The permissible values for this attribute are Left, Center, Right, Justified and Prompt.

Syntax

Example:

Align : Right

Horizontal Align sets the alignment of the Form or Part horizontally while Vertical align sets the alignment of the Form vertically.

Syntax

Example

Horizontal Align : Right

Vertical Align : Bottom

The alignment of the Form or Part across the width of the page is set by the attribute Horizontal Align. The default alignment of the Form and Part is in the Centre of the screen, and on the Left on printing. Depending on the width of the Form and page, the Form or Part will be displayed or printed, leaving equal amount of space on the left and right of the Form.

The alignment of the Form across the height of the page is set by the attribute Vertical Align. The default alignment of the Form is Centre of the screen, and Top on print. Depending on the height of the form and page, the form will be displayed or printed, leaving equal amount of space on the top and bottom of the form.

This attribute is used in a Field Definition to allow increased spacing between the characters of the string value specified in the field. It is used to create titles for the report/columns.

Syntax

Example:

Widespaced : Yes

The Inactive attribute can be used in both a Field definition and a Button definition. When the attribute Inactive is set to YES in a Field definition, the Field loses its content but the size of the Field remains intact. In cases where a Button Definition is used, the Button becomes Inactive.

Syntax

Example:

[Field : TBCrAmount]

Set as   : $ClosingBalance

Inactive : $$IsDr:$ClosingBalance

In this example, the Field TBCrAmount is used to display the Credit Amount of the Ledger in a Trial Balance. When the Ledger Balance is Debit, the amount should not be displayed in the Credit Column but the Width should be utilized to avoid the Debit Field being shifted to the Credit Field. The Credit Totals to be calculated and displayed will also exclude the Debit Amount.

This attribute can be specified in a Part, Line or a Field Definition. Based on the logical condition, this attribute decides whether the contents of the definition should be displayed or not. When this attribute is set to YES, it does not display the contents, but the contents are retained for further processing. In this case, contrary to Inactive, the size of the entire field is reduced to null, but the value is retained.

Syntax

The Invisible attribute, when specified in a Field, denotes that the current field is excluded from all the further processing, based on satisfying a certain condition.

Example:

[Field : Attr Invisible]

Set as    : “Invisible Attribute”

Invisible : Yes

In this example, the Field attribute Invisible is used to display Credit Amount of the Ledger in a Trial Balance. When the Ledger Balance is debit, the amount should not be displayed/printed in the Credit Column and the Width is not utilized allowing the other fields to utilize the space. The Credit Totals being calculated and printed will also exclude the Debit Amount.

In a Report, at least one Part, Line and Field should be visible.

The definition Border determines the type of lines required in a border which can be used by a Part, Line or a Field; which means that this definition can define customized borders for the user. But, it is ideal to use predefined borders, which are part of default TDL, instead of user defined ones, since almost all possible border combinations are already defined in the Default TDL.

Syntax

The Top, Bottom, Left and Right attributes in a Border Definition are used to add appropriate lines which constitute the Border defined. The permissible values for these attributes are:

Thin/Thick : This specifies whether the Line should be thin or thick.

Flush : The border includes the spaces on the Top, Bottom, Left or Right.

Full Length : This ignores the space given at the Top, Bottom, Left or Right and prints the border for the whole length.

Double : It forces double line to be printed. In its absence, single line is assumed.

Example:

[Border : Thin Bottom Right Double]

Bottom : Thin, Flush, Full Length

Right  : Thin, Double

[Field : Total Field]

Set as : $Total

Border : Thin Bottom Right Double

The Color attribute of the Border definition is used to specify the Color required for the border in Display mode. In a Border definition, the attribute Color requires two values to be specified, viz. First value for a Black and White Monitor, and the second for a Color monitor.

[Border : Top Bottom Colored]

Top    : Thin

Bottom : Thin

Color  : “Deep Grey, LeafGreen”

[Field : Total Field]

Set AS : $Total

Border : Top Bottom Colored

This attribute is used to specify the Color required for the border during printing.

[Border : Top Bottom Colored]

Top      : Thin

Bottom   : Thin

Color    : “Deep Grey, Leaf Green”

Print FG : “Leaf Green”

[Field : Total Field]

Set AS   : $Total

Border   : Top Bottom Colored

The definition Style can be used in the Field definition only. This definition determines the appearance of the text being displayed/printed, by using a corresponding font scheme, i.e., Bold, Italic, Point Size, Font Name, etc. The Style attribute in Field Definition is used to format the appearance of the text appearing within the Field, both in Display and Print mode, provided the Print Style attribute is not used within the current Field. The Print Style attribute is used in Field, if the Style required while displaying is different from the Style required while printing.

Syntax

It is a generic Font name supported by the Operating System. A Font is system dependent and we do not have any control over them. One can only select the required fonts from those available.

Example:

[Style : Normal]

Font        : if $$IsWindows then “Arial” else “Helvetica”

Height      : @@NormalSize

[Style : Normal Bold]

Use         : Normal

Bold        : Yes

[Field : Party Name]

Set as      : $PartyLedgerName

Style       : Normal

Print Style : Normal Bold

This attribute should be specified without any measurement since it is always measured in terms of points. It can have value as a fraction, or as a formula that returns a number. One can also grow or shrink the Height by a multiplication factor or percentage.

Example:

[Style: Normal Large]

Use    : Normal

Height : Grow 25%

The attribute Bold can only take logical values/formula. In other words, it can take either a YES or NO. It signifies that the field using this Style should be printed in Bold.

Example:

[Style : Normal Bold Large]

Use  : Normal Large

Bold : Yes

The attribute Italic can only take logical values/formula. In other words, it can be set to either YES or NO. It signifies that the Field using this Style should be printed in Italics.

Example:

[Style : Normal Large Italics]

Use    : Normal Large

Italic : Yes

The definition Color is useful to determine the Foreground and Background Color for a Form, Part, Field or Border, in Display as well as in Print Mode. A Color specification can be done by specifying the RGB Values (the combination of Red, Green and Blue – each value should range from 0 to 255).

Syntax

This is the second way of specifying color. One can specify the RGB value from a palette of 256 colors to obtain the required color, i.e., the values Red, Green and Blue can each range from 0 to 255. This gives the user the option to select from the wide range of 24 bit colors.

Example:

[Color : Pale Leaf Green]

RGB      : 169, 211, 211

[Field : Party Name]

Set as   : $PartyLedgerName

Color    : Pale Leaf Green

Print FG : Pale Leaf Green

The attribute Background is used to set the Background Color of a Form, Part, or a Field in Display mode. The Print BG attribute is used to set the Background Color of a Form, Part, or a Field in Print mode.

Syntax

Example:

[Form : Salary Detail Configuration]

Background : @@SV_CMPCONFIG

[Part : Party Details]

Background : Red Print BG : Green

[Field : Party Ledger Name]

Background : Yellow

Print BG   : Red

The attribute Format is used in the Field definition. It determines the Format of the value being displayed/printed within the Field.

Syntax

The value for the attribute Format varies, based on the data type of the Field.

Example:

[Field : My Rate of Excise]

Set AS : $BasicRateOfInvoiceTax

Format : “No Comma, Percentage”

Example:

[Field : Voucher Date]

Set AS : $Date

Format : “Short Date”

Example:

[Field : Bill Amount]

Set AS : $Amount

Format : “No Zero, No Symbol”

[Field : Bill Qty]

Set as : $BilledQty

Format : “No Zero, Short Form, No Compact”

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Apa Formatting And Citation (7Th Ed.)

The 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual provides guidelines for clear communication, citing sources, and formatting documents. This article focuses on paper formatting.

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Throughout your paper, you need to apply the following APA format guidelines:

Set page margins to 1 inch on all sides.

Double-space all text, including headings.

Indent the first line of every paragraph 0.5 inches.

Use an accessible font (e.g., Times New Roman 12pt., Arial 11pt., or Georgia 11pt.).

Include a page number on every page.

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Our APA formatting experts can help you to format your paper according to APA guidelines. They can help you with:

Margins, line spacing, and indentation

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How to set up APA format (with template)

APA alphabetization guidelines Let an expert format your paper

Our APA formatting experts can help you to format your paper according to APA guidelines. They can help you with:

Margins, line spacing, and indentation

Font and headings

Running head and page numbering

And more

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Student papers and professional papers have slightly different guidelines regarding the title page, abstract, and running head. Our template is available in Word and Google Docs format for both versions.

Page header

In an APA Style paper, every page has a page header. For student papers, the page header usually consists of just a page number in the page’s top-right corner. For professional papers intended for publication, it also includes a running head.

A running head is simply the paper’s title in all capital letters. It is left-aligned and can be up to 50 characters in length. Longer titles are abbreviated.

Headings and subheadings

APA headings have five possible levels. Heading level 1 is used for main sections such as “Methods” or “Results”. Heading levels 2 to 5 are used for subheadings. Each heading level is formatted differently.

Want to know how many heading levels you should use, when to use which heading level, and how to set up heading styles in Word or Google Docs? Then check out our in-depth article on APA headings.

Title page

The title page is the first page of an APA Style paper. There are different guidelines for student and professional papers.

Both versions include the paper title and author’s name and affiliation. The student version includes the course number and name, instructor name, and due date of the assignment. The professional version includes an author note and running head.

For more information on writing a striking title, crediting multiple authors (with different affiliations), and writing the author note, check out our in-depth article on the APA title page.

Abstract

The abstract is a 150–250 word summary of your paper. An abstract is usually required in professional papers, but it’s rare to include one in student papers (except for longer texts like theses and dissertations).

The abstract is placed on a separate page after the title page. At the top of the page, write the section label “Abstract” (bold and centered). The contents of the abstract appear directly under the label. Unlike regular paragraphs, the first line is not indented. Abstracts are usually written as a single paragraph without headings or blank lines.

Directly below the abstract, you may list three to five relevant keywords. On a new line, write the label “Keywords:” (italicized and indented), followed by the keywords in lowercase letters, separated by commas.

Table of contents

APA Style does not provide guidelines for formatting the table of contents. It’s also not a required paper element in either professional or student papers. If your instructor wants you to include a table of contents, it’s best to follow the general guidelines.

Place the table of contents on a separate page between the abstract and introduction. Write the section label “Contents” at the top (bold and centered), press “Enter” once, and list the important headings with corresponding page numbers.

Reference page

The APA reference page is placed after the main body of your paper but before any appendices. Here you list all sources that you’ve cited in your paper (through APA in-text citations). APA provides guidelines for formatting the references as well as the page itself.

Creating APA Style references

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Formatting the reference page

Write the section label “References” at the top of a new page (bold and centered). Place the reference entries directly under the label in alphabetical order.

Finally, apply a hanging indent, meaning the first line of each reference is left-aligned, and all subsequent lines are indented 0.5 inches.

Tables and figures

Tables and figures are presented in a similar format. They’re preceded by a number and title and followed by explanatory notes (if necessary).

Use bold styling for the word “Table” or “Figure” and the number, and place the title on a separate line directly below it (in italics and title case). Try to keep tables clean; don’t use any vertical lines, use as few horizontal lines as possible, and keep row and column labels concise.

Keep the design of figures as simple as possible. Include labels and a legend if needed, and only use color when necessary (not to make it look more appealing).

Check out our in-depth article about table and figure notes to learn when to use notes and how to format them.

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What Is Netback In Oil And Gas?

Netback

Used to assess oil and gas company efficiency and profitability

Written by

CFI Team

Published January 14, 2023

Updated July 7, 2023

What is Netback?

Netback is a calculation used to assess companies specifically in the oil and gas industry. This benchmark considers the revenue generated from the sale of oil and gas, and nets it against specific costs required to bring the product to market. Often this is shown as a per barrel measurement. It essentially shows how much the company retains from the sale of a single barrel of oil or oil byproducts. Netback per barrel can be used to assess company efficiency over time or to compare a company to its competitors.

Quick Summary

Netback is a benchmark used in the oil and gas industry to assess the profitability and efficiency of a company based on the price, production, transportation, and selling of their products

This benchmark is calculated by subtracting royalties, transportation, and other operating costs from revenue

Netback/barrels of oil/byproducts is a useful metric for assessing a company over time and comparing the company to its competitors

This benchmark can be found in the management discussion and analysis section of a company’s annual report

How is Netback Calculated?

Netback is calculated by starting with revenue and subtracting the costs of production, transportation, marketing, and other costs of bringing the oil and gas to market.:

Netback = Oil and Gas Revenue – Realized Loss on Financial Derivatives – Royalties – Operating Expenses – Transportation

Netback is often calculated as a per barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) instead, giving a more useful figure to assess the company by:

Netback/BOE = Price – Realized Loss on Financial Derivatives/BOE – Royalties/BOE – Operating Expense/BOE – Transportation/BOE

Why is Netback Important?

Netback is an important benchmark because it is a very useful measure for assessing a company without the bias of non-operating, financing, or other costs. Calculating this metric essentially tells an analyst how efficient the company is at producing and selling its oil and gas products. Taking this number per unit of barrels of oil equivalent gives a type of efficiency ratio. By monitoring netback/BOE over time, the efficiency of the company’s production, transporting and selling can be evaluated. A falling netback/BOE might indicate issues that should be further looked into.

Netback/BOE is also a very useful measure to look at when comparing different companies. Depending on the value, an analyst will be able to judge whether a company can more efficiently produce and market oil, allowing them to retain more profits from the sale of each barrel of oil. A higher netback/BOE will also show how able a company is at dealing with price volatility in the market. A higher netback/BOE suggests that in times of falling prices, the company would still be able to remain profitable.

Netback, however, is not a standardized equation. Different companies may calculate netback and netback/BOE using various methods and may include or exclude different items. Netback/BOE can still be used to look at changes over time for a specific company, however, when comparing the netback of competitors it is important to adjust the equation to ensure they are comparable values.

Netback – Worked Example

Let us consider an example of calculating the netback of a company. Say a company has oil and gas revenues of $11,000,000. They pay royalties of $300,000, transportation costs of $500,000, and have operating expenses of $3,800,000. If they sold 275,000 barrels of oil equivalents, what is their operating netback in dollars, and in dollars per barrel?

To calculate the operating netback, we start with revenues and subtract the costs of bringing the product to market:

Netback = $11,000,000 – $300,000 – $500,000 – $3,800,000 = $6,400,000

Here we see that the total netback is $6,400,000. To make this number more useful for analysts, netback per barrel can be calculated. Netback per barrels of oil can start with price, and each cost can be thought of as a per barrel cost. However, to calculate netback/BOE we can also simply divide the netback by the number of barrels:

Netback/BOE = $6,400,00/275,000 BOE = $23.27/BOE

The calculation for netback is generally found in the management discussion and analysis of a company’s annual report. This benchmark is most often shown in a table. Below illustrates what would generally be seen for a company:

Additional Resource

Thank you for reading CFI’s article on the netback benchmark. If you would like to learn more about related concepts, check out CFI’s other resources:

What Is @Escaping In Swift

In Swift, a closure marked with @escaping means the closure can outlive the scope of the block of code it is passed into.

In a sense, @escaping tells the closure to “stay up even after the surrounding function is gone”.

But why is this useful?

Let’s say you are performing an (asynchronous) network request such that:

Function f() fetches information from a web page.

After completion, a closure function g() runs inside f().

The only way to make this possible is to pass the function g() as an escaping closure into the function f().

This tells the Swift compiler after calling f() to keep g() alive to wait for the network request to complete and the response to arrive.

In this guide, we are going to take a look at non-escaping closures and escaping closures in detail.

Also, you are going to see a demonstrative example to support understanding.

Closures in Swift

In Swift, closures are non-escaping by default.

If you pass a non-escaping closure into a function, it is called right away.

The life of the non-escaping closure ends when the function call finishes.

As a result, there will be no trace of that closure.

This is the default behavior.

Let’s see a simple example of a non-escaping closure and its behavior.

Please repeat the actions in this guide in your own code editor to truly understand what happens.

Let’s write a function add that takes:

Integers a and b

A closure called action

Right after summing the numbers up, the function add calls the action.

var sum = a + b action(sum) }

Let’s call this function with integers 10 and 20 and a closure that prints the result into the console:

add(a: 10, b: 20, { res in print(res) })

Output:

30

As you can see, the result of adding 10 and 20 gets printed to the console right away.

However, this default behavior of a closure can be an issue when dealing with asynchronous code.

In an asynchronous function, you might not want to execute the closure right away. Instead, you want to wait for the asynchronous task to complete before calling a function.

This is where escaping comes in handy.

@escaping: Escaping Closures in Swift

Escaping makes it possible for the closure to outlive the function surrounding it.

This means the closure can stay around to catch a network request-response that arrives later.

To make a closure escaping, use the @escaping keyword modifier in front of the closure type.

Let’s see an example of how using a non-escaping closure fails in the context of an async function, and how to fix it using an escaping closure.

Example

Say you are using an app to message your friend and you ask them “How are you?”.

As you know, it always takes a while to get a response.

For the sake of demonstration, let’s say it takes 2 seconds for your friend to reply back.

Let’s simulate this conversation in Swift code.

To mimic this behavior, you need a function that takes a response handler closure as a parameter.

This response handler is simply responsible for taking care of handling your friend’s response that arrives 2 seconds later.

Here is how it looks in code:

print(“Hey, how are you?”)

DispatchQueue.main.asyncAfter(deadline: .now() + 2, execute: { responseHandler(“Hi, I’m doing really good.”) })

print(“Responding takes a while…”) }

howAreYou({ friendResponse in print(friendResponse) })

But this code causes a compiler error.

This is because you are trying to execute the responseHandler function 2 seconds after the howAreYou function has executed.

This is a problem because 2 seconds after calling the howAreYou, there is no trace of that function or the responseHandler closure.

Thus the responseHandler never has a chance to handle your friend’s response. It gets destroyed before the response even arrives.

The Swift compiler is clever. It knows this is about to happen. Thus it shows you an error and does not run the code.

To make it work, you should make the responseHandler closure outlive the context of the howAreYou function to see the response arrive.

To do this, you need to turn it into an escaping closure:

print(“Hey, how are you?”)

DispatchQueue.main.asyncAfter(deadline: .now() + 2, execute: { responseHandler(“Hi, I’m doing really good.”) })

print(“Responding takes a while…”) }

howAreYou({ friendResponse in print(friendResponse) })

This way you tell the program that the responseHandler is an asynchronous closure and you want it to stay alive even after howAreYou call completes.

Now the compiler error is gone and the code works as intended.

It is as simple as that!

Now your responseHandler closure is able to show your friend’s response as it can out-live the howAreYou function’s scope!

But this example is quite arbitrary.

The next logical question is when is an escaping closure actually useful.

Let’s take a look.

When Are Escaping Closures Actually Useful

Escaping closures are useful whenever you want the closure to be able to outlive the function’s scope from where you are calling it.

A great example is when dealing with network requests.

When fetching data over a server, it takes a while for a network request to complete, and thus, the response to arrive.

To perform actions on the response, you need to wait for it to arrive.

To make a closure wait for the data, it has to be able to outlive the function’s scope where it is called.

To do this, you need to use an escaping closure.

To perform actions on the response, you need to

Conclusion

Today you learned what is @escaping in Swift.

In short, @escaping is a keyword modifier that turns a closure into an escaping closure.

An escaping closure is useful in asynchronous tasks when the closure has to wait for the function to complete.

When you use an escaping closure, the closure outlives the function in which it is called. In other words, when the function completes, the closure stays up and keeps waiting for the response.

Thanks for reading. Happy coding!

Further Reading

50 Swift Interview Questions

What Is Exception In Python?

An exception is an event, which occurs during the execution of a program that disrupts the normal flow of the program’s instructions. In general, when a Python script encounters a situation that it cannot cope with, it raises an exception. An exception is a Python object that represents an error.

When a Python script raises an exception, it must either handle the exception immediately otherwise it terminates and quits.

Handling an exception

If you have some suspicious code that may raise an exception, you can defend your program by placing the suspicious code in a try: block. After the try: block, include an except: statement, followed by a block of code which handles the problem as elegantly as possible.

Syntax

Here is simple syntaxof try….except…else blocks −

try:    You do your operations here;    ...................... except ExceptionI:    If there is ExceptionI, then execute this block. except ExceptionII:    If there is ExceptionII, then execute this block.    ...................... else:    If there is no exception then execute this block.

Here are few important points about the above-mentioned syntax −

A single try statement can have multiple except statements. This is useful when the try block contains statements that may throw different types of exceptions.

You can also provide a generic except clause, which handles any exception.

After the except clause(s), you can include an else-clause. The code in the else-block executes if the code in the try: block does not raise an exception.

The else-block is a good place for code that does not need the try: block’s protection.

Example

This example opens a file, writes content in the, file and comes out gracefully because there is no problem at all −

 Live Demo

#!/usr/bin/python try:    fh = open("testfile", "w")    fh.write("This is my test file for exception handling!!") except IOError:    print "Error: can't find file or read data" else:    print "Written content in the file successfully"    fh.close() Output

This produces the following result −

Written content in the file successfully Example

This example tries to open a file where you do not have write permission, so it raises an exception −

 Live Demo

#!/usr/bin/python try:    fh = open("testfile", "r")    fh.write("This is my test file for exception handling!!") except IOError:    print "Error: can't find file or read data" else:    print "Written content in the file successfully" Output

This produces the following result −

Error: can't find file or read data The except Clause with No Exceptions

You can also use the except statement with no exceptions defined as follows −

try:    You do your operations here;    ...................... except:    If there is any exception, then execute this block.    ...................... else:    If there is no exception then execute this block.

This kind of a try-except statement catches all the exceptions that occur. Using this kind of try-except statement is not considered a good programming practice though, because it catches all exceptions but does not make the programmer identify the root cause of the problem that may occur.

The except Clause with Multiple Exceptions

You can also use the same except statement to handle multiple exceptions as follows −

try:    You do your operations here;    ...................... except(Exception1[, Exception2[,...ExceptionN]]]):    If there is any exception from the given exception list,    then execute this block.    ...................... else:    If there is no exception then execute this block. The try-finally Clause

You can use a finally: block along with a try: block. The finally block is a place to put any code that must execute, whether the try-block raised an exception or not. The syntax of the try-finally statement is this −

try:    You do your operations here;    ......................    Due to any exception, this may be skipped. finally:    This would always be executed.    ......................

You cannot use else clause as well along with a finally clause.

Example

 Live Demo

#!/usr/bin/python try:    fh = open("testfile", "w")    fh.write("This is my test file for exception handling!!") finally:    print "Error: can't find file or read data" Output

If you do not have permission to open the file in writing mode, then this will produce the following result −

Error: can't find file or read data

Same example can be written more cleanly as follows −

Example

 Live Demo

#!/usr/bin/python try:    fh = open("testfile", "w")    try:       fh.write("This is my test file for exception handling!!")    finally:       print "Going to close the file"       fh.close() except IOError:    print "Error: can't find file or read data"

When an exception is thrown in the try block, the execution immediately passes to the finally block. After all the statements in the finally block are executed, the exception is raised again and is handled in the except statements if present in the next higher layer of the try-except statement.

What Is Orm In Digital Marketing?

Object-relational mapping (ORM) is a technique that allows developers to easily interact with databases and map objects from the application layer to data stored in a database. ORM provides an abstraction layer between application code and the underlying database technology, allowing for easier manipulation of data without writing complex SQL queries.

It also eliminates tedious manual coding by allowing developers to write less code while still accessing all of the features available within their chosen database system. By using ORM, developers can focus more on building applications quickly and efficiently instead of spending time writing out tedious SQL statements.

Brand Building − A strong SEO strategy allows brands to build trust with their audiences by providing quality content relevant to their target market audience as well as building authority by becoming a trusted source within their industry space. Additionally, effective SEO tactics promote brand consistency across all channels so potential customers know what to expect from interactions.

What Are the Different Types of ORM?

Object-relational mapping (ORM) is a way to map between the data in an object-oriented programming language and the data stored in a relational database. There are several different types of ORM that can be used to facilitate this type of mapping.

Some of these include Active Record, Data Mapper, Table Data Gateway, Unit Of Work, and Identity Map. Active Record is an ORM that keeps track of persistent objects by storing them as rows in a database table. It simplifies tasks such as saving new objects or retrieving existing ones from the database by providing simple accessor methods for each attribute stored on the object itself.

Data Mapper provides loose coupling between domain objects and their underlying representations in different stores like databases or XML files. In this approach, all persistence logic lives outside the domain objects themselves thus allowing them to focus more on modeling business logic rather than managing data storage details.

Table Data Gateway acts as an interface between application layer code and a specific set of tables within a relational database system thus creating another level of abstraction above basic SQL queries making it easier for developers to work with complex databases without having expert knowledge about them.

How to Implement an Effective ORM Strategy?

Once you’ve decided to implement an ORM strategy, the next step is to determine how best to structure it. First and foremost, you need to ensure that all of your data is properly organized for easy retrieval. This includes creating a system of classifications, assigning categories or labels to different pieces of data, and making sure that each piece has its own unique identifier (such as a serial number). Additionally, you’ll need to create rules around how your team will access the information in order for it to be accurately tracked and maintained over time.

It’s important for any new user to understand exactly what they can do with the system before they start using it so there are no surprises down the road when complex queries come into play.

Finally, part of an effective ORM strategy involves regularly reviewing existing policies and procedures in order to make sure they’re still relevant and up-to-date with current standards in terms of accuracy and efficiency levels desired by your team.

Best Practices for ORM in Digital Marketing

In order to effectively implement an ORM strategy, organizations must understand the benefits and challenges associated with this type of system. Benefits include improved data accuracy and consistency, increased efficiency in operations, enhanced customer experience, and cost savings from reducing manual processes.

Challenges include a lack of standardization across different systems and services providers, ensuring compliance with governing regulations such as GDPR or HIPAA, managing user access control policies for security reasons, and maintaining a sound change management process to ensure changes are applied correctly throughout the organization’s IT infrastructure.

To address these challenges organizations should focus on developing clear objectives for their ORM strategy that will enable them to meet their organizational goals while also adhering to industry standards.

Additionally, implementing an effective governance framework is essential in order to ensure the consistent application of rules across all systems within the organization’s IT environment. Finally monitoring performance metrics can help detect potential issues before they become serious problems by helping organizations quickly identify any areas where improvements could be made.

Pros and Cons of ORM in Digital Marketing

Object-relational mapping (ORM) is a powerful digital marketing tool that can help businesses quickly and easily access data from multiple sources, allowing them to create more accurate customer profiles.

ORM enables marketers to identify potential customers who are likely to be interested in their products or services and target their campaigns more effectively. However, there are also some drawbacks associated with using ORM for digital marketing.

Another downside of using an ORM system for digital marketing is that it can be difficult to modify or customize individual campaigns due to its rigid structure.

As such, any changes will need to be made across all campaigns instead of just targeting specific audiences – this could increase complexity costs as well as diminishing returns on investments if not managed carefully.

Conclusion

ORM is an effective tool to ensure that your brand’s online presence remains positive and helps you stay ahead of potential issues. With ORM, businesses can make sure they are represented positively in the eyes of their target audience which will ultimately lead to more customers and higher profits.

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