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Introduction to Selection Sort vs Insertion Sort

This article focuses on selection sort and insertion sort along with their differences. Selection sort is a way of sorting in which the items of an array are sorted by repeatedly identifying the minimum element in ascending order is considered from the unsorted part and puts it in the beginning. There are two subarrays maintained in this process, one which is already sorted and another one which is to be sorted. Whereas, insertion sort is a simple technique for sorting in which the array is split into two parts, sorted and unsorted. Then from the unsorted pack, the values are selected and put in the sorted pack.

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Head to Head Comparison Between Selection Sort vs Insertion Sort(Infographics)

Below are the top 9 differences between Selection Sort vs Insertion Sort:

Comparison Table of Selection Sort vs Insertion Sort

Selection Sort Insertion Sort

Insertion Sort

Selection sort sorts by identifying the smallest element from the unsorted group and selecting it to interchange it with the elements from the sorted group and puts in the correct location.

Insertion sort sorts by interchanging one element at a time from the sorted group with the partially sorted group.

Selection sorts first finds the smallest element from the unsorted group and then transfers it accordingly.

Transfers one element at a time to the sorted group of the elements.

Selection sort is less efficient than insertion sort.

Insertion sort is more efficient than selection sort.

Selection sort is very much simpler as compared to insertion sort as the process of finding smaller numbers from a group of numbers is very easier.

Insertion sort is more complex than selection sort.

Selection sorting is an unstable way of sorting elements of an array if compared to insertion sorting.

Insertion sort is a very stable sorting algorithm if compared to selection sort.

In selection sorting, no best case time complexity is available. O (N2) is the only time complexity available for all cases.

O(N) is the best case time complexity in insertion sorting when the array has to be in ascending order.

While doing selection sorting, the number of swapping operations performed is less than the number of comparisons done.

While doing sorting through insertion sorting, the number of swapping operations performed is higher than the comparison operation performed.

In selection sorting, the location of the sorted element is known by the algorithm but the element which has to be placed at the location is searched by the algorithm.

In insertion sorting, the element to be sorted is known beforehand and the correct position for placing the element is searched by the algorithm.

In selection sorting, immediate data cannot be dealt with as the data is needed to be present at the very beginning of the sorting process.

The major benefit of insertion sorting is that immediate data can also be dealt with by this way of sorting as this technique is done live.

Key differences between Insertion Sort and Selection Sort

Sorting can be defined as a process of systematically arranging the items. This includes ordering as well as arranging the items of a list in a sequenced order according to the criteria specified. Categorizing or grouping of items can also be done through sorting.

Insertion sorting:

The implementation of insertion sort is very easy and highly efficient if it is used with a small set of data. The requirement of additional memory space is very less in the process of insertion sorting. Insertion sorting is also considered a live sorting technique as it can also deal with immediately added data in the array.

Insertion sorting is considered a faster option to sort data if compared to its other counterparts.

Working of the Insertion sort is explained as follows:

Two sets of an array is used in insertion sorting in which one set contains the unsorted elements and another one contains the sorted elements. The algorithm of sorting elements using insertion sorting runs till the last element of the unsorted set. If an array contains ‘n’ number of elements then the 0th element is in the sorted set and the remaining elements are in the unsorted set.

Array index 1 is defined as the first element of the unsorted set of the array. After every iteration, the first element of the unsorted set is chosen and inserted in its appropriate place in the sorted set.

In selection sorting, the array of the elements is divided into two sets, one for the unsorted part and another one for the sorted part of the array. Selection sorting is a way of sorting in which the algorithm searches for the minimum value in the elements of the array and places it in the first or last position depending on the sorting criteria, to the sorted set. The search for the minimum value amongst the elements is done till the last element of the unsorted set of the array and until all the elements get placed in their appropriate place.

Working of the Selection Sort is explained as follows:

If an array contains ‘n’ elements in the memory. Then, in the first step, the element with the smallest value is searched and it is swapped with its position with the element which was in the first position previously.

After this, again the smallest element is searched and swapped with the element previously present in the second position. In the n-1th step, the same process is completed for sorting the n number of elements.

Conclusion

On the basis of the above article, we understood the concept of sorting and the differences between the two ways of sorting i.e insertion sort and selection sort. This article explains the major differences between insertion sort and selection sort which will help the readers in selecting the way of sorting according to their requirements.

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Swift Program To Sort An Array In Descending Order Using Bubble Sort

Bubble sort algorithm in swift, is the easiest search algorithm. This algorithm sorts the elements by repeatedly swapping adjacent elements if they are not present at the right place. So now we sort an array in descending order using bubble sort.

For example −

Array - [4, 7, 1, 8]

1st iteration − compare two elements, if the first element is smaller than second element then swap their position. If not, then move to next pair.

[4, 7, 1, 8] 4<7, swap the position [7, 4, 1, 8] 1<8, swap the position [7, 4, 8, 1]

2nd iteration − Again compare two elements and swap their position if first element is smaller than second element.

[7, 4, 8, 1] 4<8, swap position

3rd iteration − Again compare two elements and swap their position if first element is smaller than second element.

[7, 8, 4, 1] 7<8, swap position So the sorted array in descending order is [8, 7, 4, 1] Algorithm

Step 1 − Create a function to sort the array in descending order using bubble sort algorithm.

Step 2 − Inside the function, we run nested for-in loop to traverse over each pair of adjacent element in the given.

Step 3 − Check if array[y]<array[y+1]. If yes, then swap the position of the elements without each other. If no, then move to next pair.

Step 4 − Now outside the function create an array of integer type.

Step 5 − Call the function and pass the array into it.

Step 6 − Print the sorted array.

Example

In the following example, we will create a function named as mBubbleSort(). This function takes an array as input and sort the given array into descending order with the help of bubble sort algorithm. This function uses nested for-in loop to iterate through each pair of adjacent element the given array and swap if the first element is less than the second element. This process continue till the last unsorted element. Here the function modifies the original array with the help of inout parameter. Finally display the sorted array.

import Foundation import Glibc func mBubbleSort(_ array: inout [Int]) { let size = array.count for x in 0..<size { for y in 0..<size-x-1 { if array[y] < array[y+1] { let temp = array[y] array[y] = array[y+1] array[y+1] = temp } } } } var arr = [67, 3, 22, 89, 12, 1, 55, 80, 4] mBubbleSort(&arr) print("Sorted array in descending order: (arr)") Output Sorted array in descending order: [89, 80, 67, 55, 22, 12, 4, 3, 1] Conclusion

So this is how we can sort an array in descending order using bubble chúng tôi algorithm works well only for small set of elements, it is not suitable for larger number of elements because its average and worst case time complexity is high.

How Sort Works In Linq With Different Examples?

Introduction to LINQ Sort

LINQ Sort is used to re-order or re-arrange the given collection of elements into ascending or descending order depends upon the attributes. The sorting operator arranges the sequence of items into ascending or descending order.

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In LINQ it includes five sorting operators they are:

OrderBy

OrderByDescending

ThenBy

ThenByDescending

Reverse

Syntax of LINQ Sort

1. OrderBy

2. OrderByDescending

3. ThenBy

4. ThenByDescending

5. Reverse

var Result_Reverse= userList.Reverse(); How does Sort work in LINQ?

The sorting operator is used to re-arrange the given collection of items in ascending or descending order depending on one or more attributes.

The LINQ Sorting operators are of five different types they are as follows:

1. OrderBy

OrderBy sorting is used to sort the values in the sequence based on a particular field in ascending order or descending order; by default, it sorts elements in ascending order.

Example:

Code:

In the above example, we used the method syntax in OrderBy sort; it sorts the cost of the product it displays the product names based on the Product_Cost wise, by default orderby used ascending order sort.

2. OrderByDescending

OrderByDescending sorts the sequence of elements in descending order. It applies only in the method syntax.

Example:

Code:

3. ThenBy, ThenByDescending

The main purpose of ThenBy and ThenByDescending sorting is for sorting another column along with the prime column. Those both sortings are used for the secondary purpose in LINQ sort; it will be used once the OrderBy and OrderByDescending sort is done; these two are primary sort. ThenBy and ThenByDescending are used after the primary sorting OrderBy and OrderByDescending.

//LINQ SORT – ThenBy Method Syntax

//LINQ SORT – ThenByDescending

It applies extra additional sorting on columns. This sorting will not be applicable in the query syntax; it can be used only in method syntax.

4. Reverse

The final sort is reverse sorting in LINQ; the main purpose of this sort is to display the sequence of the list in the opposite direction. Thus, it can be used in both OrderBy and ThenBy operators, respectively. It does not sort in ascending or descending order; it only displays from the current position in reverse order.

Example:

Code:

Examples of LINQ Sort

LINQ Sorting operator arranges the sequence of items into ascending or descending order. In LINQ it includes five sorting operators.

Let’s see the five sorting operators with examples programmatically.

Example #1 using System; using System.Collections.Generic; using System.Linq; namespace Console_LINQSort { class ProductClass { public string productName { get; set; } public int productCost { get; set; } } class Program { static void Main(string[] args) { _products.Add(new ProductClass { productName = "Speakers", productCost = 2880 }); _products.Add(new ProductClass { productName = "Graphics-Card", productCost = 3000 }); _products.Add(new ProductClass { productName = "Disk-Drive", productCost = 4000 }); _products.Add(new ProductClass { productName = "KeyBoard", productCost = 1540 }); _products.Add(new ProductClass { productName = "Processor", productCost = 7590 }); _products.Add(new ProductClass { productName = "Monitor", productCost = 3250 }); _products.Add(new ProductClass { productName = "Pendrive", productCost = 475 }); _products.Add(new ProductClass { productName = "Pendrive", productCost = 650 }); _products.Add(new ProductClass { productName = "Pendrive", productCost = 870 }); _products.Add(new ProductClass { productName = "Desktop-Table", productCost = 1350 }); Console.WriteLine("ntUsing LINQ - SORTING n"); Console.WriteLine("1. OrderByn"); Console.WriteLine("tProduct-Details n"); Console.WriteLine("tProduct-Pricet Product-Namen"); foreach (var val in result_OrderBy) { Console.WriteLine("t {0}tt {1}", val.productCost, val.productName); } Console.WriteLine("2. OrderBy_Descendingn"); Console.WriteLine("tProduct-Details n"); Console.WriteLine("tProduct-Pricet Product-Namen"); foreach (var val in result_OrderByDesc) { Console.WriteLine("t {0}tt {1}", val.productCost, val.productName); } Console.WriteLine("3. ThenByn"); Console.WriteLine("tProduct-Details n"); Console.WriteLine("tProduct-Pricet Product-Namen"); foreach (var val in result) { Console.WriteLine("t {0}tt {1}", val.productName, val.productCost); } Console.WriteLine("4. ThenBy Descendingn"); Console.WriteLine("tProduct-Details n"); Console.WriteLine("tProduct-Pricet Product-Namen"); foreach (var val in result_ThenByDesc) { Console.WriteLine("t {0}tt {1}", val.productName, val.productCost); } Console.ReadKey(); } } }

Output:

Example #2

The main purpose of this sort is to display the sequence of the list in the opposite direction. Thus, it can be used in both OrderBy and ThenBy operators. It does not sort in ascending or descending order; it only displays from the current position in reverse order.

Code:

using System; using System.Collections.Generic; using System.Linq; namespace Console_LINQSort { class ProductClass { public string productName { get; set; } public int productCost { get; set; } } class Program { static void Main(string[] args) { _products.Add(new ProductClass { productName = "Speakers", productCost = 2880 }); _products.Add(new ProductClass { productName = "Graphics-Card", productCost = 3000 }); _products.Add(new ProductClass { productName = "Disk-Drive", productCost = 4000 }); _products.Add(new ProductClass { productName = "KeyBoard", productCost = 1540 }); _products.Add(new ProductClass { productName = "Processor", productCost = 7590 }); _products.Add(new ProductClass { productName = "Monitor", productCost = 3250 }); _products.Add(new ProductClass { productName = "Pendrive", productCost = 475 }); _products.Add(new ProductClass { productName = "Pendrive", productCost = 650 }); _products.Add(new ProductClass { productName = "Pendrive", productCost = 870 }); _products.Add(new ProductClass { productName = "Desktop-Table", productCost = 1350 }); Console.WriteLine("ntUsing LINQ - Sorting n"); Console.WriteLine("Reverse Sortn"); Console.WriteLine("tProduct-Details n"); Console.WriteLine("tProduct-Pricet Product-Namen"); foreach (var val in result_Reverse) { Console.WriteLine("t {0}tt {1}", val.productName, val.productCost); } Console.ReadKey(); } } }

It just sorts the elements in reversed order from the current sorted list of elements; in this program, we just sort in ascending order based on the cost of the product by using orderby and then Reverse method is used it just prints the reverse order of the current list, it’s an opposite direction of the list.

Output:

Conclusion

In this article, we have seen the usage of different types of Sorting Operators in LINQ. By using those sorting operators OrderBy, OrderByDescending, ThenBy, ThenByDescending and Reverse, we can easily sort our data in our desired way as per our requirement.

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How To Sort Or Filter By Color In Google Sheets

In 2023, Google added one of the most useful features to Google Sheets; the ability to sort or filter by color.

Table of Contents

If you’re wondering why you may ever want to sort or filter by color, consider the scenario where you’ve set up condition-based formatting. Sorting in this way lets you do things like sort alarms or rankings by category or priority rather than based on individual numbers.

Sort by Color in Google Sheets

With a sheet that’s formatted in this way, if you sort by column B you’ll see the grades sorted from A to B, but you won’t clearly see which blocks of grades make up each letter grade group.

The best way to do this is sorting by color. 

To do this:

1. Select Data from the menu, select Filter views, then select Create new filter view. 

2. To sort the list with all of the “A” grades at the top, you can sort by Green. Select the filter icon at the top of the column, select Sort by color, select Fill Color, and then select the color you want to sort by. In this case, choose light green.

3. The color you select will be grouped and sorted at the top of the list.

You might notice that you can’t sort by all colors, and this makes sense, because colors have no order to sort by.

However, if you sort the column by numbers, the colors will also be organized according to their numeric ranges. The main point of sorting by color in Google Sheets is to quickly identify a single group of items in a large list according to cell formatting (which is usually based on conditional formatting).

Filter by Color in Google Sheets

Another approach to grouping items by their color is using the filtering feature. Google Sheets now lets you filter out all other colors except the one you’re interested in.

In larger lists, this is very useful for grouping all of the items you’re interested in while removing the clutter of all of the other data.

To do this, select the filter icon at the top of the column, select Filter by color, select Fill Color, and then select the color you want to filter by. In this case light green.

Once you’ve filtered by one color, you’ll see all rows where the column you’ve filtered is the color you selected displayed. All the other rows with other colors will be filtered out of the view.

This is a useful way to focus on groups of data, removing everything else that may get in the way of your analysis.

Sorting or filtering by color in Google Sheets is a less granular approach than sorting by numbers alone, but sometimes visualizing data in categories or groups like this is more valuable.

Sort by Text Color in Google Sheets

In the same way you can sort or filter cell colors in Google Sheets, you can do the same based on text color. This is useful for all of the reasons above, but you’ve created conditional formatting for text color rather than cell color.

To sort by text color:

1. Select Data from the menu, select Filter views, then select Create new filter view. 

2. To sort the list with all of the “A” grades at the top, you can sort by Green text. Select the filter icon at the top of the column, select Sort by color, select Text Color, and then select the color you want to sort by. In this case dark green.

3. The color you select will be grouped and sorted at the top of the list.

Just like will the fill sort, the text color you selected will group all items with that text color at the top of the list. All items underneath that group remain unsorted.

Again, it’s a good way to focus on specific groups or categories of data. But if you actually want to sort in numerical order you’ll need to sort by cell content (numbers) as you normally would.

Filter by Text Color in Google Sheets

You can also filter out those records that are other colors, leaving only the group that’s the color you want. Again, this is useful with very long lists where you want to filter out all of the other values that aren’t in the range or category you’re looking for. 

To filter by text color:

1. Select Data from the menu, select Filter views, then select Create new filter view. 

2. To filter the list so only the “A” grades are listed at the top, you can filter by Green text. Select the filter icon at the top of the column, select Filter by color, select Text Color, and then select the color you want to sort by. In this case, choose dark green.

3. The color you select will be grouped and listed at the top without any other text colors displayed.

This is especially useful for very long lists where you need to filter out the “noise” (all the other data), so you can focus on only the data you care about.

Sort or Filter by Color in Google Sheets

Using the sort or filter function in Google Sheets based on color lets you group and organize data. It’s not like normally sorting or filtering because it doesn’t organize data by each row, but instead by blocks of rows. It’s a great way to categorize and organize information in blocks.

It has its uses if you use it properly whenever you have conditionally formatted data.

How To Sort The Elements Of A Tensor In Pytorch?

To sort the elements of a tensor in PyTorch, we can use the torch.sort() method. This method returns two tensors. The first tensor is a tensor with sorted values of the elements and the second tensor is a tensor of indices of elements in the original tensor. We can compute the 2D tensors, row-wise and column-wise.

Steps

Import the required library. In all the following Python examples, the required Python library is torch. Make sure you have already installed it.

Create a PyTorch tensor and print it.

To sort the elements of the above-created tensor, compute torch.sort(input, dim). Assign this value to a new variable “v”.Here, input is the input tensor and dim is the dimension along which the elements are sorted. To sort the elements row-wise, dim is set as 1, and to sort the elements column-wise, dim is set as 0.

The Tensor with the sorted values can be accessed as v[0] and the tensor of indices of the sorted elements as v[1].

Print the Tensor with the sorted values and the tensor with the indices of the sorted values.

Example 1

The following Python program shows how to sort the elements of a 1D tensor.

# Python program to sort elements of a tensor # import necessary library import torch # Create a tensor T = torch.Tensor([2.334,4.433,-4.33,-0.433,5, 4.443]) print("Original Tensor:n", T) # sort the tensor T # it sorts the tensor in ascending order v = torch.sort(T) # print(v) # print tensor of sorted value print("Tensor with sorted value:n", v[0]) # print indices of sorted value print("Indices of sorted value:n", v[1]) Output Original Tensor:    tensor([ 2.3340, 4.4330, -4.3300, -0.4330, 5.0000, 4.4430]) Tensor with sorted value:    tensor([-4.3300, -0.4330, 2.3340, 4.4330, 4.4430, 5.0000]) Indices of sorted value:    tensor([2, 3, 0, 1, 5, 4]) Example 2

The following Python program shows how to sort the elements of a 2D tensor.

# Python program to sort elements of a 2-D tensor # import the library import torch # Create a 2-D tensor T = torch.Tensor([[2,3,-32],                   [43,4,-53],                   [4,37,-4],                   [3,-75,34]]) print("Original Tensor:n", T) # sort tensor T # it sorts the tensor in ascending order v = torch.sort(T) # print(v) # print tensor of sorted value print("Tensor with sorted value:n", v[0]) # print indices of sorted value print("Indices of sorted value:n", v[1]) print("Sort tensor Column-wise") v = torch.sort(T, 0) # print(v) # print tensor of sorted value print("Tensor with sorted value:n", v[0]) # print indices of sorted value print("Indices of sorted value:n", v[1]) print("Sort tensor Row-wise") v = torch.sort(T, 1) # print(v) # print tensor of sorted value print("Tensor with sorted value:n", v[0]) # print indices of sorted value print("Indices of sorted value:n", v[1]) Output Original Tensor: tensor([[ 2., 3., -32.],         [ 43., 4., -53.],         [ 4., 37., -4.],       [ 3., -75., 34.]]) Tensor with sorted value: tensor([[-32., 2., 3.],          [-53., 4., 43.],          [ -4., 4., 37.],          [-75., 3., 34.]]) Indices of sorted value: tensor([[2, 0, 1],          [2, 1, 0],          [2, 0, 1],          [1, 0, 2]]) Sort tensor Column-wise Tensor with sorted value: tensor([[ 2., -75., -53.],          [ 3., 3., -32.],          [ 4., 4., -4.],          [ 43., 37., 34.]]) Indices of sorted value: tensor([[0, 3, 1],          [3, 0, 0],          [2, 1, 2],          [1, 2, 3]]) Sort tensor Row-wise Tensor with sorted value: tensor([[-32., 2., 3.],          [-53., 4., 43.],          [ -4., 4., 37.],          [-75., 3., 34.]]) Indices of sorted value: tensor([[2, 0, 1],          [2, 1, 0],          [2, 0, 1],          [1, 0, 2]])

Star Wars Just Brought Back Human Jabba, Again, Sort Of!

Star Wars just brought back human Jabba, again, sort of!

The latest canonical story action in the Star Wars universe comes courtesy of the Star Wars comic book series from Marvel Comics. In the latest issue (Star Wars #16, 2023, Marvel), we see the very familiar face of a character we only recognize because we’ve seen a scene cut from the original Star Wars movie. Filmed for Star Wars (now called A New Hope), a scene showed Han Solo meet up with a very human version of Jabba the Hutt.

Originally filmed for the first-ever Star Wars movie, a scene featured Harrison Ford and his first meeting with Jabba the Hutt, as played by Declan Mulholland. Below you’ll see a well-constructed 3-up video showing the first version of the scene as well as the subsequent edits (including the last version that remains in the “final” cut of the movie today).

This original human Jabba wasn’t exactly what George Lucas had originally planned on using. Depending on who you ask, this scene was filmed as a placeholder for special effects that’d be added later – stop-motion, or something else that hadn’t yet been invented for creators with imaginations as wild as Lucas. This scene didn’t make the cut for the original version of the movie – it was only later brought back once the technology could meet the task.

The human version of Jabba has a fairly distinctive look. Not nearly so distinctive as Jabba turned out to be, of course – but still. He had potential! What very much appears to be the same character as portrayed by Mulholland appeared in a Star Wars comic here in the year 2023.

As discovered by Gizmodo this week, here in the comic Star Wars #16 (2024), we see the same face we saw back in the cut scene from A New Hope (1977). This comic strip shows a character that’s the same size and shape as the original filmed representation of Jabba, complete with the fur coat, brown hair, and white sideburns.

This character is effectively destroyed in quick order, complete with what might be construed as a cheeky jab at the persistence of the original Jabba footage, or the Mulholland personification of Jabba in general.

It might be possible that this newest character shown in the Star wars Marvel comic book from 2023 is none other than the character Heater. Much like a Mall Santa, the story of Heater appears to be one of a “stand-in” for Jabba.

Heater is, or was, the first way in which the Mulholland character was fit back into the Star Wars universe – with a different name. The original footage of Mulholland was eventually fit with graphics matching George Lucas’s vision for the project, but not before the visual representation of human Jabba was changed to one of “Heater.” Heater can be heard in the original Star Wars radio drama as voiced by Joel Brooks in a scene that’s essentially the same as we see in the original Jabba footage.

Subsequently, Heater is shown in “Star Wars: The Essential Guide to Characters” published in 1995, then in writing in Tales from Jabba’s Palace. He also appeared in Topps trading cards with an illustration that’s very clearly using the original Jabba footage as its source material, as the Heater from the radio drama. This card is part of the 2013 Topps Star Wars Illustrated A New Hope set.

It’s possible, but not entirely likely that this Heater is the same person as we see in the new 2023 Star Wars comic. If we believe there is a Sacred Timeline of canonical facts that make up the Star Wars universe as it stands today, Heater would still (most likely) be part of Jabba’s crew at the point at which this new Star Wars comic is set – between The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi.

BONUS NOTE: “Jabba” appeared in the original Star Wars comic series (also from Marvel) looking a lot more like a slim stock alien from the Mos Eisley Cantina than he does a Hutt. His look is effectively usurped by that of Mosep Binneed, a Nimbanel alien that appeared in both A New Hope and Return of the Jedi – with a retconned storyline as Jabba’s accountant!

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