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I’ve previously written a UDF to count colored cells and then perform various maths functions on the values in those cells, like SUM, AVERAGE or COUNT.

In this post I’m going to rewrite that code so that we can return a range from a UDF. This range contains all the cells that match the reference color, and you can then use this range in other functions and calculations.

The UDF

The UDF is called FindColors and is really a pretty straightforward few lines of VBA:

' ' Written by Philip Treacy ' Function FindColors(InputRange As Range, ReferenceCell As Range) As Range Dim ReferenceColor As Long Dim Cell As Range, Result As Range ReferenceColor = ReferenceCell.Interior.Color For Each Cell In InputRange If Cell.Interior.Color = ReferenceColor Then If Result Is Nothing Then Set Result = Cell Else Set Result = Union(Result, Cell) End If End If Next Cell Set FindColors = Result End Function

All we need to do is check each cell in the InputRange sent to the function, to see if that cell has the same background color as our ReferenceCell.

A regular old For … Next loop does this job for us.

UNION

If we find cells that match the color of our ReferenceCell, we use the UNION operator to join these separate cells together into a single range.

Set Result = Union(Result, Cell)

Returning the Resulting Range

The last thing to do is return the result of the function, which is the range of colored cells matching our ReferenceCell.

But, because we are returning a range object we must Set the function result like so:

Set FindColors = Result

Using the UDF Result

If you want to find the SUM of all cells colored the same as B9, and where ColoredCells is a named range, you’d enter this in a cell:

=SUM(FindColors(ColoredCells,B9))

A Word on Recalculation

If you change the background color of the cell using the Ribbon (or a couple of other ways), the function output is not recalculated. That’s just the way Excel works and I wrote about this in a previous post – check the section headed Recalculation.

Bonus Function – GetColor

This was in the previous workbook too, but I didn’t mention it.

Use this function to get the hex value of a cell’s background color. Or to check that certain cells all have the same color.

To use it just call the function from a cell:

=GetColor(B9)

Check Out Other Posts on User Defined Functions

Creating a UDF

Creating Multi-Function UDF’s

Creating a Reference to PERSONAL.XLSB

Creating an Excel Add-In For UDF’s

Count, Sum and Average Colored Cells

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## How To Create A Function With Arguments And A Return Value In Golang?

This tutorial will teach us how to create a function with arguments and a return value. This tutorial involves a gist about the function, and syntax for the function with an argument and a return type in Golang, then last we will see two different examples of a function with arguments and with a return type. In one example we will return the sum of two numbers and in the other one, we will return the area of the circle.

Functions in the Programming language.

Let us first see what function is. The function is a subset of a program that makes the code modular. Also, the functions make specific codes reusable. The function supports the argument while calling them and can also have a return type as per our requirement.

Function with Argument and with a Return Type func functionName(argumentName1 argumentType, argumentName2 argumentType, …) (returnType1, returnType2, …) { return returnValue1, returnValue2, … } Explanation

func is the keyword in Golang that tells the compiler that a function is defined.

Just next to the function we write the name of the function that must start with the letter.

Now we will write the arguments between curve braces() starting with the name of the argument and then its datatype.

To mention the return type we will write them in separate curve braces() just after the declaration of arguments.

In between curly braces we can write the logic of the function.

Once the whole logic is written we will use the return keyword to return all the values that we want to return.

Algorithm

Step 1 − Start the main() function.

Step 2 − Call the function with argument and with return value and store the value in a respective variable.

Step 3 − Declare the function, write the logic in the function body and return the value in the last.

Step 4 − Perform the required operation on the value returned by the function.

Example 1

In this example, we are going to create a function to find the sum of two numbers where we are passing the number as an argument and returning the sum.

package main import ( "fmt" ) func sumOfTwoNumbers(number1, number2 int) int { return number1 + number2 } func main() { var number1, number2, sumOfNumbers int number1 = 21 number2 = 32 fmt.Println("Golang program to learn how to create a function with argument and with the return value.") fmt.Println("Finding sum of two numbers.") sumOfNumbers = sumOfTwoNumbers(number1, number2) fmt.Printf("The sum of %d and %d is %d. n", number1, number2, sumOfNumbers) } Output Golang program to learn how to create a function with argument and with the return value. Finding the sum of two numbers. The Sum of 21 and 32 is 53. Example 2

In this example, we are going to create a function to find the area of the circle where we are passing the radius as an argument and returning the area.

package main import ( "fmt" ) func AreaOfCircle(radius float32) float32 { return (22 / 7.0) * radius * radius } func main() { var radius, areaOfCircle float32 radius = 3.5 fmt.Println("Golang program to learn how to create a function with argument and with the return value.") fmt.Println("Finding the area of the circle.") areaOfCircle = AreaOfCircle(radius) fmt.Printf("The area of the circle with radius %f cm is %f cm^2. n", radius, areaOfCircle) } Output Golang program to learn how to create a function with argument and with return value. Finding the area of the circle. The area of the circle with radius 3.500000 cm is 38.500000 cm^2. Conclusion

These are the two examples of a function with arguments and with a return value. The main use case of these types of functions is that if you want to perform some operation on the argument and return the result then we can create a function with argument and with return value. To learn more about Golang you can explore these tutorials.

## A Plastic Gun From A 3

Firing an all-plastic gun is a dubious affair. The weapons can handle about a single shot. Even then, they are often as liable to blow off your hand as to find their target. “I’d be scared to pull the trigger on one,” said Robert Allen, a terrorism expert at Tulane University and security specialist for the U.S. Marine Corp.

In the recent concern over 3-D printed guns, it’s important to remember that today’s 3-D printers only print in plastic (besides machines that run upwards of \$100,000). And plastic guns still have a long way to go before they pose the same threat to public safety as an assault rifle. “A lot of this is a big to do over nothing,” Allen said.

If someone wanted to make a semi-automatic weapon, they would need special equipment to construct a lower receiver, the aluminum part of a gun that holds the rest of the pieces together. You can buy an unfinished lower receiver (called an 80 percent lower, because it’s an almost-complete part) for less than \$100 online because the piece is not yet legally considered a firearm. A gunsmith could finish the receiver or you would need another machine, close to \$2000, to manufacture the rest. While certainly not comforting, making your own gun that can shoot off multiple rounds is not quite as simple as pressing a button on a 3-D printer from Best Buy.

“If you were hoping to carry an illicit weapon, it’s probably easier to get a gun from the black market than to make your own,” said Thomas Woodson, who studies emerging technologies and public policy at Stony Brook University.

Still, for those people intent on illegally printing plastic guns, the decision to block the public release of blueprints this month did little to stop them. While online for just two days, designs for 3-D printed guns were downloaded nearly 100,000 times back in 2013. Without a doubt, those plans remain circulating in the dregs of the internet, Woodson said.

Technically, having an all-plastic gun is illegal. When 3-D printed weapons first made their appearance, a law was already on the books requiring guns to have a certain amount of metal components. That ensured any legal weapon would show up in a metal detector.

In theory, an all-plastic gun would be bothersome to law enforcement beyond evading detection. Forensic investigators rely on microscopic details left in the wake of a gunshot when they analyze a crime scene. The barrel of a metal gun is coated in ridges that leave a unique marking on a bullet. “It’s almost like a fingerprint,” Allen said. “Every time you fire a bullet, I can match that bullet to a particular gun. That’s how law enforcement solves a lot of crimes.” If a plastic gun was used once and thrown away, “that would catch my attention,” he said. It’s hard to make a murder case without evidence from the weapon.

For now, though, the threat from a 3-D printed gun looms larger in the public eye than in reality. “Even if you removed every single 3-D printer from the world today, other machines could print out or cut out objects that could be used to build things that are prohibited,” said Woodson.

What’s more, a gun in the U.S. is easy to come by, said Allen. “Why go through all the trouble to make a plastic gun when I can just go get one?”

## Excel Test If A Range Contains Text, Numbers Or Is Empty

I received an email from Bill this week asking how he can check if a range of cells contains text or numbers, as opposed to being empty.

We can use the ISTEXT function to test for text, and ISNUMBER function to test for numbers, but these only work on one cell at a time.

Here’s the syntax:

=ISTEXT(value)

=ISNUMBER(value)

Where ‘value’ is the reference of the cell you want to test.

We can see them in action in the image below:

But Bill wants to test the whole range, A4:A10, to see if any cells contain text or numbers.

To check a range we can combine the ISTEXT and ISNUMBER functions with SUMPRODUCT like this:

So, how does this Beauty work?

Although this isn’t strictly an array formula, in that you don’t have to enter it with CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER, the SUMPRODUCT function behaves just like an array formula.

Let’s look at how it evaluates:

Step 1 – ISTEXT returns an array of TRUE/FALSE for each cell in the range A4:A10 like so:

Step 2 – ISNUMBER also returns an array of TRUE/FALSE for each cell in the range A4:A10 like so:

Step 3 – Now, since TRUE/FALSE have equivalent number values of 1 for TRUE, and 0 for FALSE when we apply the + to the two arrays inside the SUMPRODUCT function it converts them to their numeric equivalent like so:

Step 4 – SUMPRODUCT then adds the 1’s and 0’s together:

Step 5 – it tests whether the result of the SUMPRODUCT formula is greater than 0. If it is it returns TRUE, if not FALSE.

Array Formula Option

Of course we could achieve the same result from this array formula:

Although this is slightly shorter to write, remember because it’s an array formula we need to enter it with CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER.

Return a Different Message

If you want to return a ‘Yes’ or ‘No’, as opposed to the TRUE/FALSE outcomes, we can do this with an IF function like so:

Test for Numbers Only

Note the difference in this formula is the *1 after the ISNUMBER test.  This is to coerce the TRUE/FALSE values into their numeric equivalents of 1 and zero.

We didn’t have to do this in the original formula because the + in the SUMPRODUCT function did that for us:

Another way to coerce TRUE/FALSE values is with the double unary like so:

Test for Text Only

Or with the double unary:

Test if a Range is Empty

We can use the ISBLANK function to test if a cell is empty, but like ISTEXT and ISNUMBER, it only works on one cell at a time. The solution is to use SUMPRODUCT to test a range of cells and then compare the result to the number of cells in the range like so:

=SUMPRODUCT(--ISBLANK(A4:A10))=ROWS(A4:A10)

The ISBLANK function returns a TRUE for every blank cell, which we then coerce into the numeric equivalent using the double unary – -.

The ROWS function returns the number of cells (or rows) in a range.

Using the original data as our example:

The ISBLANK formula evaluates like this:

=SUMPRODUCT({1,0,0,1,0,0,0})=7   =2=7   =FALSE

If the range A4:A10 were empty it would evaluate like this:

=SUMPRODUCT({1,1,1,1,1,1,1})=7   =7=7   =TRUE

Now, if you’ve read this far and are keeping up with me then you might be thinking, ‘can I use ISBLANK to test if any cells contain text or numbers instead of the original ISTEXT/ISNUMBER formula?’

The answer is yes, like this:

In English: if the number of BLANK cells in the range A4:A10 is not equal to the number of rows in the range A4:A10 you will get TRUE, meaning there is at least one cell in the range that isn’t blank.

The downside of this option is the double negatives can do your head in, whereas interpreting the ISTEXT and ISNUMBER formula is a bit less draining on your brain power 🙂

Want to Learn Array Formulas?

Thanks

Thank you to Bill for inspiring this tutorial.

## Queries To Evaluate The Given Equation In A Range L R

The evaluation of all equation in an interval [L, R] give us a range of values for those variables. Examples of how this may be used include modelling, data analysis, and problem-solving scenarios.

In this situation, we define equations variable values for all point in range. Hence can be done by specifying the step size of the range and evaluating the equation for each variable value inside the range.

Specifications

It may be called a request for information asked to database. Data is extracted using specific commands when certain requirements are met. To acquire, filter, sort, and summarize data from database, queries are frequently written in programming language Queries can be simple, depending on complexity of data and information that must be extracted.

A computer program that accepts the equation range [L, R], and step size as inputs and produces results of equation for each value of variable in range can be used to automate this process.

Problem Approaches

Finding value of given equation inside a certain range is the goal of queries to assess any given equation in a range [L, R]. Here is a potential method to use for similar queries −

Parse the provided equation and create an expression tree from it. A binary tree can be used to visualize the expression tree, with each node standing in for an operator or operand in the equation.

Pre-order the expression tree and iterate through each sub-tree, evaluating the equation for each one. Each node of the expression tree should include the outcome.

Create range query function that accepts expression tree’s root, lower bound L, and upper bound R as inputs. The goal of this function is to iterate through expression tree and return equation’s solution for supplied [L, R] range.

One can additionally precompute and save equation’s solutions for each sub-range of specified range [L, R] to improve range query function.

Finally, one can evaluate equations for various ranges using range query function.

Syntax

In C++, a loop can be used to iterate through the values in each range before applying the supplied equation to each value to determine its evaluation in the [L, R] range. For each value of x in range [L, R], create following loop to assess equation −

y = x2 + 2x + 1 int equation(int x) { return x*x + 2*x + 1; } int L, R; for (int x = L; x <= R; x++) { int y = equation(x); cout << "x = " << x << ", y = " << y << endl; } Algorithm

Here is C++ algorithm to assess equation in interval [L, R] −

Step 1 − Give example of how to define equation as function that receives variable x and returns value y −

double equation(double x) { return x*x + 2*x + 1; }

Step 2 − Write function that accepts two integers L and R as arguments and outputs the solution to equation for each integer value between L and R inclusive. One can iterate across range [L, R] using loop, evaluating equation for each integer value −

for (int x = L; x <= R; x++) { double y = equation(x); results.push_back(y); } return results; }

Step 3 − After evaluating equation over range [L, R],one can use this function to get result, which are delivered as vector of double values −

Note − By simply substituting desired equation for equation function,one can change procedure to evaluate any equation.

In C++, one can use a loop to cycle through each value in range and evaluate equation there in order to evaluate equation in range [L, R].

The range being assessed in example is [1, 10], and equation being evaluated is i*i + 2*i + 1. The for loop repeatedly evaluates equation at each value in range and prints answer to console. The equation and range can be changed to suit one’s needs.

Example-1

using namespace std; int main() { int L = 1, R = 10; for (int i = L; i <= R; i++) { int result = i*i + 2*i + 1; cout << “Result at ” << i << ” = ” << result << endl; } return 0; }

Output Result at 1 = 4 Result at 2 = 9 Result at 3 = 16 Result at 4 = 25 Result at 5 = 36 Result at 6 = 49 Result at 7 = 64 Result at 8 = 81 Result at 9 = 100 Result at 10 = 121 Appraoch-2

Here is the illustration of C++ query that can be used to analyze given equation for range of values between L and R −

In this illustration, an equation that needs to be evaluated is first defined as a function called equation. Then, we create an evaluate function, which accepts two parameters, L and R, which stand for range of values we want to evaluate equation for.

We iteratively evaluate equation for each value between L and R (inclusive) inside evaluate function. Then, using cout, we output outcome for each value.

We specify the range we want to evaluate equation for in main function (in this case, L = 1 and R = 10) and call evaluate function with these values. The programmer’s output will be solutions to problem for each number between 1 and 10.

Example-2

using namespace std;

// Define the equation you want to evaluate int equation(int x) { return x * x + 2 * x + 1; }

// Define a function to evaluate the equation for a given range [L, R] void evaluate(int L, int R) { for (int i = L; i <= R; i++) { int result = equation(i); cout << “The result of equation for ” << i << ” is ” << result << endl; } } int main() { int L = 1, R = 10; evaluate(L, R); return 0; }

Output The result of equation for 1 is 4 The result of equation for 2 is 9 The result of equation for 3 is 16 The result of equation for 4 is 25 The result of equation for 5 is 36 The result of equation for 6 is 49 The result of equation for 7 is 64 The result of equation for 8 is 81 The result of equation for 9 is 100 The result of equation for 10 is 121 Conclusion

In conclusion, we can apply the prefix sums or cumulative sums approach to assess a given equation in the interval [L,R]. Each query can be answered in constant time by precalculating the prefix sums of the equation values up to each index. The temporal complexity of this strategy, where N is the size of the input array, is O(N) for precomputation and O(1) for each query.

Overall, the size of the input array and the quantity of queries to be run determine which method should be used. Prefix sum technique is more effective if the number of queries is much greater than the size of the array. However, the binary search strategy can be a preferable option if the number of queries is smaller.

## How Can I Subtract A Day From A Python Date?

Introduction

It is essential to have a module that can modify date and time since, as we all know, they are utilized in applications where we must keep track of date and time. A DateTime module in Python deals with dates and times. Python comes with a built-in datetime module.

Installation of two new libraries is necessary before any data modification may take place.

Dates and timings are quickly retrieved using the arrow library.

A DataFrame may be accessed and used thanks to the Pandas library.

Go to an IDE console to install these libraries. Run the code below at the (\$) command prompt. The command prompt for the terminal used in this illustration is denoted by a dollar symbol (\$). The prompt on your terminal can be different.

Methods used

time − It shows time, independent of any particular day with attributes are hour, minute, second, microsecond, and tzinfo.

timedelta − It is used to manipulate Date.

date − It shows the date according to the Georgian calendar with attributes are year, month and day.

tzinfo − It provides information about the Time zone.

datetime − It is a collection of Dates and Times with the attributes year, month, day, hour, minute, second, microsecond, and tzinfo.

Syntax class datetime.timedelta(days=10, month ,hour, minute, second, microsecond, tzinfo) Returns: Date

Note − if we doesn’t specify by default it takes integer as an day.

Algorithm

Initialise a string and use today method to retrieve the current date and split method to split it into a List.

Declare a new variable which calls datetime.date() and takes three arguments: current year, current month and day.

Declare a variable which uses timedelta and passes an integer which is the number of days to subtract from the original day.

Return the difference of the datetime.date() variable and timedelta variable.

Method 1: Use datetime.timedelta() Example

This method retrieves the current date as a string and splits it into a List. Then, the current date (payday) is configured, and ten (10) days are subtracted (datetime.timedelta(10)) from same to return a new date.

import

datetime

from

datetime

import

date

import

pandas

as

pd

today

=

str

(

date

.

today

(

)

)

.

split

(

‘-‘

)

payday

=

datetime

.

date

(

int

(

today

[

0

]

)

,

int

(

today

[

1

]

)

,

25

)

chqday

=

datetime

.

timedelta

(

10

)

n_payday

=

payday

chqday

print

(

“Payday =”

,

payday

)

Output Payday = 2023-11-25 Code Explanation

Declares today which retrieves the current date (yyyy-mm-dd), and splits the date string on the hyphen (split(‘-‘)). This returns the current date as a List of Strings [‘2023′, ’05’, ’27’]. Declares payday which calls datetime.date() and takes three (3) integer arguments: current year (int(get_today)), current month (int(get_today)), and day, (25). Declares chqday which uses timedelta and passes an integer, (10) which is the number of days to subtract from the original day (25). Declares n_payday which subtracts payday from chqday. Finally, the output of n_paydy is sent to the terminal.

Method 2: Use Pandas to subtract date columns Example

What if you want to determine the difference between two dates but don’t want to establish a new one? In this example, two dates are subtracted from one another, and the result is output as the difference in days.

import

datetime

from

datetime

import

date

import

pandas

as

pd

df

=

pd

.

DataFrame

(

columns

=

[

‘hired’

,

‘fired’

]

)

df

.

hired

=

[

‘2023-09-07’

,

‘2023-10-29’

]

df

.

fired

=

[

‘2023-09-07’

,

‘2023-04-29’

]

df

.

hired

=

pd

.

to_datetime

(

df

.

hired

)

df

.

fired

=

pd

.

to_datetime

(

df

.

fired

)

diff

=

(

df

.

fired

df

.

hired

)

print

(

diff

)

Output 0 -365 days 1 -183 days dtype: timedelta64[ns] Code Explanation

First, a DataFrame with the columns recruited and dismissed is generated. The outcome is saved to df. The next two lines add two rows to the DataFrame df and save the data to the relevant variable (df.hired or df.fired). Then a Datetime object is created from these two lines and stored to the relevant variable stated above. It subtracts the two dates and saves the result to diff.

Conclusion

datetime is a collection of Dates and Times with the attributes year, month, day, hour, minute, second, microsecond, and tzinfo. timedelta() is used to manipulate date. Calculate the difference between timedelta and chúng tôi variable to return the desired output i.e to subtract a day from Python date.

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