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Inventory Management is used to manage the inventory for the goods. It is based on several key processes. Definition of movement types, reservations, goods issue and goods receipt.

We have already done basic goods receipt process in the purchase order topic, referencing it to a PO.

There are a number of functions and transactions used in the Inventory management processes, and we will cover the most important in this tutorial.

What is Movement Type in SAP?

Movement Types are used as indicators of what is the purpose of the goods movement (e.g. from storage location to a storage location, receipt from purchase order, issue for the delivery, receipt from production).

Movement types in SAP – Examples

A movement type is a three-digit identification key for a goods movement such as 101, 201,311,321.

Also, you could use the same movement type for different processes if you use movement indicators properly. For example, movement type 101 with movement indicator B is used for goods receipt from purchase order. The same movement type 101 with movement indicator F is used for production order goods receipt.

You can see on the next screen how the movement type maintenance screen looks.

Huge number of options are available to set up the movement type properly, and it’s access by the OMJJ transaction code.

Execute OMJJ transaction, and on the initial screen choose Movement type, on the next screen enter the movement type range you wish to chúng tôi will be presented a screen that looks like the next screen.

You can see a dialog structure on the left. These options are used for setting up our movement types according to our needs.

When you select any of the options the details screen on the right is updated with settings for that node.

This is not in a scope of this tutorial, as configuring the movement type requires extremely deep knowledge of the processes in MM module (inventory management component).

You just need to understand for now what does the movement type, and movement indicator represent.

Feel free to take a tour around the OMJJ transaction to get a bit more insight on the actual setting that can be made on movement type, and movement type/movement indicator level.

To summarize the lesson, movement types are used for distinction how the goods will be moved in our inventory.

For example,

We will set up our movement type 101 to be used for goods receipt.

Movement type 311 to be used for stock transfer from one storage location to another in one step.

Movement type 601 for goods issue for outbound delivery..

When you create a material document you are actually moving stock quantity in a certain way as defined by movement type.

If movement type 311 is stated in the material document, material will be transferred from one location to another (transfer process). If it’s 101, material document will not have a source storage location but will have a destination (receipt process). If it’s movement type 601, material document will only have source storage location but will not have a destination (issue process).

Goods Receipt Scenarios

As I said in the previous topic, goods receipt can be done referencing a purchase order, production order, inbound delivery or without reference for other kinds of receipt processes.

We can set up our movement types behavior according to a movement indicator.

I mentioned in the previous topic that there are several indicators that can be used to specify the referencing document type, and create settings for every one of them in combination with movement type.

B – purchase order

F – production order

L – inbound delivery

Blank – no reference

Other – not that significant for now

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What Is Sap Business Suite? Erp Definition And Applications

What is SAP Business Suite?

Business Suite in SAP is collection of fully integrated applications such as SAP customer relationship management (CRM), SAP Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), SAP product lifecycle management (PLM), SAP supplier relationship management (SRM), and SAP supply chain management (SCM) modules.

Most people relate SAP with its ERP offering. But SAP ERP Business suite now offers variety of products to address varied needs of an organization. Lets have a look at various SAP ERP business Suite applications.

SAP Business Suite applications SAP HANA

Also Check: SAP HANA Training Tutorials for Beginners

SAP Convergent Charging

SAP Convergent Charging provides a rating and charging solution for high-volume processing in service industries. It delivers pricing design capabilities, high performance rating and convergent balance management.

Customer Relationship Management

Unlike other CRM software, the SAP Customer Relationship Management (SAP CRM) application, part of the Business Suite in SAP, not only helps you address your short-term imperatives – to reduce cost and increase your decision-making ability – but can also help your company achieve differentiated capabilities in order to compete effectively over the long term.

Enterprise Resource Planning

A sound foundation is necessary to compete and win in the global marketplace. The SAP ERP application supports the essential functions of your business processes and operations efficiently and are tailored to specific needs of your industry like SAP ERP Financials, SAP ERP Human capital management,SAP ERP Operations,SAP ERP corporate services.

SAP Environment, Health, and Safety Management

It supports environmental, occupational and product safety processes, regulatory compliance, and corporate responsibility. This is accomplished by embedding corporate policies, compliance, and environmental, health and safety capabilities with global business processes for human resources, logistics, production and finance.

SAP Global Batch Traceability

It allows you to completely trace tracked objects, for example, a batch, across both SAP systems and non-SAP systems. In the event of a recall or withdrawal, SAP GBT ensures the timely compliance with legal reporting timelines. Furthermore, it helps you to minimize cost and corporate risk exposure. You can also analyze multiple objects, for example, batches, in one run.

SAP Product Life Cycle Management

To survive in an ever-changing global environment, creating and delivering innovative and market differentiating products and services is what distinguishes your company from the competition. The SAP Product Lifecycle Management (SAP PLM) application provides you with a 360-degree-support for all product-related processes – from the first product idea, through manufacturing to product service

SAP Supplier Life Cycle Management

SAP Supplier Lifecycle Management is a holistic approach to managing supplier relationships. It deals with the supply base as a whole to constantly determine the right mix of suppliers. It covers the lifecycle of individual suppliers ? from onboarding to a continuous development.

Supply Chain Management

You face enormous pressure to reduce costs while increasing innovation and improving customer service and responsiveness. SAP Supply Chain Management (SAP SCM) enables collaboration, planning, execution, and coordination of the entire supply network, empowering you to adapt your supply chain processes to an ever-changing competitive environment.

Supplier Relationship Management

With SAP SRM you can examine and forecast purchasing behavior, shorten procurement cycles, and work with your partners in real time. This allows you to develop long-term relationships with all those suppliers that have proven themselves to be reliable partners.

Governance, Risk and Compliance

Risk is unavoidable, but it can be managed. With governance, risk, and compliance (GRC), businesses can strategically balance risk and opportunity.

Sales and operations planning

SAP Sales and Operations Planning enables you to optimally and profitably meet long-term future demand. Typically, this process repeats every month and involves many participants including Sales, Marketing, Finance, Demand Planning, and Supply Chain Planning.

SAP Transportation Management

It supports you in all activities connected with the physical transportation of goods from one location to another.

Extended Warehouse Management

SAP Extended Warehouse Management gives you the option of mapping your entire warehouse complex in detail in the system, down to the storage bin level. Not only does this give you an overview of the total quantity of a product in the warehouse, but you can also always see exactly where a specific product is, at any time, in your warehouse complex. With EWM, you can optimize the use of various storage bins and stock movements, and can combine the storage of stocks from several plants in randomly-managed warehouses.

Mobile Apps

Mobile devices can also access SAP system.

Sap Hana Direct Extractor Connection (Dxc) Tutorial


SAP HANA DXC is batch driven data replication technique i.e. it can execute after a time interval.

SAP HANA DXC uses existing ETL (Extract, Transform, and Load) method of SAP Business Suite Application via a HTTPS connection.

In SAP Business suite application content Data Source Extractors have been available for data modeling and data acquisition for SAP Business Warehouse.

SAP DXC use these Data Source Extractor to deliver data directly to SAP HANA.

Advantage of SAP DXC

SAP DXC requires no additional server or application in the system landscape.

It reduces the complexity of data Modelling in SAP HANA, as it sends the data to SAP HANA after applying all business extractor logic in the source system.

It speeds up SAP HANA Implementation time lines.

It extract semantic rich data from SAP Business site and provide to SAP HANA.

Limitation of SAP DXC

Data Source must have pre-define ETL method, if not then we need to define them.

SAP DXC requires a Business Suite System on Net Weaver 7.0 or higher (e.g. ECC) equal or below SP level: Release 700 SAPKW70021 (SP stack 19, from Nov 2008).

A procedure with a key field defined must exist in Data Source .

Configure SAP DXC DATA Replication

Step 1) Enabling XS Engine and ICM Service

Enabling XS Engine

Set instance value to 1 in Default filed.

Enabling ICM Web Dispatcher Service – It enables ICM Web Dispatcher service in HANA system. Web dispatcher uses ICM method for data read and loading in HANA system.

Set instance value to in default column 1.

Step 2) Setup SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection

Set DXC Connection in SAP HANA – To create a DXC connection we need to import delivery unit in SAP HANA as below –

Import Delivery Unit.

You need to download the DXC delivery unit from SAP into SAP HANA database. You can

import the unit in the location


Import the delivery unit using Import Dialog in SAP HANA Content Node ? Configure XS

Application server to utilize the DXC ? Change the application container value to libxsdxc.

Configure XS Application server to utilize the DXC.

Modify the application container value to libxsdxc (if any value existed, then append it).

Test the DXC Connection.

Verify the DXC is working.

We can check DXC Connection by using below path in Internet Explorer –

– Enter a user name and password to connect.

User and Schema need to be defined in HANA Studio

— RFC Connection equal Name of RFC Connection

— Target Host equal HANA Host Name

Log on Security Tab Maintain the DXC user created in HANA studio which has basic Authentication method.

Data Sources in BW need to configure to Replicate the Structure to HANA defined schema.

We Need to Setup the Following Parameters in BW Using Program SAP_RSADMIN_MAINTAIN

(T-code SE38 or SA38)

Parameters List in Program – Parameter list contains value , which pass value to call screen.

PSA_TO_HDB: This three object values are shown as below –

GLOBAL – This is used for replicate all data source to HANA

SYSTEM – It Specified clients to Use DXC

DATASOURCE –It specified Data Source, and only specified can be used.

PSA_TO_HDB_DATASOURCETABLE: In this we need to give the Table Name, which having the List of data sources which are used for DXC.

In the VALUE field, enter the name of the table you created.

PSA_TO_HDB_DESTINATION: In this we need to Move the Incoming data (in this we need to Give the value which we create in SM59) (here XC_HANA_CONNECTION_HANAS)

PSA_TO_HDB_SCHEMA: It specifies which schema the replicated data need to assign

Data Source Replication

Install data source in ECC using RSA5. we have taken data source 0FI_AA_20

(FI-AA: Transactions and Depreciation). First we need to Replicate the Meta data Using Specified application Component (data source version Need to 7.0 version. If we have 3.5 version data source, we need to migrate that first. Active the data Source in SAP BW).

Once data source loaded and activated in SAP BW, it will create the following table in the Defined schema.

RSODSO_IMOLOG – IMDSO related table. Stores information about all data sources related to DXC.

Now data is successfully loaded into Table /BIC/A0FI_AA_2000 once it is activated. And we can preview data from table /BIC/A0FI_AA_2000 in SAP HANA Studio.

Sap Bi Process Chain: Create, Check, Activate, Assign, Monitor

A process chain is a sequence of processes that wait in the background for an event.

Some of these processes trigger a separate event that can start other processes in turn.

It provides various connectors that allow alternative and parallel execution of process.

For example, a retail store receives a customer order, this will trigger a sequence of events like checking material in stockàordering the product from Warehouseàorder to manufacture the product and so on.

Process chains provide graphical scheduling & monitoring features to help in automation, visualization & monitoring of tasks / processes.

Process chains are integrated into portal based BI administration cockpit.

Process Chains can be thought of as flowcharts which are scheduled to wait in background & triggered for an event by another process.

Process Chain involves three main steps

Start Process: It describes when the process will start (immediately, scheduled job, metaprocess, API)

Connector: It is a linking process, and can choose options of starting next process

Variant: The object on which we are supposed to execute the process is called as Variant. It is a set of parameters passed to the process like name of the InfoPackage or Info-Objects

In this tutorial you will learn –

Steps To Create a Process Chain

RSPC is the whole and sole transaction used for Process Chain Maintenance. In this screen, existing process chains are sorted by “ApplicationComponents”.

There are two views available:

Check View

Planning View.

The default mode is Planning View.

Step 1)

Creating a Process Chain:

Step 2)

Enter the Technical name of the Process Chain.

Enter a meaningful description for the Process Chain.

Step 3)

Step 4)

Enter the Technical name of the Start Process.

Step 5)

The subsequent screen is used to assign time-based or event based trigger for the process chain.

Step 6)

Steps for Scheduling a Process Chain:

Step 7)

Add Info Package:

Step 8)

As discussed earlier, data load can be triggered via an InfoPackage or a DTP.

If the dataload is to be done via an InfoPackage, use the Process type “Execute InfoPackage”

If the dataload is to be done via a DTP, use the Process type “Data Transfer Process”

Step 9)

A new pop-up window appears. Here you can choose the required InfoPackage.

Step 10)

Connect both the Start Variant and the InfoPackage:

Another way is to select the “Start Variant” and keep the left mouse button pressed. Then move mouse button to the target step. An arrow should follow your movement. Stop pressing the mouse button and new connection is created. From the start process to every second step there is a black line.

The Process chain appears as below after a Connection between the Start variant and Infopackage is created.

For any subsequent step, we can choose if the successor step shall be executed only if the predecessor.

Was successful: typically used in normal processing

Ended with errors: Typically used to send failure messages

Execute irrespective of success or failure of previous step

Steps To Check Consistency of Process Chain

Select the menu “Goto”

Choose “Checking view”.

SAP will verify if all steps are connected and have at least one predecessor. Logical errors are not detected. If we get warnings or “Chain is OK”message, we can activate it. If the check identifies some errors , we have to remove the errors first.

Steps To Activate a Process Chain

Select “Activate”.

Or select the “Activate” button

Steps To Assign Process Chain To Application Component

By default, the Process Chain is created under application component “Not Assigned”.

Choose “ApplicationComponent” button

Select the required component and Re-Activate the chain.

Steps To Activate a Process Chain

Choose “Schedule”.

Alternatively press the button “Schedule”.

The chain will be scheduled as background job and can be viewed in SM37 transaction code. You will find a job named “BI_PROCESS_TRIGGER”. All the Process chains are scheduled with same job name.

How to Monitor Process Chains

There are a number of work environments available for monitoring process chain runs:

Navigate to Administration tab from DatawarehouseWorkBench(RSA1)

BI Monitor in the Computing Center Management System (CCMS)

Monitoring of Daily Process Chains (Transaction RSPCM)

Log view for runs of a process chain in process chain maintenance (transaction RSPC)

7 Amazing Types Of Keys In Database Management System

Introduction to DBMS Keys

The DBMS keys or the Database Management System Keys represent one or more attributes (depending on the types of the DBMS Keys used) from any table in the Database system that brings about distinctively categorized rows and a combination of more than one column to identify the relationship between the tuple (row) in the table, or to determine the relationship between the two tables, which applies to the tables that are identified and queried for analysis or reporting purposes.

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Different Types of Keys in DBMS

Super Key

Candidate Key

Primary Key

Alternate Key

Foreign Key

Compound Key

Surrogate Key

1. Super Key

A super key is either a single key or a set of keys that help identify distinct rows in a particular table. A Super key can have extra attributes that are redundant for distinct identification.

Let us look at an example where the EmpId and the Mobile number can be considered Super Keys.

2. Candidate Key

We refer to a Super Key as a Candidate Key if it has no duplicate attributes. We carefully choose the Primary Key after considering the given Candidate keys. All tables are required to have one candidate key at least. There are a few rules that we need to follow regarding the selection of a Candidate Key.

They are:

A Candidate Key should comprise distinctive values.

A Candidate Key can have various attributes.

A Candidate Key cannot comprise null values.

A Candidate Key must uniquely identify each row in the table.

Let us look at an example of a table where the Emp Id, Mobile No, and Email are the Candidate keys. These keys help us distinctly identify any Employee row in the table.

3. Primary Key

A primary Key is a column or a combination of columns in a relationship that helps us uniquely identify a row in that table. There can be no duplicates in a Primary Key, meaning that there can be no two same values in the table. We have a few rules for choosing a key as the Primary Key. They are:

The Primary Key field cannot be left NULL; the Primary Key column must hold a value.

Any two rows in the table cannot have identical values for that column.

If a foreign key refers to the primary key, then no value in this primary key column can be altered or modified.

Let us look at an example of a table where the Emp Id is the Primary Key.

4. Alternate Key

You may have multiple options for selecting a key as the Primary Key in a table. Any key capable of being the Primary Key but at the moment is not the Primary Key is known as an Alternate Key. A candidate key that has not been selected as the Primary Key.

Let us look at an example where the EmpId, Email, and Mobile No. are candidate keys and are capable of being the Primary key. But because Emp Id is the Primary Key, Email and Mobile No. Become the Alternate Key.

5. Foreign Key

Foreign Keys help us establish relationships with other tables. It is also called Referential Integrity. To establish this relationship, you can add a Foreign Key column to a table. They help us maintain data integrity and allow easy navigation between any instances of two entities.

Let us look at an example comprising two tables, Employee and Department tables.

Table: Department

Table: Employee

Currently, we do not have any idea about the departments in which the employees are working. By adding the DeptId to the Employee table, we can establish a relationship between the Employee table and the Department table. Here, the DeptId of the Employee table becomes the Foreign Key, and the DeptId of the Department Table becomes the Primary Key for that table.

6. Compound Key

A Compound Key is a primary key that does not consist of a single column but two or more columns that allow us to identify a particular row distinctly. For a compound key, we do not have any unique column; therefore, we need to combine two or more columns to make them unique.

Let us look at an example of a table consisting of product and product details. This table shows that more than one customer can order a product and more than one can be present. Therefore we need to combine the OrderId and the ProductId to create a unique way of identifying the row.

7. Surrogate Key

A situation may arise where a particular table does not have a Primary Key. In this case, we use a Surrogate Key, an artificial key that can distinctly identify every row in the table. We use Surrogate Keys specifically when there is no natural primary key. They do not provide any relation to the table data and are usually serially ordered integers.

In this example, we have the data of Employees and their Shift timings. Therefore, we use a Surrogate Key to identify each row uniquely.

In this article, we have explored a few of the most important DBMS Keys, their differences, and when to use them.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to DBMS Keys. Here we discussed the basic concept and different types of keys in DBMS. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

Physical Inventory And Cycle Counting In Oracle Apps

Definition of Cycle Counting

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Inventory Record Methods

There are broadly two methods of keeping track of inventory, perpetual inventory system and periodic inventory system. Under a perpetual inventory system, every inflow and outflow is recorded in real-time as it happens, and therefore proper bookkeeping is maintained for this process.

Whereas, in the case of periodic inventory management, according to the need of the company, at periodic intervals, the inventory is calculated and tallied with sales and purchase records to get the stock of the goods. This process is a tedious and time-consuming one, and therefore many organizations implement the Cycle counting procedures, where they implement the sampling method instead of counting each unit.

Types of Cycle Counting

There are several types of cycle counting processes, as described below:

1. Control Group

This method is applied in the initial phases of cycle counting because this is the time when a proper counting methodology is being formulated for the specific organization under analysis. Here the same groups of items are counted several times during a short period of time to understand the in and out movements of these items and then come up with an optimum counting technique and eliminate the counting errors that are being committed over time.

2. Random Sample

This practice is useful when the storage has several items of one kind stored here. If, at a time, there are several units of one kind available, then the organization gets a fair idea of how much stock it has and, therefore, can pre-empt shortage and order requirements based on the periodic cycle counts.

3. ABC Analysis Cycle Counting Procedure

Having understood the concept of cycle counting, the natural question that follows is that if we are sampling inventory, then what should be the basis of doing so, and how frequently should we conduct the counting exercise to have a true and fair idea of the stock without compromising the day to day working, which is the basic premise of why cycle counting is being conducted. For these reasons, there are various techniques have been formulated over time:

1. Pareto Method

In this method, those items which cost more and are used up more frequently are counted more often than others. For this purpose, the consumption is valued by multiplying the items used in a given period of time with the cost of each item, if so available, or an average cost of the items that can be derived from past purchase records. Those items which have higher value are counted more frequently, and therefore this method essentially bifurcates the inventory into two categories if high value and low-value items.

2. Frequency Based Counting

In this method, those items which are used up more frequently are counted more often without paying attention to the value of these items. It is a more prudent approach that doesn’t distinguish between high-value and low-value items and works on the philosophy that each time inventory is purchased or sold, there could be a possibility of error in recording, and therefore, those which have a greater possibility of such error, are overseen with greater frequency.

3. Combination or Hybrid Counting

This is a combination of the Pareto technique and the ABC counting method, where the first level of bifurcation is made based on the value of the items while the second level of categorization is made based on ABC counting wherein, further sub-categorization is made based on several criteria such as high demand item or seasonal items or low shelf life items or even based on customer urgency requirement and so on. Such categorization can’t be completely automated and requires human intervention because several items might fall in more than one category and therefore require a specific counting frequency.

4. Surface Area Based Counting

At times it is also known as objective counting because here, we only look at the empty spaces which need to be filled, and in doing so, we aim at quickly filling these empty spaces. Such a method might be more suitable in a supermarket that is properly mapped out and methodically arranged.

Example of Cycle Counting

Daily items: Dairy, eggs, bread, etc.

Perishable items: Vegetables

Durable items: Grains, pulses, flour, etc.

The supermarket wants to have an inventory management system in place so that it reorders quantities optimally. So the store manager has come up with the following categories and inventory management techniques:

This is quicker as compared to the physical counting of all items each day.

Difference between Cycle Counting and Physical Inventory in Oracle Apps

Scheduling: Scheduling cycle counting is possible, while scheduling physical inventory is not possible

Disruption: During counting, the stack is visible in the system if the cycle counting is implemented, but it is not the case when implementing physical counting

Transaction Freezing: Inventory undercounting can be transacted upon in cycle counting, while this is not the case with physical counting

Record: Previous counting records are available in the cycle counting method but not in the physical inventory method


Quick: In organizations that can’t manage perpetual inventory, the periodic system is followed; however, it is highly time-consuming. Therefore, Cycle counting speeds up the process.

Cost-Effective: As a perpetual inventory system requires proper accounting and bookkeeping, therefore, the method is very costly as it requires a skilled workforce and also expensive software. On the other hand, the cycle counting approach can be achieved through a lesser costly workforce by providing proper training.

Doesn’t Cause Disruption: In the case of periodic inventory management, the daily working is stopped during the period when counting takes place. This doesn’t happen in the case of cycle counting as the process is broken into parts and conducted department wise and not for all the inventory together.

Less Accurate: As this method relies on sampling, it is not completely accurate, and before achieving the desired level of accuracy, several iterations of counting are required, which might not give the required result on completion.

Procedure to Be Followed: Initially, when the cycle counting is implemented, the beta and pilot testing needs to be thorough and rigorous so that a proper sampling technique is defined because if this is flawed, cycle counting will not give proper results.


Overall, Cycle counting is an attempt to reduce the effort of physical counting under the periodic inventory method without disrupting the day-to-day operations using the appropriate sampling technique as per the requirement of the organization under consideration. It is helpful in the case of those organizations which don’t have the resources to maintain a perpetual inventory system. However, there are chances of a lack of accuracy in this method if the sampling technique is erroneous.

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