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Clouds filled with ice lollipops — sounds like the chorus of a bubblegum pop song, or maybe a yummy treat to help keep cool in the summer. But it’s actually a natural phenomenon that has scientists very curious.

Researchers discovered these lollipop-shaped crystals after scrutinizing more than 5 million images taken during a 2009 flight through a large cloud system in southwest England. The scientists used laser beam technology to capture the shapes of ice crystals as part of an effort to understand how ice forms at temperatures above -30 degrees Celsius.

They wanted to learn more about precipitation, the lifetime of clouds, and their reflectivity — all of which have an impact on weather and climate. They saw crystals with a very unusual shape, each a round circle of ice atop a “stick,” resembling a lollipop. Clouds were full of them, inspiring considerable scientific interest — and awe.

“Natural processes can create objects of real beauty,” said Jonathan Crosier, a senior research fellow who studies clouds at the University of Manchester, and one of the scientists involved in the work. “We instantly started asking ourselves questions about how they form.”

The researchers described their findings in a study published recently in Geophysical Research Letters, a journal of the American Geophysical Union. The authors include Crosier, Stavros Keppas, Keith Bower, and T.W. Choularton, all of the University of Manchester.

This chart shows (a) the formation of an ice-lolly, (b) ice-lollies with spikes, and (c) representations of ice-lollies observed at different temperatures. Geophysical Research Letters

While previous research identified ice-lollies, this is the first time that these ice particles were seen in abundance, according to Crosier. Insights gained from studying them will provide important knowledge as to how clouds form and evolve.

For example, in any mixed-phase cloud (which is a cloud containing a mixture of super-cooled water and ice in close proximity) there is a very delicate balance between the liquid water and ice, he explained.

“Too much ice and the ice can consume the liquid water, which can lead to precipitation and the dissipation of the cloud,” he said. “Too little, and the ice will fall out, leaving behind a highly reflective super-cooled liquid cloud, which can persist for a long time, whilst generating virtually no precipitation.”

Many clouds lie somewhere in between, he said.

“Ice-lollies are a newly-identified ice particle which can alter the balance between liquid water and ice in mixed-phase clouds,” Crosier said. “Therefore, that may have a significant impact on cloud lifetime and precipitation formation.”

Scientists believe the process begins when ice crystals form at the top of a cloud system. Then, a warm stream of air blows through the cloud, carrying super-cooled — but still liquid — droplets of water. These droplets collide with the ice crystals and instantly freeze. Occasionally, tiny needles break off, fall through the cloud, and hit more super-cooled droplets. These round drops stick to the top of the needle — and an ice-lolly is formed.

Ice-lolly formation Geophysical Research Letters

The ice-lollies tend to be between 0.25 mm and 1.5mm in length. They fall to the ground at around 3.6 kilometers per hour. “Since they were found at an altitude of around 4 kilometers, it would take just over an hour for them to reach the surface if they remain unchanged,” Crosier said. “However, when the air temperature increases above zero Celsius, then the lolly will melt and form a small rain drop.

“Even if the temperature profile of the atmosphere is negative — below zero Celcius — at all layers, ice-lollies might not reach the ground in their original shape, or be deformed due to other processes occurring in the clouds,” he said. And, if temperatures stay below zero Celsius, but humidity drops below 100 percent, “then the particles will start to sublimate and could vanish without a trace.”

Seeing these images has whetted the scientists’ imagination. They plan to continue studying ice-lollies to learn more about their origins. “The formation of part of the ice-lolly, the stick, is shrouded in mystery,” Crosier said. “Researchers have been trying to observe the freezing-shattering of small droplets for several decades, to no avail.”

“The evidence suggests that the process occurs in very specific conditions, not too hot and not too cold — just like Goldilocks’ porridge,” he added. “We are developing exciting new laboratory experiments to finally observe this fascinating, yet highly elusive process. This will help us to understand the fine detail on how ice-lollies form.”

A cartoon representation of ice-lolly formation JoAnna Wendel, American Geophysical Union

Marlene Cimons writes for Nexus Media, a syndicated newswire covering climate, energy, policy, art and culture.

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Review: Rha T20 Are Some Of The Finest

For a while, Scotland-based audio company RHA was known primarily for delivering audiophile-grade sound in affordable earphones. With the T20, that’s not exactly how they played it. In fact, this set of headphones is not anywhere near cheap enough to be classed as an affordable pair, but I still feel that in terms of design, audio and versatility, they comfortably give you your money’s worth. That’s despite the fact they’d set you back $240/£180 if you decided to splurge on them…

On the design front, RHA has gone all-out with the T20 to make a headphone that both looks and feels like a high-end product. The 3.5mm jack is encased in a durable stainless steel casing, while a tightly coiled spring protects the cable from fraying or breaking near the end. Further up the cable, another well-made stainless steel cylinder protects the area where the cable splits in two to form the individual earbuds. But the earphones themselves take it to a whole new level.

The drivers are built in to metal injection-moulded stainless steel casing. Which is to say: They look stunning. The surface is so smooth and round, there are no rough edges or corners, and they’re very strong. They’re also really ergonomic, and sit almost flush with your ears. They’re not the lightest earphones around, but they’re not uncomfortable to wear.

Great effort and attention has gone in to how they feel when you wear them. There are ten pairs of ear tips with various designs, in different sizes and made from different materials to suit you. Personally, I like the memory foam ear tips, but there are regular dual-material silicone ones in small, medium and large sizes as well as a couple of double flange models in two different size. All these ear tips are stowed inside the included folding case, held securely in a credit card-sized piece of metal with bespoke cut-outs designed to hold the tips in place.

As with most features of any product, sound quality is very much a subjective thing. Some people like bass, a lot. Others like a more neutral and balanced sound, while others prefer to hear the high-frequency tones and couldn’t care less about bass. Regardless of which describes you best, the T20 has you covered.

RHA has designed a Tuning Filter System, whereby the user can unscrew the very tips of the earphone and replace it with a pair designed to boost bass, or boost treble manually. Personally, I quite like it when bass kicks me in the chest and fills out the background of the music, so I immediately swapped out the neutral filters for the bass ones. I was really impressed by the difference they made. Where I found the ‘reference’ filters to be a little too sterile, the bass tuning filters brought me close to my perfect sound profile. The rest could be achieved by adjusting the EQ on my device.

Regardless of whether I tried the bass, neutral or treble tuning filters, one thing remained the same: Clarity. I could hear details in many songs I can’t remember hearing before. Not just hearing the bass drum, or snare being hit, but actually being able to pick out the sound of the bass drum pedal or stick strike against the drum’s skin.

Sounds were balanced, and bass notes didn’t muddy over the rest of the frequencies, even with the bass filters installed. That’s thanks mostly to RHA’s DualCoil Dynamic Driver which is engineered to deliver a neutral tone. RHA describes it like this:

The T20’s revolutionary DualCoil dynamic driver is engineered to deliver refined, high resolution audio with a neutral tonal balance. The T20’s DualCoil dynamic driver features an additional voice coil situated within an annular magnet; each coil operates independently to produce part of the frequency range. This unique configuration ensures ultra-efficient performance and true-to-life sound reproduction across all genres of music.

For those of you with Hi-Res Audio equipment, you’ll be pleased to know the T20 is also Hi-Res Audio certified, meaning you can listen to your favorite tunes without losing any quality.

If there’s one issue with the RHA T20 earphones, it’s that there is no in-line microphone or music controls, so if you want to turn the volume up or down on your smartphone, or make/receive a phone call, you’ll need to pick up your phone. Thankfully there is another option: Buy the T20i instead. It’s the same set of earphones, except it has an inline mic/control set. It costs $10/£10 more, but is well worth the extra if you need that extra control.

The next step for me would be for RHA to make a set of wireless T20s. As much as I appreciate the incredible sound and build quality, I’m not a big fan of having wires hanging out all over the place. But that’s a personal thing. Cables can be a good thing. Even with some of the best wireless tech around, nothing quite matches a physical cable for quality and latency.

Overall, it’s tough to fault RHA’s premium earphones. At $240/£180, they’re far from the cheapest earphones around, but even at that price, they still look and sound like they could cost more. Build quality is impeccable, sound quality superb and they’re incredibly attractive. The very fact you can manually change the audio profile to suit your taste just makes them so much better. If you’re looking in to a great pair of in-ear phones to invest in, you should definitely add these to your wish-list.

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Personal Clouds Are Casting Their Shadows Over Enterprise It

Folks are turning to the cloud to organize their lives, accomplish tasks and help maintain a healthy work-life balance. Increasingly, those personal cloud services are punching the clock, presenting some new challenges for businesses, according to Gartner, a technology research firm.

Fifty-percent of IT organizations will wind up supporting personal cloud assets and services beyond their core set of business applications and services by 2023, Gartner predicts in the company’s latest report, The Evolving Role of the Personal Cloud in the Digital Workplace. It’s a necessary step in reducing friction between consumer and enterprise technology experiences. And unlike the slow-and-steady approach business technology vendors typically subscribe to, personal clouds can be comparatively turbulent.

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Gartner research vice president Stephen Kleynhans described the personal cloud as a “collection of content, services and tools that users assemble to fulfill their personal digital lifestyle needs across any device,” in a statement. “Each user’s personal cloud is unique and evolving, as the user’s daily needs change and as vendors and products come and go.”

Two trends are shaping the personal cloud experience, Gartner asserts. Specifically, increased access to personal data and the application of intelligence and analytics technologies to that information.

“The rate of change is accelerating as new technologies like Windows 10, ubiquitous sensors, wearables and smart machines alter the landscape and further blur the lines between consumer and enterprise computing,” Kleynhans continued. Consequently, enterprises are starting to pay heed and take action.

“By 2023, 25 percent of large organizations will have an explicit strategy to make their corporate computing environment similar to a consumer computing experience,” Kleynhans stated.

Organizations will need to pay particular attention to virtual private assistants (VPAs) like Siri, Cortana and Google Now. “VPAs often have access to not only personal data, but also potentially sensitive corporate data as information about meetings, employee travel and business operations may be exposed to the VPA,” Gartner stated. “Some organizations will be tempted to block use or VPA access to organization data. However, this will reduce a VPA’s effectiveness and simply encourage employees to bypass IT controls.”

Wearables and Internet of Things (IoT) technologies will open up another front in the never-ending battle to keep corporate data safe. Gartner said the flood of real-time data produced by these technologies “further blurs the line between what is work and what is personal, and it is exacerbating the security and privacy issues for both users and enterprises.”

To head off those dangers, strong authentication should be at the top of a CIO’s priorities. “While strong authentication technologies are only the first step toward longer-term approaches to securing both user and corporate data, they do form an important initial step in the chain,” said Gartner.

Pedro Hernandez is a contributing editor at Datamation. Follow him on Twitter @ecoINSITE.

Photo courtesy of Shutterstock.

How Loot Boxes Are Turning Full

Let’s recount their sins.

Wolf in wolf clothing

Forza Motorsport 7 – Xbox One/Windows 10 Digital Code

Forza Motorsport 7 ($60 on Amazon) used to feature a difficulty-based reward system. The more “Assists” you turned off (i.e. Throttle Assist, anti-lock brakes, the optimal path for your car to follow) the more credits you’d earn and the more cars you could purchase. This system was dismantled in Forza 7, replaced with Prize Crates and “Mods,” or limited-use cards that reward you for specific actions during a race. And an announcer that urges you to purchase said Prize Crates. The game was actively designed to be worse in order to cram in loot boxes.

IDG / Hayden Dingman

Microsoft also briefly killed the old VIP system. Basically, those who bought VIP in previous Forzas would always earn twice as many credits per race—a permanent paid booster, basically. Kind of gross, but that’s how it worked. For Forza Motorsport 7, Microsoft tried to replace this with five limited-use VIP cards, good for 25 races total, where credits would be doubled. After much outcry, this system was rolled back and will eventually be replaced with the old 2X booster.

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Middle-Earth: Shadow Of War

Middle-earth: Shadow of War ($60 on Amazon) goes one step further and sells you in-game items. These aren’t too dissimilar from the microtransaction-style boosters people have been forced to accept in recent years, except for the fact everything you receive is random. Loot Chests, for instance, pop out “two pieces of gear, including at least one Rare.” What pieces of gear will those be? Nobody knows! If you don’t get what you need, you’ll have to sink more money into the damnable machine and hope your luck is better the second (or third, or fourth, or fifth) time around.

Star Wars Battlefront II ($60 on Amazon) is worst of all, though. Over the weekend EA ran Battlefront II’s open beta/faux-demo, and it was the first chance for many to see how the new Star Card system works. In a word: Poorly.

IDG / Hayden Dingman

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Star Wars Battlefront II

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Certain Star Cards still modify a class’s equipment—say, replacing a grenade with a remote-detonated explosive—but the more problematic ones give direct boosts to a class. In space battles, for example, an X-Wing or TIE Fighter might have a card that grants a two-percent weapon damage boost.

IDG / Hayden Dingman

Cards drop from loot boxes, or “Starfighter Crates” as Battlefront calls them. (There are also “Trooper Crates” and “Allegiance Crates,” plus “Daily Crates,” which are rewarded for playing the game each day.) Cards are not rewarded based on the class you play, so if you’re unlucky you could end up with a bunch of garbage for a class you never touch. It also has made leveling meaningless—unlike Overwatch, there’s no crate reward for gaining a level, which is utterly bizarre.

Because class levels are tied to how many cards you have, and because more boxes means more chances for cards, EA is essentially giving people a chance to buy their way to better equipment—not just different equipment, like in past Battlefield games with their paid shortcuts, but straight-up better. We’re talking a gun that shoots 40 percent longer without overheating, an officer class that regenerates nearby allies’ health with 40 percent less delay, abilities that refresh 28 percent faster.

IDG / Hayden Dingman

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Overwatch – Origins Edition – PC

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It’s gross. It’s the exact same “Pay-to-Win” slippery slope people feared would come to pass with microtransactions (and has come to pass in certain free-to-play games) but obscured behind an additional layer of pseudo-gambling. We can talk all you want about Overwatch and its loot boxes. There are some ethical concerns there, too. But at least Overwatch is content to dole out dumb (and unnecessary) cosmetics—costumes, badges, and so on. If you get a bunch of costumes for a character you never play, well, no loss really. It doesn’t affect the game.

But Battlefront II? It’s a new low.

Loot boxes aren’t the proper solution in most cases, though. More than DLC, more than season passes, this latest trend has the potential to cause real damage to games, to ruin entire swathes of the industry. It will drive away old fans, it will fail to convert new ones, and all because a small subset of high-paying “whales” (to use the industry’s nomenclature) get guns that shoot better than the rest of us.

Doomed to repeat

Which brings me to my point: This is the “vote with your wallet” moment, and we are going to fail. Historically, that’s how this goes. We had the chance a decade ago and we screwed it up. As expansions died off and games were diced up into increasingly smaller bits and bobs, as the industry was inundated with map packs and microtransactions and pre-order bonuses and season passes and this labyrinth of post-purchase purchases, we could’ve said no. We should’ve been louder in our dissent.

IDG / Hayden Dingman

We weren’t, and it’s been a decade of exploitation. It’s been horse armor. It’s been map packs going from $5 to $10 to $15 to $20. Season passes costing almost as much as full games and then rarely (read: never, unless you’re The Witcher 3) delivering on their promises.

And now the chance has come around again. The last six months have shown that loot boxes are the future, if we’re complacent. And not just the mostly harmless Overwatch style. Those are still a trap, but at least they sanitize the spike pit before they drop you into it.

Forza 7, Shadow of War, and Star Wars Battlefront II are proof: If you don’t fight back, you will get the worst publishers have to offer. You will get pay-to-win multiplayer. You will get single-player games balanced around grinding for loot boxes. And sure, games will mask that fact. They’ll come down just barely on the proper side of the line. They’ll keep the percentages small—a 10-percent boost to damage, et cetera—to provide plausible deniability, to point to and say “Of course our games aren’t skewed toward people who spend money! We’re gamers too! We prioritize fun.”

IDG / Hayden Dingman

But deep down, you’ll know better. You’ll feel the Hand of the Market at play, meddling in the game, making it just tedious enough to tempt you. I know I’ve felt it with microtransactions. I have no reason to think loot boxes aren’t a more insidious version of the same idea. And maybe you don’t care about Star Wars, Lord of the Rings, or fancy cars, but I guarantee your favorite series (or maybe second-favorite series) is next. It’s only a matter of time with these things.

Bottom line

Again, history bears this out. We have DLC. We have microtransactions.

But this is still your best chance.

Remix Os Discontinued: Here Are Some Alternatives

Samsung DeX

If brand and clout is going to be the basis of success, then Samsung DeX is probably the most promising of the batch. Especially given Samsung has practically committed itself to supporting this feature. Then again, Samsung is also known for abandoning its own headlining features in a heartbeat.

Like Remix OS, Samsung DeX presents users with a familiar desktop interface and can alternately present apps in windowed form or full screen. Unlike Remix, however, DeX is very hardware dependent. That is, at the moment, it only works on the Galaxy S8 and S8+ and only if you dock it into the DeX Station. No other combination is known to work. There are also some instances where apps, like Spotify, refuse to work outright. Hopefully Samsung hasn’t yet decided this feature is a no-go and has plans to fix those issues sooner rather than later.

Sentio (formerly known as Andromium)

Andromium has had a troubled past. Its first Kickstarter attempt failed miserably. Its second was met with more success but has yet to start shipping to backers outside of its first batch of brave testers. But where Andromium, now Sentio, differs is that its Superbook “dumb laptop” is really just an accessory. It isn’t necessary to use Andromium OS, now Sentio Desktop, itself.

Phoenix OS

Phoenix is almost a Jide twin. It too is based in China and its Phoenix OS offers almost the exact same experience as Remix OS. Unlike Jide, however, it doesn’t have much hardware under its name save for a few OEM partnerships, like with Alcatel and its Xess all-in-one. You can, however, take Phoenix OS and install it on Nexus tablets or x86 laptops. With Jide out of the scene, Phoenix can attempt to fill in the large shoes left by its rival, provided it’s interested at all in the consumer space.


MaruOS is a bit of a stretch as it doesn’t turn Android into a desktop. Instead, it actually runs a “full” desktop on top of Android. It’s a Linux desktop that not many might be familiar with, but it offers much of the needed functionality and desktop software users might need away from home.

MaruOS has been in development for quite a while but it is still very rough around the edges. The number of officially supported is just two (Nexus 5 and Nexus 7 2013 Wi-Fi), and it requires a wired external display, which requires an MHL adapter that barely anyone uses. On the upside, Maru is an open source project that has an active community that is passionate about bringing the OS to other devices and expanding its capabilities.

Google Chrome OS

Wait, weren’t we talking about Android? Well, if you are looking for an experience designed for desktops, or at least laptops, from the ground up, then look no further than that other OS that Google made. Android app support has long been promised but its first iterations have been rather disappointing. The relative silence on that front is somewhat concerning but with multiple companies invested in it, Android apps on Chrome OS is hopefully a sure deal.

What Is The Full Form Of 3Gpp

What is 3 GPP?

3GPP stands for 3rd Generation Partnership Project. Many telecommunications associations grouped together and developed a global application of 3G communication. They were dedicated to making a better channel for people to share information and communicate with each other. This included many telecommunications corporations from different countries like Japan, China, South Korea, Europe, and the US.

There were two associations from Japan: “Radio Industries and Business” and the “Telecommunication Technology Committee.”. “China Communication Standard Association” was from China, “Telecommunication Technology Association” was from South Korea, “European Telecommunication Standard Institute” was from Europe, “Telecommunication Standards Development Society” was from India, and the one from the US was “Alliance for Telecommunication Industry Solution.” They were all together known as 3 GPP. This association was held in December 1998 in Europe.

They provide members with a stable environment to produce the reports and specializations that define 3GPP technologies.

3GPP Ecosystem

Description: This illustrates the working of 3GPP ecosystem

Standards of 3GPP

Following are the standards of 3GPP −


GSM stands for “Global System for Mobile Communication,” and it was developed by the European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI).The GSM architecture works with the help of MS, BSS, and NSS. MS stands for Mobile System, it refers to the mobile phone we are using daily. BSS stands for Base Station Subsystem which is divided into two parts BTS (Base Trans receiver Station) and BSC (Base Station Controller). BTS handles the task of sending or receiving the signals to different MS. While the BSS maintains the flexibility of BTS and maintains the traffic of signals. It also ensures that BTS doesn’t have a lot of hectic schedules. It included 2G networks.

BSS is connected to NSS, which is the central part of this architecture. It contains all the data about the user. NSS stands for Network Switching Subsystem, which is subdivided into 5 parts and they are MSC (Mobile Switching Center), VLR, HLR, AUC, and EIR. The major role is played by MSC in NSS. MSC helps in call switching. The parts like VLR, HLR, AUC, and EIR help MSC and reduce its work. So the pressure on MSC can be reduced.


HSPA stands for “High Speed Packet Access” and it provides faster transmission than GSM. It provides transmission service faster than GSM because it collects data in packets and these packets provide data in one go so its speed of data is a bit faster. It utilises WCDMA protocol to work. There are mainly two types of protocol that work parallel to HSPA. They are “High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)” and “High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA)”. They both mainly increase the speed of 14mb/s and 5.8 mb/s respectively. HSDPA was released with Release 5 and HSUPA was released with Release 6.

HSPA with the help of HSDPA and HSUPA reduces latency which means it increases smoothness of applications which use high network signals. HSPA increases system capacity and reduces the production cost per bit. The main problem with HSPA is that it is not suitable for Low bandwidth application for eg. Voice application. It is for 3G networks.


LTE stands for “Long Term Evaluation” and it is also known as 3GPP LTE. It was developed because in 2004, WCDMA rolled out and 3GPP decided to move completely towards Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing as modulation. The main focus was on converting the core network into a pure packet switched network. It included 4G networks.

Goals for LTE are −

It aimed to achieve a peak data rate of 100 Mbit/s in downlink and 50 Mbit/s in uplink.

Spectral efficiency was 5 and 2.5 bit/s/Hz for downlink and uplink respectively.

Control panel latency was between 50 and 100 ms.

User plane latency was about 5 ms in network with single MS.

5G Standards

This standard is newly defined by 3GPP with release 15. As the era of digitalization increases, demand for high speed networks is rapidly increasing due to which efforts are made to improve network connection. The 5 generation standard has the highest speed compared to other standards. 5G is already launched in the market.


3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) and 3GPP2 (3rd Generation Partnership Project 2) are both standards organizations focused on developing standards for mobile communications technology. However, they have some differences in their focus and scope.

3GPP focused on WCDMA while 3GPP2 focused on CDMA 1X and EVDO.

3GPP was hosted by ETSI in Europe with partners from America and Asia while 3GPP2 was hosted by TIA in the USA with partners from Asia.

3GPP has developed 4G and now 5G. But 3GPP2 is still offering a 3G network.

3GPP provides its services in Asia and America while 3GPP2 provides its service of 3G Worldwide.

So we say that 3GPP develops faster than 3GPP2. Both are the standard body behind the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS).


The data we use today to transmit our information was developed due to the collaboration of a six country’s Telecommunication company’s association. Now the network speed has improved a lot. We started with 1G and today we use a 5G network. As technology is growing the demand for high speed networks is increasing and tirelessly efforts are made to improve the network.


Q1. How many BTS and BSC are present in a single BSS, and how many BSS are connected to an NSS?

Ans. There are 4–5 BTS present in BSS, while there is only one BSC. And many BSS can be connected to NSS. There is no fixed number of BSS counts connected to NSS.

Q2. What are HSDPA and HSUPA?

Ans. When the tower sends a signal to the mobile system, it is HSDPA. And when the mobile system sends the signal to the tower, it is HSUPA. They both enhance the speed of data access.

Q3. What is the relationship between 3GPP and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU)?

Ans. 3GPP works closely with the ITU to develop and maintain standards for mobile communications technology. The ITU sets overall guidelines and recommendations for global telecommunications, while 3GPP develops the technical specifications and standards for specific mobile technologies.

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