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It’s been a little over a week since I received an email with one of those subject headings you never want to see; “sad news,” it began, followed by a name, “Tam Tran”. Inside, was a link to an obituary for Tran and her friend and fellow activist, Cinthya Felix. They were killed on May 15th, in an early morning accident in Maine, when a pickup truck crossed the center divide and hit their car.
Tam Tran was 27. Cinthya Felix was 26. They were living up to their immigrant parents’ hopes for a better life for their children. Both had overcome poverty and language challenges and excelled in high school. They went on to graduate from UCLA — with honors — and were accepted into graduate programs at two of the nation’s top colleges; Tran was pursuing a Ph.D. in American civilization at Brown University; Felix was studying for a Master’s in Public Health at Columbia and hoped to become a doctor.
But, for all their determination and academic success, they knew there was no chance of finding jobs in their fields when they graduated. Tran and Felix were undocumented.
Let’s take a collective breath here. This isn’t about politics; it’s a memorial for two young women, who were leaders for a generation of students facing the same educational barriers, and whose lives were cut short.Out from Underground
I never met them in person, but Tam Tran and I emailed often two years ago, when my graduate students at UC Berkeley were reporting on a lawsuit aimed at overturning AB 540, a California law that allows anyone who attends a California high school for at least three years, and graduates, to pay in-state tuition at state universities and colleges. Nine states have similar laws, a few others specifically ban it.
AB 540 made it possible for Tran and Felix to afford UCLA, where they met and were part of an underground organization that helped undocumented students by directing them to private scholarships and supportive faculty. Eventually, they took the organization to other college campuses, and learned the risks of going public.A Dream Confronts Reality
It happened in 2007, when Tran testified before the House immigration subcommittee in support of the Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act. The bill, which has enjoyed strong bipartisan sponsorship, would create a path to citizenship for undocumented students if they earn a high school degree and complete two years of college or military service.
Three days after she testified, Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agents raided Tran’s home, taking her brother and parents into custody. ICE officials said later on — after members of Congress intervened — that it was a coincidence; they said the raid was planned weeks earlier when they mistakenly thought her family had violated its refugee status.
Tran herself had an exceptionally ambiguous status.Living in Limbo
Tran’s parents were so-called “boat people” who fled Vietnam after Saigon fell, and after her father had been held in a re-education camp for his anti-communist activities. They were rescued at sea by the German navy and Tran was born in Germany, a country with no birthright citizenship. She was six when her family immigrated to the U.S., but, legally, Tran had no home. When she died in Maine earlier this month, she died without a country.What’s Legal for Illegal Immigrants?
The United States has such a deeply rooted tradition of public education — dating back to Thomas Jefferson and the Virginia Constitution — that a U.S. Supreme Court ruling in 1982 granted all children living in this country, legally or not, access to a free public education from elementary school through high school.
The case is “Plyler v. Doe”. And, in a variation of the United Negro College Fund slogan, “A Mind is a Terrible Thing to Waste,” the Justices wrote, “Illiteracy is an enduring disability. The inability to read and write will handicap the individual deprived of a basic education each and every day of his life.”
The high court also said, in essence, that children shouldn’t have to pay for the sins of their parents. But Tran and Felix didn’t see their parents as sinners. When my friend Bruce Fuller, a professor at UC Berkeley’s Graduate School of Education, interviewed Felix for a brief titled “The Cultural Strengths of Latino Families,” he asked where she found the wherewithal to succeed against the odds. “‘It’s my parents,’ she said. ‘They have sacrificed so much to give us the opportunity to go to school, to grow.'”
I forwarded the email to Bruce, the one that said “sad news,” in the subject line. He responded quickly with disbelief. “This is so terribly sad. I heard them both speak on a panel at Brown last year. They were so dynamic, hard driving, clear. Seems so unfair, they were so young.”
–Kathy Baron, Features Producer & Research Editor, Edutopia
You're reading Undocumented Education: A Dream Act Deferred
The Reid E4, though slightly more expensive than the competition, offers a more premium experience throughout, from the ergonomic design of the scooter to the performance on offer. The 250W motor powers the experience, with three modes to choose from, although solid tyres mean you’ll likely feel every bump and dip on the road.
Electric scooters are quickly becoming the mode of transport of choice for a growing number of people around the world, offering an enjoyable, environmentally-friendly alternative to cars and other forms of public transport.
Reid is the latest brand to throw its hat into the ring with the release of the Reid E4 and E4 Plus in the UK. Previously focused solely on bikes and eBikes, can Reid use its expertise of eBikes to develop a better class of electric scooter? While it’s not perfect, the Reid E4 is certainly a great option for commuters that want to see more of their local area.
UK eScooter law separately.A stylish eScooter with all the trimmings
Reid’s E4 electric scooter looks different from most of the competition, both in terms of design and the accompanying app which, surprisingly, is pretty handy. While the majority of eScooters sport the same general design, Reid has taken things a step further to make sure you’ve got the best experience possible.
It has all the standard features of an electric scooter, including a headlight, side reflectors, a brake light (although this one lights up!) and a kickstand, but what you won’t find elsewhere is the sheer number of customisable LEDs embedded in the aluminium body.
Like the boy racers of the early noughties, the E4 sports downward-facing LEDs that’ll light the road around you, along with an ambient LED that surrounds the headlight. These are customisable, of course, and can be tweaked both in terms of colour and brightness via the accompanying Reid Mobility app for iOS and Android.
Along with customising the LED array via the app, it’s where you can also look at previous trips on a map overlay, get an idea of total trip distance on a single charge, lock and unlock the scooter (it can’t be turned on but it can be wheeled away, so don’t leave it unlocked regardless!) and more. Most of the features, like switching between riding modes and toggling the headlights, can be done via the scooter itself, but there are a few settings you can only access via the app.
It’s the small details that complete the high-end look Reid is going for, like the comfortable rubber grips on the handlebars – complete with a mirror-like metal finish – and unique display, although the clean look is slightly let down by a couple of cables that run along the exterior of the scooter.
The slightly tilted 76.5-degree angle of the handlebar provides a more comfortable ride over longer journeys compared to generic scooters that sit at, or close to, 90 degrees. Not reaching so far forward to hold the handlebars when riding means you can relax your shoulders a little more, and the comfort is further aided by the seemingly perfect height of the handlebar and the large deck. For reference, I’m 6ft1, so it might not be perfect for everyone. The height of the handlebar isn’t adjustable, but that’s not really a surprise – none offer that ability right now.
You’ll find a custom-shaped display on the handlebar that displays useful information including battery level, power mode, Bluetooth status (for the accompanying app) and, crucially, the ability to display speed in both km/h and mp/h – music to my ears in the UK, as just about every other scooter deals exclusively in km/h.
It’s also IPX4 water-resistant according to Reid, so you shouldn’t worry about the occasional splash of rain, but I wouldn’t recommend riding this, nor any electric scooter, in more than light drizzle.
Like most electric scooters, the Reid E4 folds down within a few seconds, making the transition from eScooter to public transport easy enough, and the folding mechanism is made from stainless steel, so it should be pretty durable. It’s not the lightest bit of kit at 13.1kg though, and although it can be folded down, it’s still a bit bulky to carry by hand.It’s fun, but bumpy
Featuring a 250W motor, the Reid eScooter is capable of speeds up to 25km/h, or 15.5mph to those of us in the UK. That may not sound like a lot but it’ll get you from A to B pretty quickly, and it’ll likely be road legal when the UK Government gives eScooters the thumbs up, with a rumoured cap of 15.5mph.
There are three driving modes, switched via a press of the centrally-located power button. You’ll find a pedestrian mode for weaving through busy pavements capped at 4.3mph, a standard mode that’ll gradually take you to a max of 9.3mph, and a speed mode that’ll take you up to the maximum speed of 15.5mph pretty quickly. The latter is unsurprisingly the fastest, most responsive mode, and while it’s not quite as nippy as the acceleration of the Ninebot Max G30’s upgraded 350W motor, it’s still responsive enough for the stop-start of city commuting.
The only issue is that the button is hard to reach while keeping both hands on the handlebars, making it difficult to switch modes on-the-fly while riding.
Just as important as speed is stopping power, and the Reid E4 has that covered. You’ll find a mechanical disc brake in the front wheel, and the brake lever integrated into the handlebar alongside a charming little bell offers automatic motor cut off. In layman’s terms, the scooter stops very quickly when you hit the brakes – surprisingly quickly, in fact.
Reid claims you’ll get around 28km of range from the E4 with a single charge, which equates to 17.4 miles for those of us in the UK. Unfortunately due to the lockdown measures currently in place in the UK, it’s impossible for me to put that claim to the test, but it’s worth noting that as with any electric scooter, the range depends on a number of variables like weight, speed, acceleration and more.
But while the eScooter is a lot of fun to ride around, there is one complaint: it’s bumpy, thanks to the solid 8.5in tyres. While there are various benefits to the solid tyre design, including being puncture-proof and being able to last much longer than standard tyres, but it also means there’s no ‘give’ when riding over bumps and uneven terrain. You’ll likely feel every bump and dip in the road, and it’ll even vibrate a bit on rough tarmac surfaces.A premium price
With an RRP of £499.99 in the UK, the Reid E4 isn’t among the cheapest on the market – you can buy the likes of the Xiaomi Mi M365 for £399 and you can find generic electric scooters even cheaper – but it does offer a largely more premium experience compared to the competition. The build quality is high, there are a number of unique features including a suite of customisable LED lights and a well-built app, and crucially, it’s a joy to ride, if not slightly bumpy.
So yes, while you can get cheaper electric scooters, you probably won’t find the same quality on offer. It’s available from online retailers including Cyclehouse for £499.99, although you can pick it up much cheaper – £429.99 – at Pure Electric at the time of writing.
For other options, I recommend taking a look at Tech Advisor’s selection of the best electric scooters.Verdict
The Reid E4 electric scooter is a great bit of kit overall, offering a slightly more premium experience than what you’ll get from the likes of Xiaomi, although you are paying a little extra for the pleasure.
The E4 doesn’t look like the majority of scooters you’re likely to see on the road, sporting a distinct shape – especially around the handlebars – along with a large display, tilted handlebars and more customisable LEDs than you can shake a stick at. If you’re looking to stand out, the E4 allows you to do that.
The 250W motor provides decent torque, especially in the dedicated sport mode with quick acceleration and max speeds of 15.5mph. The only real complaint is the fact that it uses solid tyres; while it means you won’t get any punctures when riding, it also means you’ll feel every lump and bump in the road.
Overall, though, I’d say the Reid E4 is well worth investing in if you’re looking for something a little more premium than the swathe of generic electric scooters I’ve seen appear in the UK recently.Specs Reid E4: Specs
Dimensions (unfolded): 120 x 120 x 55cm
Dimensions (folded): 120 x 51 x 55cm
High-beam LED front light
LED-powered brake light
8.5in puncture-proof tyres
Up to 15.5mph, split across three modes
Up to 17.4 mile (28km) range
4-5 hour charge time
Mechanical disk brake with motor cut-off
IPX4 water resistant casing for battery and controller
Reid Mobility app
Customisable LED lights
The Motor Vehicles Act, of 1988 is an Act of the Indian Parliament that covers almost every aspect of road transport vehicles in great detail. The Act became operative on July 1, 1989. The Motor Vehicles Act of 1914 was replaced by the Motor Vehicles Act of 1939 and 1939’s Act was replaced by 1988 Act. The Act contains all applicable laws regarding conductor and driver licensing; motor vehicle control via permission; insurance; motor vehicle registration; traffic regulation; liability; penalties; and many more topics.
The Central Motor Vehicles Rules were created by the Government of India in 1989 to carry out the Act’s legislative provisions. The Act applies to all of India. The Act set forth the specifics of the motor vehicle regulations and effectively outlined even the smallest aspects, such as eligibility requirements, suspension and denial of driving and learners’ licenses, vehicle registration, permits, insurance, claim tribunals, traffic laws, appeals, and compensation. The statute also offers a wide range of punishments for breaking traffic laws.Historical Background
The lawmakers made sure to include regulations regarding motor vehicles in addition to all other laws already in place on other topics. The same’s efficacy has not yet been discussed. The British government in India created the Fatal Accidents Act in 1885 to grant equal rights to people hurt or killed in accidents. The Act established a process and gave chosen legal heirs the ability to ask the irresponsible party for compensation. The law accomplished its goal for a very long time.
It is acknowledged that an effective law should be enacted to provide redress to accident victims due to the growth of automation and the extensive harm to life and property that can occur in the event of an accident. The Indian government established the Central Motor Vehicles Rules 2 in 1989 to carry out the legal requirements of the Act. The most recent of the Act’s five changes, which have been enacted since it took effect in 1988, was implemented by the Motor Vehicle (Fifth Amendment) Act of 2023.Objective of the Act
The Motor Vehicles Act, of 1988, was written with the following goals in mind and applies to all of India
The greatest possible passenger and freight flow with the fewest obstructions to prevent the formation of islands of isolation that would otherwise cause regional or local imbalances.
Rationalization of some definitions by the addition of some new definitions for new vehicle categories.
Procedural simplification and policy liberalization for private sector activities in the realm of road transport.
Allowing for the amendment of the registration mark system
There is a provision for certified testing facilities to also issue vehicle fitness certificates.
Establishing standards for the parts and components of motor vehicles.
An interest in traffic safety regulations, pollution prevention strategies, and regulations for the transportation of explosive and hazardous materials.Motor Vehicle Amendment Bill 2023
On July 15, 2023, Nitin Gadkari, the Minister of Road Transport and Highways, presented the Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Bill, 2023 in the Lok Sabha. The Motor Vehicles Act of 1988 is being amended to improve road safety. The Act establishes criteria for motor vehicles, licenses and permits relating to them, and sanctions for breaking these rules. Following amendments have been suggestedRoad accident victims’ compensation
The central government will create a plan for the treatment of victims of traffic accidents without the use of cash during rush hour. The “golden hour” is described in the bill as the first hour after a serious accident, when there is the greatest chance of saving a life by receiving quick medical attention. The federal government may potentially devise a plan to offer temporary relief to those who are pursuing third-party insurance claims for reimbursement. The following are the changes made by the Bill to the minimum damage in hit-and-run cases
Between Rs 25,000 and Rs 2 lakh in the event of death
In the event of severe injury, between Rs 12,500 and Rs 50,000.Insurance
To offer mandatory insurance coverage for all Indian road users, the bill mandates that the national government establish a Motor Vehicle Accident Fund.
Treatment for those hurt in car accidents according to the golden hour scheme
Compensation for the surviving family members of a victim of a hit-and-run.
Recompense to any additional parties by government regulations.
Compensation for a victim of a hit-and-run who has suffered severe injuries.Good Samaritans
According to the bill, a good samaritan is someone who offers accident victims immediate medical or non-medical aid. The help had to have been given.
In good faith
Without any thought of reward.
Any harm or death of an accident victim brought on by that person’s negligence in helping the victim will not subject them to civil or criminal liability.Vehicle Recalls
If a motor vehicle has a flaw that could endanger the environment, the driver, or other road users, the central government may mandate its recall under the terms of the bill.Road Safety Offence and Penalties
The Act’s penalties for the number of offences are increased under the Bill.Conclusion
The Motor Vehicle Act of 1988 makes several recommendations for rules and regulations for the general public, and it plays a significant role in traffic regulation to ensure that the system operates properly and methodically. There are severe penalties for breaking any of the rules. This Act makes sure that everyone is treated fairly and that catastrophic accidents are prevented.Frequently Asked Questions
Q1. What are the key points of the Motor Vehicle Act, of 1988?
Ans. These are
Drivers’ licenses for automobiles
Registration of motor vehicles
Liability Without Fault
Motor Vehicle Insurance Act
Q2. What is the objective of the Motor Vehicle Act, of 1988?
Ans. The main goal of the law is to offer assistance and adequate compensation to those who have suffered losses as a result of car accidents that happened in public spaces and resulted in fatalities or permanent disability of members of the public. The law is therefore seen as a welfare law. Additionally, it establishes the Motor Vehicle Tribunal, a unique tribunal responsible for hearing all motor vehicle accident claims.
Google updated the Education structured data documentation with new content guidelines and a manual action warning for sites that don’t conform with the new requirements.Education Q&A Carousel in Search Results
Google added documentation for new structured data that helped relevant pages become eligible to be shown in the Education Q&A carousel.
The Education Q&A carousel is an enhanced search listing available in the following search types:
Google Search results
Two very different kinds of pages are eligible for this enhanced search feature.
Single Q&A pages
Google described the two kinds of pages that are eligible for the Education Carousel display in search:
“Flashcard page: A page that contains flashcards that typically have a question on one side and an answer on the other side. To mark up flashcard pages, continue reading this guide to learn how to add Education Q&A schema.
Single Q&A page: A page that only contains one question and is followed by user-submitted answers. To mark up single Q&A pages, add QAPage markup instead.”
Flashcard pages use the Quiz markup. Q&A pages use the QAPage structured data.Content Guidelines
The new section of the documentation warns:
“We created these Education Q&A content guidelines to ensure that our users are connected with learning resources that are relevant.
If we find content that violates these guidelines, we’ll respond appropriately, which may include taking manual action and not displaying your content in the education Q&A rich result on Google.”
There are three points to keep in mind:
Those guidelines state that the QAPage structured data markup can only be used on pages where users can answer questions. The valid use case example given is a web forum.
2. The page must feature education-related content in the form of questions and answers, and the answer does answer the question.
3. Answers must be accurate and correct. The guidelines state that if an (unspecified) amount of the content is found to be inaccurate, then Google would make all the content ineligible to be seen in the Education Q&A carousel.Focus on Accuracy
Education is a sensitive topic, so it makes sense for Google to add an extra layer of strictness concerning the quality of information shown in their Education Q&A carousel.
Google is increasingly emphasizing correct and helpful information, which could be part of the ongoing process to improve search results.Citation
Read the new Q&A Structured Data Guidelines
Featured image by Shutterstock/Elnur
Messaging interoperability – in which it would be possible to send a message to someone without knowing or caring which chat service they use – finally made it into the European Union’s Digital Markets Act.
It was one of the most controversial elements of the upcoming legislation, with some arguing that it would be a technological nightmare to implement, and others that it would benefit both startups and consumers …Background
The EU has long been working on a huge piece of antitrust legislation known as the Digital Markets Act (DMA). The key aims of the planned law are to ensure that tech startups are able to enter the market without their growth being inhibited by the dominant players, and that consumers are able to benefit from the fruits of that competition – the best services at the lowest prices.
There has been much internal debate about the appropriate scope of the legislation, and, in particular, whether messaging interoperability requirements should be included. Some argued against it on the grounds that it would be a nightmare to implement, others because consumers are already free to choose from a wide range of messaging platforms. But in the end, those arguing in favor won the day.The problem with instant messaging
Right now, the instant messaging market is extremely fragmented. There’s SMS, RCS, iMessage, WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger, Signal, Telegram, WeChat, Line, QQ, Viber, KIK, Snapchat, Twitter DMs, Discord, and many more. That’s before we even get into Google’s ever-changing range of IM apps, those popular in specific countries (like KakaoTalk in South Korea), and the even lengthier list of business messaging apps like Slack and Teams.
On the one hand, that’s great for consumers, and evidence that competition works. Everyone can choose their own preferred app. On the other hand, it’s a bit of a nightmare when you want to actually, you know, message someone – because everyone can choose their own preferred app.
I have most of the above IM apps installed on my devices, not because I want them all, but because different friends, family members, and other contacts use different services.
I’m old enough to remember things being simple when it came to digital communications. Yes, there were a bunch of competing, incompatible chat apps, but people only used those when they wanted to actually chat – that is, have a real-time interactive text conversation. Most asynchronous digital communication – sending a message for someone to read when it was convenient to them – used email.
But that’s no longer the case. Email is probably the least-popular option when it comes to sending a message to someone. Today, chat apps are the new email – and that’s a problem.
Email is purposely universal in nature. I can send you an email without knowing which email platform or app you use. You might receive my email in Apple Mail on your iPhone, in Spark on your Mac, in Outlook on your PC, on the web interface for Gmail – or hundreds of other options. I don’t need to either know or care: I just send you an email, and you receive it.
But if I want to send you an instant message, I need to know which apps you use. I mean, I can use your phone number without caring whether you receive it as an SMS or an iMessage, but that’s about it. Otherwise I need to know which apps you have, and which ones you actually read.Messaging interoperability
Messaging interoperability is the idea that instant messaging should be like email. We can each use our preferred service and app, while still being able to communicate with each other.
So I might use Telegram, and you might receive it in WhatsApp. Your mom may send you a Facebook Message, and you might receive it in iMessage. Like email, we would send the message to the person, not the service.
Of course, this would be a technical nightmare! Just look at the difficulty WhatsApp has had in making its own service operate seamlessly between iPhone, iPad and Mac (spoiler: it still doesn’t).
That’s mostly down to end-to-end encryption. It’s not just that different messaging services use different forms of encryption – it’s that the way E2E encryption works which makes it tricky even for one service to support multiple devices for a single user.
So there is no doubt at all that this would be an absolute nightmare for messaging companies to implement. E2E messaging essentially expects one person to be using one app on one device.
But solving this is not impossible. Even Apple – which has complete control of hardware, platform, and app – had to come up with a clever workaround to enable you to seamlessly use iMessage between iPhone, iPad, Mac, and Watch. Development of a messaging interoperability standard is tricky, but entirely possible.
It isn’t going to happen anytime soon, and even the DMA acknowledges this. But I do think it’s a worthwhile goal, and I look forward to the time when I can message five different friends without having to use five different apps.
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Hearth and Home focuses largely on building and food rather than combat says Törnqvist who calls himself a Valheim builder. “I’m a builder myself and building elaborate structures is one of the most enjoyable parts of Valheim. We wanted to complement the building system with new pieces back in February, hence why our update is so focused on building,” he says.
Törnqvist says players can expect the addition of new Darkwood building pieces, including shingle roofs, beams and decorations that should allow players to build even more complex structures. “Windows are something that I’ve always personally wanted and inverse diagonal pieces too. These things are now possible and should make the kinds of structures you can build more elaborate and interesting,” explains Törnqvist.
Iron Gate Studio
Additionally, the range of furniture on offer has been expanded. More items will be able to be crafted from stone and the addition of novelty items of furniture is a fun touch that should appeal to the particularly discerning Viking designers. Items like a stone throne and Viking hot tub will now adorn players homes and halls, with more pieces to be revealed in the game.
Iron Gate Studio
The building options also complement the other major change in the update – an improved food system – backed by a list of cauldron improvements that take the shape of items like a spice rack, butcher’s table and pots and pans. An oven has also been added for baking bread and pie. Some types of meat will now need to be cooked in an iron cooking station to be enjoyed by players.
But changes to food crafting are not just aesthetic, Törnqvist explains. How food affects players has also been changed. “Food has been rebalanced to make players think about their cooking and eating choices and to consider the effects of different food types,” he says.
“Previously you had one type of food that gave you health and stamina. We’ve divided it up into food that either gives you health or gives you stamina. So, now you have to make some conscious decisions about what to eat. This is a major change that should affect the survival part of the game,” he says.
Iron Gate Studio
Törnqvist says the building changes also rub off on the co-op experience with players now able to build cartography tables and share map data with other players.
While admittedly not a combat update, Hearth and Home does have one major combat change. “We’ve changed blocking. Instead of blocking being set by a standard system, blocking is now set by how much health you have,” Törnqvist says.
One new enemy has been added and there is a mysterious darkness now spreading across the landscape. What this darkness actually is Törnqvist remains coy about, preferring that players should discover it themselves first hand.
Something you won’t find in this update however is upgrades to Viking longboat building, which although absent for now, is firmly on Törnqvist’s “to do list” for the future. Inventories too are also likely to get a refit down the track, he hints. “There’s been lots of feedback requesting this. That’s something that we will definitely look at making available going forward,” says Törnqvist.
Valheim: Hearth and Home is available now on Steam.
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