Trending February 2024 # Router Mode Vs Bridge Mode – What’s The Difference # Suggested March 2024 # Top 11 Popular

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You’ve probably seen the setting that lets you choose whether to run the device as a bridge or a router while navigating through the network configurations. The purpose for both of these modes is the same, i.e, to offer network connectivity over a larger coverage area. 

However, some minor technical intricacies make these two modes totally different in how they operate. In this context, we’ll compare these two networking modes today and recommend the best option to get the most out of your internet experience.

In router mode, IPs of devices connected are stored in tables and most viable route is selected to transfer data. The IPs can be given dynamically by the device or defined by user.

A router is involved in receiving the packets with the destination address attached to them and, forwards the packets to the receiver in the most convenient route. This process of forwarding the data is called dynamic routing.

It connects the LAN with the WAN. The router Converts an IP from one class to another using a process called Network Address Translation (NAT). 

Router Mode is just to make the networking device function as a Router. Generally, the Modem/Router combo offered by the ISPs is, by default, set to the Router mode. However, if you use multiple routers for Wi-Fi range expansion, a private set of IPs created by the router generates conflict and can cause issues on the network. This is what is known as the Double NAT.

Router Mode

The router mode also supports multiple authentication methods, making it a more flexible option while setting up a connection. 


Ideal for connecting  Remote Networks

Brings the benefits of NAT

Enables more security Layers

Supports Multiple connection types (Dynamic IP/Static IP/PPPoE)


Dynamic Routing can consume Bandwidth

Double NAT becomes imminent when multiple devices are connected in router mode

Bridges use source and destination MAC before forwarding packets, contributing to less network congestion. Bridging essentially is the process of connecting two networks and making them function as one.

Now, getting into Bridge mode, is a setting that can be configured to make networking devices work simultaneously and extend the port access to a wider area. This configuration will disable the Network Access Translation (NAT) on one of the routers and turn it into a layer 2 device (On OSI) and extends the LAN. 

Bridge Mode

With the IP assigning or NAT turned off, the router will not work as a DHCP server, which reduces the IP address conversion time. This can also be said as the latency of transferring the data between two points is relatively faster because of reduced data hops. 

Traceroute Command

Enabling the bridge mode on a primary networking device will take away the routing capability from the device, if present. Configuring a device to work on the bridge mode renders the WAN port useless since the device is typically non-existent apart from extending the primary connection.


Extends network coverage over a larger area

Negates the possibility of Double NAT

Can work Between Firewalls

Offers high network reliability


Service providers might not support the device

Cannot Configure Source or Destination NAT 

Limited IP pools and devices

From an OSI model perspective, the router is a Level three device that performs the routing of traffic in an extended network. Routers are referred to as the network’s gateway as they forward the packets from one network to another. This is the normal modus operandi when a networking device is set to run on a Router mode. 

Router With OSI Layer

A bridge is a network framework segregating the LAN into segments and dividing the traffic into those segments. On an OSI Model, it works on the Data Link layer. Bridges are used to overcome the limitations of the bus topology by reducing network traffic and limiting bandwidth usage. Thus, enabling the Bridge mode does this function by converting the networking device into a bridge. 

Bridge with OSI Layer

Getting into other differences between these two modes, we can find some major divergences in their performance, security, usage, and specialization. 

When it comes to the packet transfer process, a router mode works efficiently by directing them to just the necessary destination. This helps in reducing traffic and boosts the overall performance of the network. However, Bridge mode provides flexibility to connect many devices, extend the range of the Network and improve the network speed. 

When two routers are connected to each other, there is the possibility of Double NAT in the routing mode. The issue can become prominent while using VoIP service or port forwarding rules. 

The main purpose of the bridge mode is not to function as a security layer  but to reduce traffic using segmentation. To make things simple, if you are planning to use bridge mode for a home network, it provides equal amount of security as a router.

On the other hand, since routers are primarily used to connect two remote devices or networks, routers can help to create a secure network. Under router mode, different security protocols are adopted, including encryption, to secure the data. This makes the router safer than using it as a bridge.

If a networking device is operating on a bridge mode, it will not have the routing capabilities and can be used to extend the range of  LANs. And hence, the bridge mode is seen as easier to operate for LANs. 

Router mode is required when you need to move back and forth between multiple networks. For instance, between your ISP and your home network. Also, a router mode enabled in a networking device can distribute a single wired Internet connection to multiple clients. These are the reasons for the router mode being suitable for both LAN and WAN environments. 

Enabling bridge mode can be useful in those places where the number of devices trying to connect to the network is large and network coverage needs expansion. 

The Routers support a limited number of devices connected at a time and also do not cater to the requirement of wider network coverage. Thus, router mode is suitable for home use. 

Except for the fact that both are router/modem configurations, there are only a few similarities between Bridge mode and Router mode. However, when viewed closely, both of these modes of networking can be used to extend network connectivity. 

Users can extend the existing network without using the NAT feature while using Bridge mode. Network range extensions are possible while in router mode, but IP address conflicts also can arise with it.

Bridge Mode helps you to utilize the networking devices you have to extend the network coverage across a larger area. If you are setting a Mesh system, you must operate your primary networking device on bridge mode.

As already discussed, having the bridge mode on eliminates the possibility of Double NAT. If any network-based activity you are performing is getting affected by Double NAT, you can try using this mode on your router. Operating on Bridge mode also can be a good option if the device provided by your ISP lacks wireless strength. 

For an average home user, running on the Router mode is relatively easy and caters all the home requirements. If you have multiple networks, you can use the router mode to separate them by creating multiple SSIDs. On a home network, you can also operate the primary networking device on a Router mode and connect a spare router as an extender. 

After all of the discussion, here is a quick summary of the major differences between Router Mode and Bridge Mode. 

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Huawei P40 Vs Pro Vs Pro+: What’s The Difference?

P40 series of smartphones, but with three different models to choose from at different prices, specs and features it’s probably hard to know which is the best one for you.

Well don’t worry because here we’re going to compare the three P40 phones across key areas highlighting the differences so you can buy the right one. We won’t be going into every tiny bit of detail to avoid this turning into a lengthy essay, but rather looking at what will be most important when deciding on a P40.

We’ve been briefed ahead of the launch but Huawei likes to keep things like the prices until the presentation so we’ll add this when we can. For now let’s look at how the P40, P40 Pro and P40+ compare when it comes to things like cameras, screens and more. 

See what we think in our Huawei P40 review and how the

P40 Cameras

Let’s kick off with the most important comparison, since the camera tech you get is different across all three phones.

There’s one camera that all three P40 phones get which is 50Mp ‘Ultra Vision Wide Lens’. The P40 then comes with a 16Mp ultra wide angle camera and an 8Mp telephoto camera with 3x optical zoom.

The Pro Pro swaps those two additional cameras for a 40Mp ultra wide angle ‘cine lens’ and a 12Mp 5x Optical Periscope Telephoto lens. Then there’s a time of flight (ToF) sensor, too.

The Huawei P40 Pro+ camera module

Finally, the P40 Pro+ has the same 50- and 40Mp cameras, joined by an 8Mp 3x Optical Telephoto, 8Mp 10x Optical Super Periscope Telephoto and the ToF sensor.

Here’s a more detailed look at each phone’s rear camera array


50Mp Ultra Vision Wide Lens, 23mm, f/1.9, OIS

16Mp Ultra Wide Angle Lens, 17mm, f/2.2

8Mp 3x Optical Telephoto Lens, 80mm, f/2.4, OIS

P40 Pro

50Mp Ultra Vision Wide Lens, 23mm, f/1.9, OIS

40Mp Ultra Wide Angle CineLens, 18mm, f/1.8

12Mp 5x Optical Periscope Telephoto Lens, 125mm, f/3.4, OIS

Huawei Time of Flight

P40 Pro+

50Mp Ultra Vision Wide Lens, 23mm, f/1.9, OIS

40Mp Ultra Wide Angle CineLens, 18mm, f/1.8

8Mp 3x Optical Telephoto Lens, 240mm, f/2.4, OIS

8Mp 10x Optical SuperPeriscope Telephoto Lens, 125mm, f/4.4, OIS

Huawei Time of Flight

When it comes to the front facing camera, all the P40 models have a 32Mp sensor but the Pro models have autofocus and Depth IR, in part for improved facial recognition.

We think photographers should buy the P40 Pro+. Here are some more photography details for the P40 phones:

Audio Zoom (Pro and Pro+)

Steady Telephoto

ISO 51200

Ultra Slow Motion 7680fps


4K @60fps

4K Time Lapse

Pro Mode

4K Selfie Video

P40 Screens

As is typical, the regular P40 has a smaller screen at 6.1in. It also has a slightly shorter aspect ratio and resolution at 19.5:9 2340×1080.

Getting a Pro or Pro+ gets you a larger 6.58in display and a taller 19.8:9 aspect ratio. The resolution is then higher at 2640×1200.

The regular Huawei P40 screen

All three phones have OLED technology with a punch-hole camera arrangement at the top-left but the ‘overflow display’ – where it curves over the edges – is limited to the Pro models.

Then there’s also the fact that Pro/+ gets you a 90Hz refresh rate where the regular P40 is lower at 60Hz. The Pros certainly have the better display then if you are ok with the larger size.

 P40P40 ProP40 Pro+Size6.1in6.58in6.58inResolution




Aspect ratio




Refresh rate60Hz90Hz90Hz

P40 Battery life & Charging

This is another area where the regular P40 lags behind the Pro models as it has a smaller 3800mAh battery and both wired charging is limited to 22.5W. The phone doesn’t have wireless charging.

Meanwhile, getting either the Pro or the Pro+ bumps you to 4200mAh and both wired and wireless charging is able to supply up to 40W and the adapter is supplied in the box. Note that the Pro is limited to 27W on wireless.


P40 Pro

P40 Pro+

Battery capacity3800mAh4200mAh4200MahWired charging22.5W40W40WWireless charging–27W40W

P40 Colours & Waterproofing

This might not be as important as the things above but will still be critical to some people’s buying decision.

The P40 comes in a range of colours, depending on where you live, including Ice White, Black, DeepSea Blue, Silver Frost and Blush Gold.

Although most flagship phones come with top waterproofing, the P40 is a little lower at IP53 (dust protected but not tight, and able to cope with spraying water). Meanwhile the Pro models are fully dust and waterproof at IP68.

P40 Common Specs

To finish things off, here’s a list of specs that all the P40 models share:

Kirin 990 processor

Wi-Fi 6





In-screen fingerprint scanner


P40 Price & Availability

The P40 and P40 Pro will be available from 7 April, while the Pro+ will be released later in June. Here are the details for the prices along with the memory and storage you get.


£699 or 799 Euro


View it at Huawei

P40 Pro

£899 or 999 Euro


View it at Huawei

P40 Pro+

1399 Euro


Which P40 should I buy?

Taking an objective look at the phones, the regular P40 isn’t overly attractive due to all the specs and features that it doesn’t get.

Namely a fancier screen, additional photography skills, wireless charging and faster wired charging. However, those wanting a smaller size and wanting to spend less will need to opt for it.

Chossing between the Pro models is harder since they are pretty similar across the board. We’d say the P40 Pro is the sweet spot unless you really want the ceramic finish of the Pro+, extra storage and will make use of its superior cameras.

Related stories for further reading

Netflix Usa Vs Netflix India – What’s The Difference?

When this content streaming giant started out in the 90s, it has a simple and effective selling point to deliver premium entertainment directly to home users. Thanks to the infinitely rapid spread of the internet in the past decade, Netflix was able to take its model not just online across the United States, but open its wings and go international. Spanning across the entire world except for Syria, North Korea, and Crimea due to US sanctions, Netflix has become synonymous with premium online entertainment.

Despite the service being a worldwide phenomenon, the amount of content available across the service is region-specific. You’ve already seen true Netflix fans discuss the possibility of unlocking Netflix USA in India, and there’s a good reason to do so. Let’s find out what makes Netflix USA and Netflix India so different in the first place.

Related: Netflix vs Hotstar vs Amazon Prime

While it is almost impossible to put the content of Netflix under a microscope with thousands of movies and TV shows, there is some number-crunching we can do. To start off with movie titles, the Netflix movies library in the United States consists of 4500+ movies at an average, with the number growing and even declining sometimes.

The catalog of Netflix movies for the Indian region is restricted to just 500+ movies in comparison to the massive catalog of Netflix USA. There are multiple reasons for this, which includes copyright and language restrictions, content exclusivity and others. But you have to take into account what Netflix India offers that Netflix USA simply doesn’t.

Best streaming services in India

Thanks to its in-house production of Netflix Original content, the entertainment streaming service rules the chart with 1150+ TV shows on the Netflix USA roster at the moment. In comparison, you would expect an equal amount of TV shows to be available on Netflix India, since there aren’t too many regional TV shows available, with the exception of some Pakistani soap dramas of course.

However, there is also a stark difference in the number of Netflix USA TV shows that are available for viewing in India, with the figure being just around 530+ at the moment. This means that as a Netflix India user, you miss out on some of the best TV shows of all time like F.R.I.E.N.D.S, Modern Family, The Flash and many others.

Price: Netflix USA = Netflix India

Considering the massive currency divide between the two nations, you’d expect the streaming service subscription to be cheaper in India, especially when you look at the difference in the content library. With the Netflix USA Standard subscription costing $7.99 and the same on the Indian Netflix platform costing 500 INR (approximately $7.70), there isn’t much of a price gap between the two.

Winner: Netflix USA

As a Netflix user in India, users hoped to enjoy the best of western entertainment with top Netflix Original movies and TV shows at a fairly premium price. While it is quite pleasant that Netflix is keen on offering regional-specific content to woo the local viewership, it comes as a sacrifice of thousands of movies and TV shows that are offered on Netflix USA. Though, there is a trick to let you watch Neflix USA content from India.

On average, Netflix India has less than 12% of the streaming content available on Netflix USA, despite costing almost the same. Since this ratio isn’t going to change anytime soon, it might be time to take things into your hands and fire up a VPN to unblock Netflix USA through your Netflix India subscription.

Pixel 4A 5G Vs Pixel 5: What’s The Difference?

Google took the wraps off its newest Pixel smartphones, the Pixel 4a 5G and Pixel 5, at its hardware event earlier this week. These are the company’s first-ever 5G phones and bring along a major shift in Google’s hardware strategy. It hasn’t really unveiled a true $1,000 flagship smartphone with Pixel 5. Instead, it’s closer to the Pixel 4a 5G in terms of both design and internal specifications.

Pixel 4a 5G vs Pixel 5: Features


Starting off with the design, both the Pixel 4a 5G and Pixel 5 look identical on the front and the rear. It will not be easy to discern between the phones because they both have a square camera module and a fingerprint sensor on the rear, and a punch-hole cutout at the top left on the front. A dead giveaway will, however, be the presence of a 3.5mm headphone jack (just look at the top edge) aboard the Pixel 4a 5G.

If it wasn’t for the different finishes and colorways, it would be a little difficult to tell the two apart from each other. It should not really matter though as both the phones don’t only look the same but share a lot of hardware similarities as well.


Moving to the display, it is essentially the same for both phones but with really minor differences here and there. The Pixel 4a 5G features a slightly bigger 6.2-inch Full-HD+ (2340 x 1080) OLED display as compared to the 6-inch FHD+ OLED panel aboard the Pixel 5. The bezels around the display are minimal, even the bottom chin that’s usually a little thicker.

A major differentiating factor between the two phones has to be the refresh rate. The Pixel 5’s display boasts a high 90Hz refresh rate as opposed to the standard 60Hz refresh rate of the Pixel 4a 5G. Also, Pixel 5 has Gorilla Glass 6 protection on the front in comparison to Gorilla Glass 3 protection aboard the Pixel 4a 5G.


Google Pixel 4a 5G and Pixel 5 are Google’s first-ever 5G-enabled phones. While it was initially rumored that the Pixel 4a might be powered by the Snapdragon 690 SoC, both the Pixel 5 and Pixel 4a 5G are backed by the same Snapdragon 765G chipset under the hood. It’s the same chipset found aboard the OnePlus Nord.

Both the Pixel 4a 5G and Pixel 5 arrive with 5G connectivity support out-of-the-box. If you are wondering, do they support both sub-6GHz and mmWave 5G networks? The answer is yes but it differs with carrier availability and region. Verizon is even selling a Pixel 4a 5G UW for $599 to offer mmWave support to users.

Pixel 5 is no longer a true flagship with a flagship Snapdragon 800-series in tow. It is, instead, an attractive sub-$1,000 flagship with a 90Hz display, stellar cameras, and 5G support.

The only difference between the two phones under the hood is that the Pixel 4a 5G will come with 6GB of LPDDR4x RAM as opposed to 8GB RAM aboard the Pixel 5. Both of the phones include 128GB built-in storage, which is not expandable. The Pixel Neural Core chip is missing in action (and does not result in any lack of features) but the Titan M security chip is still present onboard.


Apart from the processor, Pixel 4a 5G and Pixel 5 also feature the exact same camera system. You will find a square cutout with a 12.2MP (f/1.7) primary camera and a 16MP (f/2.2) ultra-wide camera with a 107-degree FOV on the rear. It’s great that Google finally listened to the feedback and swapped out the telephoto camera for an ultra-wide one.

The punch-hole cutout aboard both the Pixel 5 and Pixel 4a 5G have an 8MP (f/2.0) selfie camera with a wider 84-degree FOV. The phones also support the exact same camera features, including Live HDR+, Night Sight, Night Portrait (read more about this feature right here), Portrait Light, Cinematic Pan, and more.


Google has also decided to address another major issue, i.e appalling battery life, with its previous-gen flagship phone. Pixel 5 sports a huge 4,080mAh battery as compared to the measly 2,800mAh battery aboard the Pixel 4. The new Pixel 4a 5G, on the other hand, comes equipped with a 3,885mAh battery — bigger than the 3,140mAh battery pack of the standard Pixel 4a.

Wireless Charging

The mid-range Pixel 4a 5G does not support it but the flagship Pixel 5 does come with both wireless charging, as well as reverse wireless charging, support. This means you can use a Pixel 5 to charge your smartwatch or TWS earbuds on the move. Pixel 5 supports up to 12W Qi wireless charging, as per its official listing.

But wait, doesn’t the Pixel 5 has an aluminum rear panel? How does it support wireless charging then? Well, Google has made an innovative design choice and carved a hole in the aluminum chassis to fit in the wireless charging coil. You can read all about it right here.

Water Resistance

As you might guess, it’s the Pixel 5 that supports IP68 water and dust resistance. The Pixel 4a 5G does not carry an official IP rating but it does include a 3.5mm headphone jack, which is missing from the Pixel 5. This is good news for many users and so is the dual stereo sound experience.

Pixel 4a 5G vs Pixel 5: Specs Sheet

 Pixel 4a 5GPixel 5

Dimensions153.9 x 74 x 8.2 mm144.7 x 70.4 x 8 mm

Weight168 grams151 grams


ChipsetSnapdragon 765GSnapdragon 765G



SoftwareAndroid 11Android 11

16MP ultra-wide

Selfie Camera8MP8MP

Connectivitydual-mode 5G, Wi-Fi 802.11ac, Bluetooth 5.0, NFC, A-GPS, GLONASS, and moredual-mode 5G, Wi-Fi 802.11ac, Bluetooth 5.0, NFC, A-GPS, GLONASS, and more


Wireless chargingNoYes, up to 12W

Sorta Sage

Pixel 4a 5G vs Pixel 5: Which One Would You Buy?

The choice should be simple. If you are simply looking for a 5G-enabled smartphone with Google’s version of Android and some amazing cameras, then go for the Pixel 4a 5G for an attractive price of $499. It’s the go-to device for users who don’t care about an IP rating or wireless charging.

If you are someone who wants a more premium build, a high refresh rate display, and water resistance among other things, then be ready to shell out an additional $200 for the Pixel 5. It has been priced at $699 in the US. Also, do not expect to get your hands on either of the two in India as Google doesn’t plan on launching them here.

God Mode Ai: The Ai

Unlock the Power of Automation with God Mode: The AI Tool that Automates Complex Tasks! Boost Efficiency, Save Time and Streamline Your Workflow Today! Try Now!

God Mode is an AI-powered tool that has the ability to self-generate tasks, take user prompts, and act on new tasks until it meets the original objective. It’s a unique tool that has been designed to automate complex tasks that would otherwise take a lot longer to complete manually. The tool is not entirely automated, as the user has approval rights for every step, allowing for redirection as well.

I began testing the tool with a task that I have already done manually, which was to create a strategy plan to research and engage with art buyers inside large retailers and merch brands. God Mode immediately conducted market research via Google, found lists, and started writing text files with notes.

After letting it run for over an hour, I added a couple of feedback notes to course correct the results. The tool successfully researched and developed a plan, created documents with engagement steps, and created a Python file to perform a specific task. However, it did not pull any contact information, which was a problem. It began to loop over and over, trying to pull contacts from LinkedIn, Google, and directories, but couldn’t pull the data properly.

I decided to test another idea, inspired by @elonmusk’s interview on Monday night, where he talked about finding the meaning of life. I set out to create “TruthGPT” to automate data research, store the data, interpret the dataset, and output findings and understandings on its own.

It worked much more effectively this time, and below are the list of the initial tasks of research.

See More: God Mode Auto GPT: How AI is Revolutionizing Automation

God Mode successfully researched the concept extensively, then created its own documentation to store the findings. It then trained itself on the data, which is quite impressive. After that, it created and ran a Python file, our own “TruthGPT”, to interpret its own dataset and give an output.

The tool successfully researched the concept extensively, then created its own documentation to store the findings. It then trained itself on the data, which is quite impressive. After that, it created and ran a Python file, our own “TruthGPT”, to interpret its own dataset and give an output.

The tool successfully created a text file with the five potential keys to reality as tasked to do, and well, simply put, we made a “TruthGPT” and found the meaning of life. (YAY! 🎉)

(Jokes aside, no, I don’t believe this is an actual “TruthGPT”). However, the process of automating complex tasks with ChatGPT is quite interesting, and soon, I don’t think there will be any gaps.

God Mode takes user prompts and acts on new tasks until it meets the original objective. The user has approval rights for every step, which allows for redirection if needed.

God Mode can automate complex tasks that would otherwise take a lot longer to complete manually.

The benefits of using God Mode include faster task completion, increased efficiency, and the ability to redirect tasks if needed.

In conclusion, God Mode is an AI-powered tool that is capable of automating complex tasks, thus increasing efficiency and reducing the time required to complete them. The tool takes user prompts and acts on new tasks until the original objective is met, with the user having approval rights for every step. While the tool is not entirely automated, it offers a unique approach to automating tasks with the ability to redirect tasks if necessary.

The tool has been tested, and it has shown its ability to conduct market research, create plans, and run Python files. Although there were some limitations in pulling data from sources, the tool was able to perform the desired tasks effectively. Additionally, the tool was tested on the creation of “TruthGPT,” which successfully researched and interpreted data to provide an output, even if it was just for fun.

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How To Find The Mode

The mode or modal value of a data set is the most frequently occurring value. It’s a measure of central tendency that tells you the most popular choice or most common characteristic of your sample.

When reporting descriptive statistics, measures of central tendency help you find the middle or the average of your data set. The three most common measures of central tendency are the mode, median, and mean.

How many modes can you have?

A data set can often have no mode, one mode or more than one mode – it all depends on how many different values repeat most frequently.

Your data can be:

without any mode

unimodal, with one mode,

bimodal, with two modes,

trimodal, with three modes, or

multimodal, with four or more modes.

Mode calculator

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Find the mode (by hand)

To find the mode, follow these two steps:

If the data for your variable takes the form of numerical values, order the values from low to high. If it takes the form of categories or groupings, sort the values by group, in any order.

Identify the value or values that occur most frequently.

Numerical mode example

Your data set is the ages of 6 college students.

Data set

Participant A B C D E F

Age 19 22 20 21 22 23

By ordering the values from low to high, we can easily see the value that occurs most frequently.

Ordered data set

Age 19 20 21




The mode of this data set is 22.

Categorical mode example

Your data set contains the highest education levels of the participants’ parents.

Data set

Participant A B C D E F

Parents’ education level Bachelor’s degree Master’s degree High school diploma Bachelor’s degree Doctoral degree Master’s degree

To sort the values by group, you create a simple frequency table. Place the categories on the left hand side and the frequencies on the right hand side.

Frequency table

Parents’ education level Frequency

Bachelor’s degree 2

Master’s degree 2

High school diploma 1

Doctoral degree 1

From the table, you can see that there are two modes. This means you have a bimodal data set.

The modes are Bachelor’s degree and Master’s degree.

Find the mode with grouped data

A grouped frequency table organizes large numerical data sets into intervals or classes of values and reports the frequency of values in each class.

For grouped data, you can report the mode in two ways:

the modal class is the grouping with the highest frequency of values.

the modal value is estimated as the midpoint of the modal class.

The mode is only an estimate in this case, because the actual values within the modal class are unknown.

Modal class and modal value example

You have a data set that includes the average reaction times of participants. You organize the data into a frequency table.

Reaction times are placed in classes of 100 milliseconds each. The frequency column shows the number of participants within each class.

Grouped frequency table

Reaction time (milliseconds) Frequency

200–299 6

300–399 13

400–499 17

500–599 25

600–699 21

700–799 12

800–899 4

You can visualize your data set by plotting your data on a histogram. The mode is the value with the highest peak on a histogram or bar chart.

From your table or histogram, you can see that the modal class – the group in which values appear most frequently – is 500–599 milliseconds. Therefore, the mode is estimated to be at the midpoint of this class: 550 milliseconds.

Importantly, the choice of intervals in grouped data can have a large impact on the mode. For example, changing the intervals from 100 ms long to 50 or 200 ms long could result in completely different modes.

When to use the mode

The level of measurement of your variables determines when you should use the mode.

The mode works best with categorical data. It is the only measure of central tendency for nominal variables, where it can reflect the most commonly found characteristic (e.g., demographic information). The mode is also useful with ordinal variables – for example, to reflect the most popular answer on a ranked scale (e.g., level of agreement).

For quantitative data, such as reaction time or height, the mode may not be a helpful measure of central tendency. That’s because there are often many more possible values for quantitative data than there are for categorical data, so it’s unlikely for values to repeat.

Example of quantitative data with no mode

You collect data on reaction times in a computer task, and your data set contains values that are all different from each other.

Data set with no mode

Reaction time (milliseconds) 267 345 421 324 401 312 382 298 303

In this data set, there is no mode, because each value occurs only once.

Other interesting articles

If you want to know more about statistics, methodology, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

Frequently asked questions about the mode Cite this Scribbr article

Bhandari, P. Retrieved July 17, 2023,

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