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Teachers in grades K to 2 can use rubrics to guide students to plan, monitor, and evaluate their learning.

Research from the Education Endowment Foundation finds that if students develop and apply metacognitive strategies, there’s potential for a large positive impact on learning. Planning, monitoring, and evaluating are metacognitive strategies that guide students to think about what they need to do for their learning, check how well they’re doing, and then evaluate the results.

How can teachers harness the learning power of metacognition in younger learners, ages 5 to 7? We can collaborate with students to guide them to develop awareness of metacognition strategies and their impact on learning and apply these strategies throughout their learning careers. Using a rubric, often confined to the assessment part of learning, can support the metacognitive strategy of planning, monitoring, and evaluating.

We can use rubrics before, during, and after a learning experience. When we utilize this common classroom tool more effectively and more extensively, the metacognitive strategy of planning, monitoring, and evaluating will become embedded in the learning process.

In the first example below, we guide young learners to plan for learning. Imagine, for a unit on buildings, that children have been learning about traditional homes from around the world, thinking about why they’re the shape they are and why certain materials were used. To develop design technology skills, they’re tasked with designing and creating a model, selecting from a range of construction materials. The criterion for success of the model (task specific) is that the real-life materials can be identified from the model. The rubric supports skills development—in this instance, being able to explore ways of constructing a design.

To help make the rubric accessible and promote planning for learning, the teacher displays the rubric and poses questions related to skills development at the mastery level. Together the teacher and students can find the answers in the rubric.

Mastery level indicators

I can:

Try out different tools and materials for making parts of a design

Keep on trying when I am making parts for a design in different ways

Think about how well things went with the planning and making of my design

Talk about how one way of making the design might be better than another

(The above rubric text is reproduced by permission from the International Curriculum Association.)

Teacher questions

To master this skill:

Will you just try one way of making your model? (No)

Will you test different materials/media to see which is best? (Yes)

Will you demonstrate resilience and keep trying when things don’t work out how you want? (Yes)

Will you talk to other learners to further develop your ideas? (Yes)

The children then share with a partner how they’ll approach designing and making their model. In this way, they’re verbalizing their plan for learning and applying a metacognitive strategy.

The teacher can also guide monitoring by pausing learners partway through the activity and asking the same questions but in the past tense. Here are some examples:

Have you tried more than one way of making your model?  

Have you tested different materials?

Have you been resilient even when things didn’t work out?

Have you talked to other learners to further develop your ideas? 

To develop awareness of the metacognitive strategy, ask the children if seeing the rubric and discussing their plans helped them with their learning. This process of reflection promotes knowledge of metacognitive strategies and their impact on learning.

Using rubrics for assessing learning is a common classroom practice; using rubrics for evaluating shifts the focus from assessing the outcome to improving future learning. In the same unit of learning about buildings, children can develop their skills as historians. During a field trip around the local area looking at municipal, industrial, and commercial buildings, children can practice the skill of selecting and recording relevant information about the past.

This may involve taking notes and photographs, recording interviews, or interpreting maps and artifacts. Each child can then apply these skills to share the history of their own home with a peer. Children could record themselves talking about their home and the sources they used and then evaluate using a rubric like the one below—for example, highlighting what they’ve shown they can do. Evaluating will then feed into planning as learners consider what they could do more of or do differently next time they are being a historian.

Mastery level indicators

I can:

Talk about how one type of historical information is better or worse than another

List the information that has helped me with my history learning

Look carefully at an object from the past to help my research

Compare two sources to find what is the same or different

Match information to research questions and ignore anything that’s not useful

Developing level indicators

I can:

Explain why a picture is a helpful type of information or not

Decide which types of information will help me to find out about an aspect of the past

Find the answers to questions by carefully looking at the source

Write down or draw a picture of any helpful information about the past that I have found

Beginning level indicators

I can:

Decide which pictures will help me to find out about an aspect of the past

Choose sources that will help me to answer a question

Find information in a given source to answer a question

(The above rubric text is reproduced by permission from the International Curriculum Association.) 

The examples above are just one way to embed metacognition into learning while using rubrics in more diverse ways.

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Why Podcasting And Is It Too Late To Start Podcasting As A Marketing Strategy?

Are you a podcast listener? If you answered no, then you are part of a shrinking group. Listeners in developed countries and the majority of Americans listen to podcasts at most once a week, while many listeners tune into their favorite shows daily.

Millions of smart marketers have tapped the podcasting channel to tap into marketing opportunities due to its popularity. They may start a podcast for their company, interviewing industry professionals and discussing new products. Sometimes they use it to promote their brand’s content library and increase its popularity.

Income potential is incredible, no matter what. You could also get millions of more visitors to your website if you have a large podcast listening audience. This will allow you to gain new fans and attract new customers.

Here’s the problem: Podcasting is already saturated with content creators and hosts. Podcasting is not going to stop growing in the same way it has over the past decade.

Also read: 7 Best Woocommerce Plugins to boost your Store you must know

Why Podcasting?

Why podcasting? Why is this strategy so special and appealing?

Potential audience size. Podcasts are listened to by hundreds of millions of people daily. You will have a strong listenership that you can use to market your business if you can tap even a fraction of this audience.

Flexibility in topic selection. There is no set of rules for what podcasts you can or cannot do. You are not restricted by any platform regulations (for most of the time). This means that you can speak and do what you want.

Scale potential. With a podcast that is popular and has a loyal following, it’s possible to quickly scale up without spending more money. Without having to change your core operations, you have the potential to increase your audience’s size. This means that you can continue making more money without spending more.

Content diversification benefits. Podcasting can be used to diversify content. Although content marketing strategies tend to focus on writing, this is not necessarily a problem. However, if you want to achieve better results and reach more people it’s important to include audio streams such as podcasting, video marketing, image creation, and other media like audio streaming.

Podcast interviews and networking. You might be able to interview other podcasters within your niche if your show is getting more attention. The cross-marketing potential for your podcast is virtually limitless.

Also read: How to Calculate Your Body Temperature with an iPhone Using Smart Thermometer

Why is it “too late” to raise concerns?

Why are people so concerned about podcasting? These benefits are going to disappear.

It’s not exactly true, but there are serious threats.

Podcasts are a fad. Podcasts are gaining popularity rapidly, becoming a common part of modern life. Is this trend going to continue? Will it continue to grow? Is this a temporary phenomenon or was the explosive growth a temporary fad? Podcasts may be on the verge of losing popularity in the short term if this is the case.

The early risers. Some podcasts benefited from being ahead. Today’s most popular podcasts are those that began before podcasts became a popular medium. It could be difficult to reach enough people without the initial popularity wave.

Competitors established. There are millions upon millions of podcasts that have been successful, but many more that have failed or are in decline. You’ll need to build trust with customers and create new businesses. You’ll also be competing against people around the world, many of whom have more experience and larger audiences. This view suggests that podcasting is not a viable marketing option.

Uniquely Defining Your Podcast

Also read: Top 6 Tips to Stay Focused on Your Financial Goals

These are just a few of the many ways you can achieve it.

Topic novelty. You can choose to write about a topic no one else has written about or a topic that is not being covered by most authorities. Although it can be difficult to find something new, you will have an easy way of standing out if you do.

Targeting niche demographics. You could also cover a topic that isn’t being covered by other podcasters. You could, for example, target teenagers and retirees rather than adults of middle age.

Entertainment value. A distinctive tone of voice, or adopting a sarcastic tone could make your podcast both entertaining and informative. You’ll attract more listeners if you have a distinctive personality or something truly entertaining.

Innovation in the genre. You might also consider podcasting as an option. Podcasting can be done with monologues, interviews, or dramatic readings. You might try something different – tap into a market that has yet to be discovered.

Is it too late?

What’s the bottom line? Is it too late to start your podcast?

Know what you’re getting into. Podcasting is a new and exciting medium that has been growing in popularity. There is nothing you can do to change that. It’s not too late to use podcasting as a marketing channel.

Be aware of what you are getting yourself into. Be aware of what you are about to face. What are your biggest competitors in this market? What are the most important things to your target audience? What is the cost of running your podcast? Can you make enough to pay for it?

Be different. It can be difficult to make your podcast unique and valuable, especially with so many competitors. You have to find a different way.

Reduce your dependence and spending. It shouldn’t take long to reduce your expenses in the beginning stages of developing your podcast. You can easily create remote setups for voice records. Diversifying your marketing strategies is a smart idea. This will ensure that you are not too dependent on anyone’s channel or approach.

Also read: The Five Best Free Cattle Record Keeping Apps & Software For Farmers/Ranchers/Cattle Owners

Is it too late?

What’s the bottom line? Is it too late to start your podcast?

Know what you’re getting into. Podcasting is a new and exciting medium that has been growing in popularity. There is nothing you can do to change that. It’s not too late to use podcasting as a marketing channel.

Be aware of what you are getting yourself into. Be aware of what you are about to face. What are your biggest competitors in this market? What are the most important things to your target audience? What is the cost of running your podcast? Can you make enough to pay for it?

Be different. It can be difficult to make your podcast unique and valuable, especially with so many competitors. You have to find a different way.

Reduce your dependence and spending. It shouldn’t take long to reduce your expenses in the beginning stages of developing your podcast. You can easily create remote setups for voice records. Diversifying your marketing strategies is a smart idea. This will ensure that you are not too dependent on anyone’s channel or approach.

Podcasting is still one of the most cost-effective and accessible content marketing strategies. You should be able to get your brand to succeed as long as you have a plan and a flexible mind.

Intent 3.0: Using Intent Data For Gtm Strategy

Intent 3.0: Using Intent Data for GTM Strategy Fiona O’Connor

Senior Content Marketing Manager

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Like with many new B2B solutions, early adoption of purchase intent data has depended on broad tactical use cases. Then as providers and users become more comfortable, they begin to push new boundaries. We’ve seen this with intent too, where certain offerings can provide significant productivity gains to Sales. Now we’re entering a phase where the richest sources are showing real benefits in strategic situations that can impact the go-to-market (GTM) end-to-end.

Of course, intent data offers different benefits depending on how it’s made, how it’s sourced and how you put it to use. We define purchase intent data as behavioral data that must be able to guide GTM teams first to significantly more active demand than they could otherwise see, and then, very precisely to specific people whose behaviors have signaled an interest in buying a given product.

In this blog, we’ll discuss how use cases of intent data have evolved and explore this new phase of using intent data.

Intent 1.0: More efficient ad targeting

Real purchase intent data can show you which of your target accounts, as well as who within them are conducting research. Not only can you see that they’re active, but also specifically what topics are of interest to these buyers. With this deep level of insight to buyer behavior, it’s not surprising that one of the first activations of intent data (and still one of the most common today) centered around better ad targeting. This is what we call Intent 1.0. With purchase intent data, teams use the behavior that an account is demonstrating on the web to be more efficient in their ad targeting. They know what accounts are active and can target them accordingly to ensure they’re not wasting valuable ad dollars on accounts that are not in market.

Intent 2.0: More effective marketing and sales

As intent activation continued to evolve, organizations realized that with the right type of intent data, they could go beyond effective ad targeting, to use insights for more personalized outreach. Intent uptake has often started within the marketing organization, but there are powerful use cases for both marketing and sales outreach.

Intent data helps marketers understand what prospects’ interests, needs and challenges are, through the content prospects are consuming. With these insights marketers can provide very personalized offers and specific solutions in their outreach, from email nurture campaigns to virtual events.

For sales, being able to see what accounts are in market allows for smarter prioritization of accounts. And the right intent data goes down to the individual level, so sellers can customize their outreach to the buyers’ exact needs and which of their solutions will best solve a buyers’ pain points.

Intent 3.0: More strategic GTM

Intent 1.0 and 2.0 only scrape the surface in terms of how intent data can be strategically used across your go-to-market. This does require some new thinking about intent – intent data is not just valuable for the individual buyer insights, but as an aggregation of intent signals, intent data can better inform and optimize your go-to-market. This requires moving beyond sales and marketing KPIs to consider how we can optimize strategies across our full go-to-market. Intent 3.0 can help support many different strategic views, including:

Products and features – Product and feature development is an incredibly important part of the go-to-market and if you don’t prioritize effectively as a vendor, you can struggle in your overall execution. Strategic buyer insights from intent data can help inform how to evaluate if your products meet the needs of your buyers and evolve your products to changing buyer needs.

Targeting – Early on in their go-to-market many organizations develop an ideal customer profile to help guide who is likely to buy their product at any given time and how to best engage with them. Intent 3.0 provides necessary insight to accurately develop this profile, from industry and technographics to firmographics.

Content – Every organization needs to develop content to tell a differentiated brand story, to highlight the nuances of their product portfolio, and to showcase their unique value proposition. But this content also needs to actually generate buyer attention if it’s to be effective. Using Intent 3.0, we can see what content is getting the attention of our audience to drive more successful content outputs.

There’s incredible opportunity to move beyond the activation of intent data and use the aggregation of the intent signals to mend breakpoints across the go-to-market. By analyzing foundational attributes – types of content, accounts, users and personas – and applying it to strategic areas like product development, content creation and audience targeting, we can then see the full potential of Intent 1.0 and 2.0 strategies. When you can address breakpoints early in your go-to-market you then maximize your ability to win.

For more insights on how to better activate your intent data, watch Intent Monitoring for Strategic Purposes.

How we can help

As a leading innovator in the intent data field with over two decades of experience helping enterprise tech companies with revenue engine optimization, TechTarget possesses the capabilities and knowledge that more teams like yours rely on for guidance, implementation, execution and optimization every day.

To learn more about the topics introduced here and to get started on or improve upon your own intent data journey, speak to a TechTarget representative today.

A Testing Strategy That Promotes Good Note

By testing students twice, first without their notes and then with them, a high school teacher fosters strong note-taking skills.

How do we encourage students to study for tests and teach them valuable note-taking skills at the same time? If you’re like me, you value careful note-taking, a crucial skill that students will take with them to postsecondary education and the workforce. Yet, many students resist taking notes.

I’ve begun using a new test-taking strategy that I’ve found encourages my high school government students to take comprehensive notes, as well as study for tests. 

Using the learning management system Schoology, my students take their tests twice. The first time, they complete the assessment using only their own brainpower. On the second attempt, however, I allow them to use their notes and then average the scores. This method incentivizes studying and conscientious note-taking. 

The importance of note-taking

In a perfect world, my students would take notes on what they read and heard in class. These notes would be organized and thorough, and successfully identify the main points of the topic covered. The students would then use these notes to study for the test.

We don’t, however, live in a perfect world.

Research indicates that handwritten notes improve retention and understanding. I’ve written before about the importance of taking thoughtful handwritten notes and the reasons why I promote, and sometimes mandate, note-taking. 

With this in mind, I ask my students to use a traditional notebook in my class. Letting students know that they’ll be able to use their notebooks during the test is a great motivator for them to keep orderly and well-maintained notes. They know that the better the notes, the better they’ll do on the assessment.

What’s more, students become more receptive to learning note-taking strategies. When I give lectures and pointers on ways to keep a more useful notebook, students are often eager to listen. After all, they want their notebook to serve them well come test time. 

Setting up the test

Administering my tests using Schoology allows me to modify the settings so that students have two attempts. I also adjust the automatic grading so that the average of the two attempts is taken as the grade.

The bulk of the test consists of matching, multiple choice, and true/false questions. Schoology grades this immediately upon completion. The short-answer and essay questions require my review.

Studying is still key

The term open-notebook test may conjure up thoughts of students frantically copying down the whole textbook and never once stopping to actually learn what they write. The test-averaging method avoids this scenario by requiring students to first take the test sans notebook. They use only the knowledge they’ve acquired through classroom work, homework, and studying. 

Students know that to secure a higher grade, they must first do well on the test using their knowledge alone. This determines their first score.

When students understand that the two test scores will be averaged, as opposed to the highest score being taken, they’re motivated to do well the first time, and they prepare accordingly.

After they’re finished taking the test without notes, I allow the students to use their handwritten notebooks. The repetition of taking the exact test twice also helps them to internalize the material.

Points to remember

Note-taking is a learned skill. Too often teachers tell their class to “take notes.” Kids need to learn how to take good notes. Consider ways to help your students take better notes by doing the following: 

Give a lecture, with examples, of effective note-taking

Grade notes

Provide feedback on notes

Give periodic open-notebook quizzes that will help students get a feel for how to prepare beneficial notes

Use it often or sparingly. Every class is different. Teachers should gauge on a classroom-by-classroom, assessment-by-assessment basis whether this method is appropriate.

I use the test-averaging method for several key assessments I feel would profit the class as a whole.

Each teacher has to judge when this method would be the most useful.

My students know from the start of the semester that they might be able to use notes on tests, but I don’t always tell them for which assessments in particular they’ll have the privilege. 

I’ve taught my subject enough to know that this method works particularly well for a few assessments that ask the students to learn some rather tricky historical details.

Technology is essential. Let your learning management system do the heavy lifting.

I couldn’t employ the test-averaging method without my learning management system. It does the hard work for me. That said, all short-answer, essay, and open-ended questions must be graded by me. 

If you don’t have a learning management system, consider doing this on a short quiz, only periodically. Otherwise, you’ll burden yourself with too much work (you’re essentially doubling your grading).

Think about time. Taking a test twice in a row can be taxing for students, as well as time-consuming. Keep this in mind when creating the test. 

Gauge how much class time you have.

Create a test that allows students enough time to think about questions deeply without having to rush.

Remember that students will be taking the test two times.

I still grade. Not all questions can be answered by a machine.

My tests almost always include subjective short-answer questions. I tell the students that if they’re comfortable with their first response, they need not answer the question again on their second attempt.

However, if they wish to rewrite the question using their notes, I will review and grade each response.

Because of the time constraints of taking the test twice, I eschew lengthy essay questions and incorporate questions that require a paragraph response.

The test-averaging method has been very successful in my class. It’s essentially a test retake. Students, especially those who struggle, benefit from taking certain assessments a second time using their notes.

8 Elements Of A Successful Content Strategy

When it comes to content marketing, everything you do needs to be part of a larger strategy designed to achieve specific targets.

Here’s a look at what that needs to include.

What Is A Content Strategy?

As you probably guessed, a content strategy is a specific set of tactics used in the development and management of content.

It uses various forms of media, including blogs, videos, podcasts, and/or social media posts to achieve specific business ends.

It’s not the same thing as content marketing, but it is your content marketing master plan.

What Are The Anatomical Elements Of A Content Strategy?

Like a marketing octopus, there are eight important appendages to a good marketing strategy.

Let’s run through them in the order you should create them.

1. Goals

A successful content marketing plan always begins with clearly stated goals. This is a stage many people skip, to their own detriment.

Different types of marketing tactics work to achieve different goals, most of which probably corresponds with a step in your sales funnel.

The goal you decide on will determine the type of content and channel for each marketing tactic.

It’s perfectly acceptable to have multiple goals; however, understand that not all content will work for every objective.

Remember, a jack of all trades is a master of none. It’s better to have more specialized content.

 2. Research

Every tactic in your content strategy should be backed by research to justify it. And putting in the work here will save you lots of headaches down the road.

Start by looking into your target audience. What are their demographics? What are their pain points? How can you help?

There are a number of ways to find this information, including mining digital data, sending out surveys, and interviewing customers.

Next, apply this knowledge to your current content and identify where it hits the mark, where it could be stronger, and where it missed completely.

Do keyword research, and identify which phrases you’re ranking highly for and which need work. Be sure to note search intent, volume, and relevancy.

Investigate what your competition is doing. What seems to be working?

For digital marketing purposes, identify which keywords they’re ranking for, who is linking to them, and their social media presence.

3. Targeted Topics

By this point, you should have begun compiling a list of potential ideas and messages you want to share.

Identify which topics are most important to each piece of your strategy and how your new content will help achieve your goal.

To evaluate a topic, determine how it will fit with your organizational goals.

For example, if you’re a camping supplies company seeking to educate consumers about your brand, a blog post on the Top 5 Campfire-Building Mistakes, could draw in curious web searchers.

This will give them familiarity with your brand, though it’s unlikely to sell many sleeping bags. For that, a banner ad with a discount code may be more useful.

Try to approach every topic from new angles.

4. Editorial Calendar

Now, it’s time to identify when you should publish each piece of content.

Some things have clearly defined seasons. For example, no one is buying a Christmas tree in June, but it’s a huge market in December. Others are more loosely defined (e.g., people need new cars year-round).

Figure out the best time to drop each piece of content, as well as a cadence for how often you’ll release new content. This will vary based on your audience and platform, so there are no hard and fast rules.

Be aware that regularly producing and publishing content takes a lot of work. If you don’t have a content calendar to keep everything on track, it’s easy to fall behind.

You should always be working a few months ahead, so you have things in the pipeline ready to go. This gives you more flexibility in case a new opportunity or emergency pops up, as well as minimizes the stress of content creation.

5. Editorial Guidelines

What does your company sound like? Is it professional? Welcoming? Knowledgeable? Funny? Figure out the voice of your organization.

Write down a document explaining it, and distribute it among your content creators, whether they’re in-house or freelancers. This will create a sense of consistency across all pieces of content and all channels.

In this same document, you should outline formatting requirements, including punctuation, heading styles, and style (e.g., AP style). If you’re including visual aspects, make sure you clearly define brand colors, fonts, and logo usage.

Even if they have completely different objectives and distribution, every piece should have a clear relationship with the next.

6. Distribution Channels

You’ve got your content goals, topics and calendar laid out; now, it’s time to decide where you’ll use it.

Identify the platforms you’ll use to tell your story and your processes and objectives for each one.

Where the content will live will often have an impact on its format and cadence, but your goal is to present a consistent brand narrative across all channels.

By outlining your distribution channels, you’re identifying the best platform for each piece of content.

Look for opportunities to cross-post. There’s no reason you can’t share the infographic from your blog on Instagram. That gives you twice the exposure with the same amount of work.

7. Analytics

Just because you have the content created and distributed doesn’t mean you can sit on your laurels.

Now, it’s time to evaluate it and see what’s working, and just as importantly, what’s not. It’s time to dive into the analytics.

Did it work well on one channel, but fail on another? Why did that happen? Is it a different audience or just a lack of exposure?

Google Analytics can be extremely helpful during this step.

8. Key Performance Indicators

This goes hand-in-hand with the previous step; while analyzing content performance, you should find key performance indicators (KPIs) to back it up.

Again, what you measure will depend on the goal.

Some KPIs you might consider are organic web traffic, sales opportunities generated, keyword ranking changes, social shares and engagement, inbound links, and cost-per-lead.

Plan To Succeed

It has been said that even a bad plan is better than no plan at all, so imagine the great results you’ll generate with your strong new content strategy.

Creating this strategy requires some work, but even the simplest organizations, with the smallest marketing budgets, will benefit from using one. And it’s an absolute must for marketing departments with any type of complexity.

Follow the steps listed here, and you’ll create a well-thought-out content strategy that will help you reach your goals.

More Resources:

Featured Image: fizkes/Shutterstock

B. F. Skinner: As A Psychologist

B. F. Skinner Biography

Grace and William Skinner, both lawyers, gave birth to Skinner in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania. Despite having his concerns about damnation dispelled by a Christian instructor, Skinner eventually drifted away from faith altogether and settled on agnosticism. When his younger brother Edward died of a brain bleed at 16, it was devastating to the family. When Skinner decided to fulfill his dream of becoming a writer, he enrolled in Hamilton College in New York. His serious, bookish demeanor made it hard for him to initiate conversations with other students.

Contribution to the Society

Skinner has contributed a lot to the present-day psychological field. One of these contributions is the theory related to behavior. Against the backdrop of psychoanalytic theory and other previous schools of psychology’s inability to establish forecasts that could be verified empirically, Skinner claims that his approach to studying behavior, which he calls “radical behaviorism,” evolved in the early twentieth century. This philosophical viewpoint in behavioral science asserts that individuals’ predictable behaviors can be attributed to the reinforcement they have received in the past. Skinner’s early writing, including his seminal essay The Conduct of Organisms, established the framework for his cognitivist philosophy. Here he presents a systematic analysis of how the natural world might shape human behavior. Skinner spent much time thinking about this issue, even though most human behavior cannot be reduced to a series of real answers reinforced in isolation.

Using “chaining,” Skinner demonstrated how seemingly complicated behaviors might be broken down into a series of simple responses. Scientific studies back up the “chaining” theory, which proposes that one behavior can lead to another by providing the necessary context for it to occur. A discriminative stimulus may also serve as a “conditioned reinforcer” in the context of a classroom setting. There is also the option of using the alarm’s “turn around” light to emphasize the timing of your lever press. We can design more complex chains, such as “noise – turn around – light – press lever – food,” by introducing more stimuli and responses.

Skinner’s Theory on Human Behavior Inventions

B. F. Skinner developed the cumulative recorder while a student at Harvard kept track of reactions in the form of a sloping line. Specifically, Skinner observed that engagement increased after participants got a reward but decreased when no reward was offered and that the outcome significantly impacted how fast the animal responded (as depicted by the slope of the line).

As a result of the cumulative video recorder, Skinner could see how reinforcement time affected response rate. B. F. Skinner utilized this equipment to debunk the ideas of John B. Watson and Ivan Pavlov, which claimed that the stimulus’s proximity conditions an organism’s reaction to a stimulus. Instead, actions are based on how well the response is received. The term “operant behavior” was used by Skinner to describe a certain behavior. B. F. Skinner created this “baby opener” in 1943. The infant tender was an acrylic-fronted cradle that kept the infant warm and cozy. In response to a demand from his spouse for a more secure crib option, Skinner created this device.


“Radical behaviorism” is a term that B. F. Skinner coined to describe his theory. He argued that people’s actions were conditioned and that free will was an illusion. Among Skinner’s most important discoveries and contributions to psychology is the method of operant conditioning (Skinner’s approach to education), reinforcement scheduling as a concept, research frames as a new dependent variable, and the development of a cumulative recorder for keeping tabs on participation rates. Additionally, B. F. Skinner theorized that a person’s emotional state could be interpreted as a propensity to act in a certain fashion. For instance, someone feeling angry toward another person is more likely to act aggressively toward that person, such as by shouting at or physically harming them.

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