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Imagine that one day you unwittingly fall for a cryptocurrency phishing scam and the con artist manages to take 10 ether (ETH) from you. There isn’t much you can do because cryptocurrency transactions are final, right? Well, not quite yet.
Adding reversible transactions to Ethereum has recently been suggested by a group of Stanford researchers as a way to guarantee that stolen cryptocurrency is returned to its rightful owner. If a standard like this were to be implemented, the disappointed thief would be left out of pocket while your 10 ETH would theoretically ricochet back into your wallet. Reversibility would likely be a well-liked feature, particularly with the risk-averse people who have so far refrained from adopting Ethereum. Costs must also be taken into account, though. Any time a component of a payment system is changed to address a specific issue, additional issues are subsequently created elsewhere on the network. No such thing as a free fix exists. Let’s examine these charges in more detail.
Reversibility would likely be a well-liked feature, particularly with the risk-averse people who have so far refrained from adopting Ethereum. Costs must also be taken into account, though. Any time a component of a payment system is changed to address a specific issue, additional issues are subsequently created elsewhere on the network. No such thing as a free fix exists. Let’s examine these charges in more detail.
Everything from large-scale attacks to modest retail phishing schemes uses cryptocurrency theft. Kaili Wang and associates have proposed creating an Ethereum token standard that permits transactions to be momentarily reversed to make the crypto economy more secure. A victim of theft could appeal to a decentralized arbitrator during that period, let’s say four days, to get their stolen cryptocurrency restored. The inventor of the Bitcoin blockchain, Satoshi Nakamoto, would be horrified. After all, the white paper by Nakamoto may be interpreted as a tirade against reversible transactions. Nakamoto claimed that because financial institutions “cannot avoid mediating conflicts,” businesses “must be suspicious of their clients, harassing them for more information than they would otherwise require.”
Ethereum is not meant to be entirely reversible, according to Stanford academics. Reversible tokens are not for everyone, thus they can still only interact with non-reversible tokens. Reversible tokens may be the extra barrier that entices people who are put off by the high level of expertise needed to utilize Ethereum responsibly. The trade-offs of payment systems are extremely complicated. To solve one problem, another must be created. This can be best understood in terms of the following too-small-blanket conundrum. Consider the scenario where you want to sleep but your blanket doesn’t reach your toes. Your neck is exposed after you pull it down. Your shoulders are now exposed as you turn the blanket so that it covers both your toes and your neck. There is no ideal solution. You must carefully consider which parts of your body to cover and which to leave bare. Payments follow the same rules. Reversibility may lessen theft, but it may also expose the network to new issues, namely fraud reversal, according to the too-small-blanket paradox. Credit card processing systems provide you with a decent sense of what to anticipate.
Reversibility would affect fungibility if it were added to Ethereum. Assets are fully interchangeable when a thing is fungible. A payment system should be fungible. The dollar payment system is simpler to operate if all dollars are convertible.
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Rewiring The Brain: Seizures
a) A surgeon identifies where in the brain seizures occur using electrodes placed on the scalp, then inserts an electrode array directly into that region. b) A seizure starts when neurons become overly excited, causing a prominent electrical signature. The array detects this signature and emits its own electrical pulse, which disrupts the neurons. c) The pulse also puts a negative current on a polymer enveloping the electrodes on the array, causing its charge to change from positive to neutral. Negatively charged antiseizure-drug molecules drop away from the electrodes, further calming the nearby neurons.1) SEIZURES
A device delivers targeted drugs to calm overactive neurons
Tracy Cui, a biomedical engineer at the University of Pittsburgh, hopes to improve upon that statistic. Her group has designed an electrode that would deliver both an electrical pulse and antiseizure medication. “We know where we want to apply the drug,” Cui says, “so you would not need a lot of it.”
To build the device, Cui’s team immersed a metal electrode in a solution containing two key ingredients: a molecule called a monomer and the drug CNQX. Zapping the solution with electricity causes the monomers to link together and form a long chain called a polymer. Because the polymer is positively charged, it attracts the negatively charged CNQX, leaving the engineers with their target product: an electrode coated in a film that’s infused with the drug.
The researchers then placed the electrodes in a petri dish with rat neurons. Another zap of electricity disrupted the electrostatic attraction in the film, causing the polymer to release its pharmacological payload—and nearby cells to quiet their erratic firing patterns. Cui says her team has successfully repeated the experiment in living rats. Next, she’d like to test the electrodes in epileptic rats and then begin the long process of regulatory approval for human use.
making it useful for treating Parkinson’s disease, chronic pain, or even drug addiction.
Rewiring The Brain: Dementia
a) A surgeon implants an electrode array into the prefrontal cortex so that it touches neurons in layer 2/3 and layer 5. b) The electrodes record brain activity and send it to a microprocessor that sits under the skin at the top of the head. c) When the microprocessor detects a specific pattern, such as the neural signature of the person trying to recall a memory, it commands the array to send electric pulses into the surrounding area, stimulating mental processing.2) DEMENTIA
Electrode arrays stimulate mental processing
Dementia is one of the most well-known and frustrating brain afflictions. It damages many of the fundamental cognitive functions that make us human: working memory, decision-making, language, and logical reasoning. Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s, and Parkinson’s diseases all lead to dementia, and it’s also sometimes associated with multiple sclerosis, AIDS, and the normal process of aging.
Theodore Berger, a biomedical engineer at the University of Southern California, hopes to help people stave off the symptoms of dementia with a device implanted in the brain’s prefrontal cortex, a region crucial for sophisticated cognition. He and colleagues at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center tested the device in a study involving five monkeys and a memory game.
First the team implanted an electrode array so that it could record from layers 2/3 and 5 of the prefrontal cortex and stimulate layer 5. The neural signals that jet back and forth between these areas relate to attention and decision-making. The team then trained the monkeys to play a computer game in which they saw a cartoon picture—such as a truck, lion, or paint palette—and had to select the same image from a panel of pictures 90 seconds later.
The scientists initially analyzed the electrical signals sent between the two cortical layers when the monkeys made a correct match. In later experiments, the team caused the array to emit the same signal just before the monkey made its decision. The animals’ accuracy improved by about 10 percent. That effect may be even more profound in an impaired brain. When the monkeys played the same game after receiving a hit of cocaine, their performance dropped by about 20 percent. But electrical stimulation restored their accuracy to normal levels.
Dementia involves far more complicated circuitry than these two layers of the brain. But once scientists better understand exactly how dementia works, it may be possible to combine several implants to each target a specific region.
Rewiring The Brain: Blindness
a) An eye diseased with retinitis pigmentosa has damaged photoreceptors, or rods and cones. Doctors inject the eye with a nonharmful virus containing the gene channelrhodopsin-2, or ChR2. b) The virus migrates into the retina at the back of the eye and inserts the gene into ganglion cells, which relay signals from the rods and cones to the optic nerve. The ganglion cells begin expressing the ChR2 protein in their membranes. c) Incoming light activates the ChR2 protein in ganglion cells, stimulating them to fire an electrical impulse. That message travels through the optic nerve to the brain’s visual cortex, which interprets it as a rough image.3) BLINDNESS
Gene therapy converts cells into photoreceptors, restoring eyesight
Millions of people lose their eyesight when disease damages the photoreceptor cells in their retinas. These cells, called rods and cones, play a pivotal role in vision: They convert incoming light into electrical impulses that the brain interprets as an image.
In recent years, a handful of companies have developed electrode-array implants that bypass the damaged cells. A microprocessor translates information from a video camera into electric pulses that stimulate the retina; as a result, blind subjects in clinical trials have been able to distinguish objects and even read very large type. But the implanted arrays have one big drawback: They stimulate only a small number of retinal cells—about 60 out of 100,000—which ultimately limits a person’s visual resolution.
A gene therapy being developed by Michigan-based RetroSense could replace thousands of damaged retinal cells. The company’s technology targets the layer of the retina containing ganglion cells. Normally, ganglion cells transmit the electric signal from the rods and cones to the brain. But RetroSense inserts a gene that makes the ganglion cells sensitive to light; they take over the job of the photoreceptors. So far, scientists have successfully tested the technology on rodents and monkeys. In rat studies, the gene therapy allowed the animals to see well enough to detect the edge of a platform as they neared it.
The company plans to launch the first clinical trial of the technology next year, with nine subjects blinded by a disease called retinitis pigmentosa. Unlike the surgeries to implant electrode arrays, the procedure to inject gene therapy will take just minutes and requires only local anesthesia. “The visual signal that comes from the ganglion cells may not be encoded in exactly the fashion that they’re used to,” says Peter Francis, chief medical officer of RetroSense. “But what is likely to happen is that their brain is going to adapt.”
Rewiring The Brain: Paralysis
a) Surgeons implant electrode arrays in two areas of the brain: the motor cortex and the somatosensory cortex. b) As a subject thinks about kicking the ball, his brain sends neural commands from the motor cortex. These are picked up by the array and transmitted to a microprocessor mounted on the patient’s skull. c) The microprocessor wirelessly transmits these commands to a lower-body exoskeleton, which has its own processor. The leg moves toward the ball. d) When the foot touches the ground, pressure sensors on the exoskeleton’s surface generate a tactile signal. That signal is sent back to the electrode array in the patient’s sensory cortex. With this feedback loop, the patient can both “feel” the ground and kick the ball.4) PARALYSIS
A brain-machine interface controls limbs while sensing what they touch
Last year, clinical trials involving brain implants gave great hope to people with severe spinal cord injuries. Two paralyzed subjects imagined picking up a cup of coffee. Electrode arrays decoded those neural instructions in real time and sent them to a robotic arm, which brought the coffee to their lips.
But to move limbs with any real precision, the brain also requires tactile feedback. Miguel Nicolelis, a biomedical engineer at Duke University, has now demonstrated that brain-machine interfaces can simultaneously control motion and relay a sense of touch—at least in virtual reality.
For the experiment, Nicolelis’s team inserted electrodes in two brain areas in monkeys: the motor cortex, which controls movement, and the nearby somatosensory cortex, which interprets touch signals from the outside world. Then the monkeys played a computer game in which they controlled a virtual arm—first by using a joystick and eventually by simply imagining the movement. The arm could touch three identical-looking gray circles. But each circle had a different virtual “texture” that sent a distinct electrical pattern to the monkeys’ somatosensory cortex. The monkeys learned to select the texture that produced a treat, proving that the implant was both sending and receiving neural messages.
This year, a study in Brazil will test the ability of 10 to 20 patients with spinal cord injuries to control an exoskeleton using the implant. Nicolelis, an ardent fan of Brazilian soccer, has set a strict timetable for his team: A nonprofit consortium he created, the Walk Again Project, plans to outfit a paraplegic man with a robotic exoskeleton and take him to the 2014 World Cup in São Paulo, where he will deliver the opening kick.
Rewiring The Brain: Deafness
a) A surgeon makes an incision behind the patient’s ear and inserts new auditory cells, derived from stem cells, into the spiral ganglion at the base of the cochlea. b) These cells grow, forming projections that reinforce a damaged auditory nerve. They ultimately connect with cells in the brain stem.5) DEAFNESS
Stem cells repair a damaged auditory nerve, improving hearing
Over the past 25 years, more than 30,000 people with hearing loss have received an electronic implant that replaces the cochlea, the snail-shaped organ in the inner ear whose cells transform sound waves into electrical signals. The device acts as a microphone, picking up sounds from the environment and transmitting them to the auditory nerve, which carries them on to the brain.
But a cochlear implant won’t help the 10 percent of people whose profound hearing loss is caused by damage to the auditory nerve. Fortunately for this group, a team of British scientists has found a way to restore that nerve using stem cells.
The researchers exposed human embryonic stem cells to growth factors, substances that cause them to differentiate into the precursors of auditory neurons. Then they injected some 50,000 of these cells into the cochleas of gerbils whose auditory nerves had been damaged. (Gerbils are often used as models of deafness because their range of hearing is similar to that of people.) Three months after the transplant, about one third of the original number of auditory neurons had been restored; some appeared to form projections that connected to the brain stem. The animals’ hearing improved, on average, by 46 percent.
It will be years before the technique is tested in humans. Once it is, researchers say, it has the potential to help not only those with nerve damage but also people with more widespread impairment whose auditory nerve must be repaired in order to receive a cochlear implant.
This article originally appeared in the March 2013 issue of the magazine.
The cryptocurrency market as a whole has grown by $10 billion in the past day.
Crypto prices are flashing green today as major tokens find support.
Bitcoin, Luna, Solana, and EverGrow Coin cryptocurrencies have all increased in price in the past 24 hours. Ethereum is currently in the red but losses are under 1%.
The cryptocurrency market as a whole has grown by $10 billion in the past day. The crypto market cap is now $1.25 trillion. While the market was consistently pushing past $2 trillion in early 2023 the current figure is up from $1.17 trillion following the recent crash.Bitcoin – Finds support above $30,000
Bitcoin has found support to hold above $30,000 today.
The Bitcoin price is currently $30,474.37 according to CoinMarketCap. This is a growth of 1.74% in the past day.
Bitcoin rallied to over $32,000 this week after falling to lows under $29,000. The Bitcoin crashed below $30,000 for some hours yesterday before holding above $30,000. The Bitcoin price is 5% above what it was a week ago.Luna – prices rebound after sell off
Crypto analysts feared the Luna price would tank as investors sold off their airdropped tokens en masse.
If this sell-off has already happened, it only took Luna down from $12 to $6 before a recovery today. The Terra Luna price is currently $6.67 and has grown 2.8% in the past day.
Every day more builders and developers are migrating dApps and projects to the new Terra blockchain. Despite accusations of fraud, bitterness, and attempts at poaching Terra developers to other blockchain networks, the new Luna token is in demand.EverGrow Coin – breaks $37 million rewards
EverGrow Coin has shot past the $37 million rewards paid to investors.
The leading reflection token launched in September last year and has been paying Binance-pegged USD to investors thanks to a 14% reflection tax. EverGrow Coin has also burned through 53% of its initial token supply (8% of the tax is for BUSD reflections, 2% for buyback & burn).
EverGrow Coin is trading at $0.0000002303 and has grown 3% in the past 24 hours.Ethereum – unable to hold $2,000 yet
Ethereum is struggling to hold $2,000 in June so far.
Ethereum is trading at $1,1810 and has fallen 0.8% in the past 24 hours. During a price rally this week, the price of ETH broke past $2,000 in a matter of minutes.
The price of Ethereum was up at nearly $3,000 at the beginning of May before the crypto crash. The price fell to $1,700 and has recovered gradually since.Solana – back in the green after an outage
The Solana blockchain suffered an outage for over four hours this week.
The price of Solana sank 11% for two days before the network came online and prices began to rise. Solana is trading at a price of $39.82 and is up 0.6% in the past day.
Solana sank to 9th place in the crypto rankings during the blockchain outage, as rival Cardano flipped both SOL and XRP. The Solana market cap is currently $13 billion – some $6 billion below both Cardano (ADA) and Ripple (XRP).
Apple and more than a dozen other titans of technology have written to European Union officials, expressing concern that a unified patent court system could encourage patent trolls to expand their lawsuits overseas.
Apple and more than a dozen other titans of technology have written to European Union officials, expressing concern that a unified patent court system could encourage patent trolls to expand their lawsuits overseas.
New rules now being developed could create “significant opportunities for abuse” allowing patent owners to “extract substantial royalties,” according to the letter obtained by the New York Times.
Starting in 2023 trolls could take infringement cases to non-member countries or nations without much experience, creating a European version of the Eastern District of Texas. Courts in that U.S. district are notorious for rulings favorable to companies suing tech firms, according to the letter…
After looking at the EU’s plans “companies now fear that the new system could be vulnerable to what they call patent assertion entities, less politely known as patent trolls, which make a business of filing patent-infringement lawsuits,” reports the New York Times.
The EU’s proposal would create a unified patent court, replacing the current patchwork quilt of countries all with differing levels of experience handling patent-infringement claims.
Along with Apple (the favorite target of patent trolls), Google, Samsung, BlackBerry, Hewlett-Packard, Microsoft, Intel, Yahoo and Cisco signed the letter of concern sent Thursday. European firms such as Deutsche Telekom and Telecom Italia also signed, according to the report.
Ironies abound on both sides.
Google, which signed the letter warning of European patent abuse, recently found its Motorola Mobility the first convicted patent troll. The Times also notes than many of the people helping the EU draft the unified patent court “work for law practices or lobbying firms” which count as clients the signatories of today’s letter.
Spain and Poland are also raising objections, while Italy has some reservations about the proposal.
Spain is suing the EU over the plan, saying the Spanish language is not among those within the court system. Poland believes the proposal could hurt its economy, while Italy is unsure about so-called pan-European patents. At least 13 of the 25 EU member states must approve the court proposal for it to go into effect.
Chief among the worries by U.S. companies is that patent trolls could shop for a European country either with little experience handling patent issues or a nation that has not signed onto the unified court plan.
Another problem is the new system would split the question of whether infringement occurred from consideration of if the patent is even valid. While the procedure is common in German courts, the division on questions opens up “significant opportunities for abuse,” the letter writers explain.
In 2012 signatory Microsoft moved operations from Germany to the Netherlands due to what it said was a patent lawsuit filed by Motorola Mobility in Germany. Germany’s Deutsche Telekom was forced to pay a patent-infringement settlement to IPNav, which owns more than 1,000 patents, according to the Times.
Over the last half-decade, IPNav has sued over 1,600 U.S.-based companies, a record. Defendants have included Google, Adobe and Hitachi.
IPNav has written that the proposed change in how Europe handles patent challenges is “a great benefit to innovators” and the new setup “is going to cut the cost of litigation down significantly.”
The proposed change in Europe comes as patent trolls become a front-burner topic in the U.S. The FTC has launched an investigation into patent-infringement claims as the Obama administration orders agencies such as the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office take a closer look at patent applications and their owners.
The cryptocurrency market is growing with every passing day. Crypto miners have always been keen on making the best of the opportunities available. It is because of this very reason that Ethereum mining software has become quite prominent, of late. On that note, have a look at the top 10 Ethereum mining software for crypto miners in 2023.Cudo Miner
Cudo Miner is one crypto miner tool wherein crypto miners can earn as much money as possible from their PC or laptop. This is an absolutely easy-to-install, secure, and safe-to-use tool and provides support for CPU, GPU, and ASIC Ethereum mining machines.Hashing24
This mining software enables one to mine cryptocurrency without buying any equipment. How amazing is that? This tool is exceptional to the extent that it provides access to real-world data centers. Additionally, it can automatically deposit your earned mined coins to the balance.Kryptex
Kryptex, an Ethereum mining software, allows you to mine cryptocurrency and is widely recognized as one of the best Ethereum miners, that provides a clean GUI. An interesting point worth a mention is that this Ethereum mining software pays real money or Bitcoins for mining cryptocurrency.MinerGate
This mining software was launched in 2014. This software allows the crypto miners to mine Ethereum in addition to Bitcoin Gold, Monero, ZCash, Monero Classic, AEON, Bytecoin, Grin, Litecoin, and Ethereum Classic. It has millions of users across the globe and allows users to automate crypto mining processes.WinETH
WinETH is GPU mining software that is based on Ethminer and comes with a graphic user interface and intelligence algorithm. The users can optimize mining efficiency for their hardware. It has a simple interface, requires zero configurations, and is very easy to use, thus making it ideal for beginners. No wonder this is the best Ethereum mining software.Ethermine
Ethermine is a GPU mining software that can be used to mine Ethereum and any crypto-based on Ethash proof of work. Other cryptocurrencies include Ethereum Classic, Metaverse, Musicoin, Ellaism, Pirl, Expanse, and others. Additionally, this Ethereum mining software comes with CUDA, OpenGL, and Stratum support. Can it get any better?TeamRedMiner
TeamRedMiner, an optimized Ethereum mining software for AMD GPUs, supports both Windows and Linux operating systems. This mining software works great with Radeon RX Vega series graphics cards. This software boasts of one of the best user interfaces and it is also easy to use.EasyMiner
No wonder, EasyMiner is one of the best mining software for Ethereum as it works with PPLNS payouts pools. There’s a control panel here that allows you to edit details like worker name, password, username, pool port, and address. Not just that – you can select miscellaneous settings like automatic start on Windows starting as well.PhonexMiner
PhonesMiner is a CPU and GPU mining software for Ethereum, that mines Ethereum faster because of the use of different code which avoids outdated shares, optimizes GPU load, optimizes OpenCL code, and optimizes assembler kernels.Pionex
Pionex is that one Ethereum mining software that lets crypto miners set out to receive Ethereum on an external wallet, including on Pionex’s crypto trading robot, which hosts an Ethereum wallet. The popularity of this Ethereum mining software has grown to the extent that today it has made its way to become one of the top Ethereum mining software for crypto miners in 2023.
Cryptocurrencies have opened up new avenues for passive income, with staking being a popular method among investors. Staking involves locking up cryptocurrencies in a digital wallet to support the operations of a blockchain network and, in turn, earning rewards.
In this article, we will explore the similarities and differences between staking cryptocurrencies like Polygon and Ethereum and an alternative method of earning passive income through the Caged Beasts (BEASTS) referral scheme. We will highlight the unlimited earning potential of the Referral Scheme and how it can enhance users’ earnings.Polygon and Ethereum: Staking for Passive Income
Polygon and Ethereum are two prominent players in the cryptocurrency market, each offering staking options for investors seeking passive income. Staking involves locking up a certain amount of cryptocurrency in a network’s wallet to support the network’s operations and validate transactions. In return for their participation, stakers are rewarded with additional tokens of the native blockchain.
Polygon, often referred to as the “Ethereum’s Internet of Blockchains,” is a scaling solution built on top of the Ethereum blockchain. It allows users to stake their Polygon tokens, known as MATIC, in a process called “Polygon PoS.” By staking MATIC, users contribute to the network’s security and receive a share of the transaction fees as rewards. This passive income opportunity has attracted many investors looking for a reliable way to earn a return on their investment.
On the other hand, Ethereum, the second-largest cryptocurrency by market capitalization, is in the process of transitioning from a proof-of-work (PoW) to a proof-of-stake (PoS) consensus mechanism. Ethereum staking involves locking up Ether, the native currency of the Ethereum network, to support the network’s operations. Stakers are then rewarded with additional Ether as an incentive for securing the network. This shift to PoS is expected to provide more scalability and energy efficiency to the Ethereum ecosystem while offering stakers a means to earn passive income.Caged Beasts Referral Scheme: Unlimited Earning Potential
While staking cryptocurrencies offer a reliable way to earn passive income, the Caged Beasts referral scheme takes the concept of passive earnings to a new level. Caged Beasts, created by Rabbit 4001, is a project that aims to captivate its community and give investors a unique opportunity to earn substantial rewards.
The Caged Beasts project revolves around the creation of genetically mutated animals, also known as caged beasts, by Dr. Rabbit Hyde. As the project raises funds through presales, these caged beasts grow and develop from babies into fully grown beasts. The engaging storyline and community involvement make Caged Beasts a compelling investment option for those seeking both financial returns and a captivating experience.
What sets the Caged Beasts referral scheme apart is its unlimited earning potential. By referring others to join the project, investors can enhance their earnings exponentially. The referral scheme acts as a catalyst for growth, as each new participant contributes to the project’s development. This unique feature differentiates Caged Beasts from traditional staking options, offering investors an opportunity to maximize their passive income in a dynamic and engaging environment.
In conclusion, staking cryptocurrencies like Polygon and Ethereum provides a solid avenue for earning passive income in the world of cryptocurrencies. However, the Caged Beasts referral scheme introduces a new dimension to the concept of passive earnings, offering unlimited earning potential through its captivating storyline and community involvement.
While staking provides a reliable and predictable return on investment, the Caged Beasts referral scheme adds an element of excitement and growth. By actively participating in the project and referring others, investors can significantly enhance their earnings and become part of a vibrant and engaging community.
Embrace the world of cryptocurrencies, choose your preferred path to passive income, and unlock the potential for financial growth. Register your email and join the Caged Beasts community today to embark on an exciting journey of earning potential.Caged Beasts
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