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Today, most stereotypical ideas are spread through various forms of mass media, including books, films, TV shows, newspapers, websites, emails, flyers, and bumper stickers. Thus, the consumable objects of mass media constitute an “information highway” for disseminating social preconceptions. Millions, perhaps even billions, of people across space and time share these stereotypical depictions through transactions such as buying, selling, trading, checking out, and interacting with them.

What are Representations of Social Groups in Media?

Some parts of society get a certain image from the media, which can strengthen prejudices. Let us look at how the media presents a certain group. A good example of media representation is the press’s treatment of the British royal family. Because the King and his family are frequently included in media coverage of national events like sports and festivities, they build a sense of “national identity” for the country.

Liberalism in Feminism: A Definition Communist and Socialist Feminism Majority Women’s Movement

Radical feminists argue that male-dominated media purposefully perpetuate traditional hegemonic ideas of femininity to keep women enslaved and confined to a small number of roles. Consequently, women internalize patriarchal values and refrain from taking opportunities, and men’s hegemony remains largely uncontested. To radical feminists, this is when media products symbolically relegate women to subservient positions as sex objects or mother homemakers, even if women progress toward social, political, and professional equality.


The media shapes people’s identities, claiming that today’s media channels threaten traditional gender norms and are a key factor in societal change. There has been a growing critique of conventionally masculine characteristics like toughness and emotional reserve in media that targets men. The media now presents various gendered images and concepts, giving people more leeway when constructing their gender identities.

Illustrations of the Monarchy

Modern media have treated the Queen and her family like the stars of an ongoing soap opera, with more glitz and mystery surrounding them than any other media celebrity. The media’s portrayal of the Queen as the ultimate symbol of the nation is another way she is used to fostering a stronger sense of national pride. The media covers royal weddings and funerals as major national news events.

Riches and the upper class in art

The Neo-Marxists argue that media depictions of social class glorify hierarchy and wealth. The monarchy, the upper class, and the very wealthy who benefit from these processes are often portrayed favorably in the media as truly deserving of their privileged positions. In the British media, the upper classes are rarely portrayed critically, and issues like income inequality and the disproportionate number of graduates from elite public schools are not given the attention they need.

The Middle Class

Four general sociological points may be made regarding how the media portrays the middle class. Television comedies and dramas feature a disproportionate number of middle-class characters. The Daily Mail is just one example of the segment of the British newspaper market that caters to the tastes and interests of the middle class. Articles published in publications like the Daily Mail reveal that journalists considered middle-class Britons proud of their national identity and worried about society’s loss of moral values. The Euro, refugees, and terrorists are all examples of “foreign influences” that are thought to make their audience feel unsafe. That is why publications like the Daily Mail regularly provoke moral panics about things like “video nasties,” “pedophilia,” and “asylum seekers” to defend middle-class interests. Most of the media’s imaginative types come from middle-class backgrounds. The middle class is overrepresented in positions of authority in the media, with the “expert” typically coming from that social group.

The Imagery of the Working Class Conclusion

The media’s depiction of the potential of social networks, as seen in the two newspapers reviewed, disproportionately emphasizes these tools’ risks and negative applications. In order to make the most of the limited time available, television shows must immediately establish the identities of their cast members. Television writers frequently resort to using stock characters to achieve this goal. Most stereotypes adhere to a consistent, understandable pattern of appearance and conduct. As a result, assumptions are made about the individuals or communities being stereotyped. That evaluation can be good or negative.

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Guide To Cultivating Relationships In Social Media

Why Use Relationship Marketing?

When you focus on relationship marketing, you will have several major types of connections. First, you will have “instant action” users who immediately make a purchase. This group is about as much of a minority as Rwandan Pygmies in the U.S., so don’t rely on them too much. Most of your users will fall into one of three groups: “casual,” “committed,” and “dedicated.”

Your casual followers will see your posts, potentially skimming them from time to time, but for the most part will ignore your company. Your committed followers, meanwhile, will read most of your posts and will have a budding sense of loyalty and brand recognition for your company. Best of all, however, your dedicated followers will actively help promote your brand through sharing links, re-tweeting, or otherwise spreading your company through the network.

The brand recognition, sense of relationship, and loyalty found here are items with a beautiful long term yield, blossoming like a field of money flowers. The rewards may take anywhere from weeks to years to show fully, but the end results are fully worthwhile. Here are several things to keep in mind while building that presence.


If you want to build brand recognition, you have to use all the standard branding tactics. This means that your logo should be visible, present from day one, and consistent between all your products.

Provide Value

If you want people to pay attention to your posts, you’ll need to give them a reason to do so. This means that your posts must be useful to customers. Keep in mind, though, that some “uses” are more popular than others. For example, if you can provide users with a good laugh, they will love you for it.

Keep a Consistent Voice

You should be posting at least once a week, and typically more (three to fourteen times per week) if you want people to actually remember you. Pay attention to user response, however, to determine the right frequency for your company.


You should be present and accounted for on as many of the social networks as you can. This includes LinkedIn, Facebook, Twitter, and the blogosphere (via a company blog).

Call On the Existing Community

If you really want to take off, it’s important that you connect with the movers and shakers of your network. These “key players” are present in every network, with the h2est cross-platform voices coming from the world of blogging. Work to locate and connect with these groups for powerful promotion opportunities.

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Social Media Advertising Best Practices

In our industry, good content is invaluable. But good content is also hard work.

From planning to Quality Contro, content must be researched, nurtured, analyzed, and improved on an ongoing basis to make it as suitable as possible for your target audience. But if no one is finding your content, then regardless of the quality, it won’t have an impact on your business’s bottom line. This is where paid amplification comes into play.

Pushing targeted eyeballs to quality content is something our team has had success with, so below I have shared some of the things we’ve learned from our experience.

Amplification steps

Defining objectives

Once these have been agreed upon, you then need to decide which social channel or channels to leverage in order to reach and engage your desired target audience.


You may have heard horror stories recently about the eradication of brand reach on Facebook; but these issues are limited to organic reach, and actually play into the hands of those with paid budgets at their disposal.

In terms of setting goals, however, I would recommend this technique for goals like increasing reach or impressions as a gauge metric. Setting ‘eyeballs’ as a goal is more effective because no matter how good the content you can’t guarantee engagements.

So, let’s say you’ve decided that you want your content to get 50,000 impressions rather than a number of engagements. What happens when you reach your impressions (or reach) goal and your engagement rate is through the roof? If your content registers a strong engagement rate then push your amplification further because it’s clear that your audience and people who are seeing your content are reacting well to it.

But how do you get the best value for money? If you are trying to get people interested in your content you can target related keywords and pages. To keep costs down but your ad still targeted you should approach this like you would a Google Adwords campaign.

Try and avoid the most generic terms and pages that relate to your content.

For example, if your content is on motorsports then choose pages or interests that are related but aren’t necessarily obvious, like public figures James May, Richard Hammond, and Ayrton Senna, or movies like the Fast and Furious franchise.

If your content is more suited for remarketing or people who are your established demographic then a bit of Facebook mining can really open your eyes to which pages, brands or interests to target.

The equation shown allows you to establish what percentage of the people who like your page also like another brand or interest. When you have established this you can use related pages and interests to help optimise your amplification by using the same methods as previously explained.


Twitter Ads used to be an exclusive club, only available to those who could afford the minimum spend that bought you access to an account manager. It was out of reach for most businesses. Thankfully that has now changed with the launch of the self-service feature. Twitter is now available to the masses and your content can be amplified no matter what your budget.

To amplify your content on Twitter, you will need to launch a Promoted Tweets campaign. Here you will be able to select a tweet for amplification, much like Facebook’s Page Post Engagements feature, or you can create a new tweet featuring your content.

To ensure that you are reaching the right people you will need to be targeting the right people. These targeting metrics aren’t as specific as Facebook and are split into the following four areas:


Interests and followers


Tailored Audiences

Firstly, I will walk you through keyword targeting. It’s as simple as it sounds; you input keywords and Twitter will aim your campaign at accounts that relate to that keyword either in their tweets or bio. So, for example, if you wanted to target Manchester United fans you might want to use the keywords Man Utd, Man U, #MUFC etc.

If you set up an interests and followers campaign you will be targeting exactly that. Twitter suggests interests through its categories feature but also allows you to be more specific.

Now, for me, this is where this targeting avenue falls down. You can input @usernames of people and influencers relevant to your content but it targets people similar to that user’s followers.

So you will be targeting people who are interested in your content but there is no guarantee that people similar will be as well.

To reduce the risk using this method, I would recommend conducting comprehensive research into how you choose influencers. I recommend tools such as Followerwonk to find this information.

Targeting by television is really useful if you have content relevant to a popular television show or event. Twitter has the TV guide’s information stored into its targeting so finding the relevant shows is simple. This method of targeting is for content that will have maximum impact during the show’s broadcast because this is when the conversation about the show will be at its loudest. For this reason the longevity of this method is not as strong as the others.

Tailored audiences campaigns are essentially remarketing to those who already have an affinity with, or showed interest in, your brand. This is because you will have to upload an email list to Twitter’s server and it will then target your content to the recognised emails’ Twitter accounts. This way of amplification will be more useful for content to encourage repeat purchases or to improve customer loyalty.

Once you have decided the right targeting method for your content you will need to set up the tweet to achieve maximum potential and cost efficiency. A recent study by Twitter found that tweets including an image were 35% more likely to be retweeted than those featuring other types of content, such as a video URL or a hashtag.

To optimise your Twitter amplification, I would suggest reviewing the success of your targeting when your ad has been running long enough to give you an indication of how it is doing. Whether you have chosen to target through keywords, interests, @usernames or television programmes, Twitter allows you to measure the success of each of those.

So, for example, if you have targeted followers of ten @usernames you can see which ones are giving you the best value, whether it’s cost per impression or engagement.

Once you have established which ones are most profitable, you can replace the less profitable @usernames with ones similar to these optimised ones and to reduce your overall spend on your amplification.

So if your ad had a low cost per impression or engagement with the Guardian then you should consider including The Telegraph or The Independent. If you repeat this method throughout the length of the amplification you can ensure you are keeping your ad fresh and optimised. 


If your content is more appropriate for a professional audience then LinkedIn offers that exact alternative. These are called Sponsored Updates and you can target LinkedIn members through companies they are connected with, their industry or their job titles. Moreover, if your content is more suitable for senior professionals you can also target by seniority.

When setting up your Sponsored Update it is important to be resourceful on LinkedIn. You are targeting these people because they are professionals so offer them something that will benefit their careers or be useful for how they approach their professional life. Include compelling and relevant imagery.

What’s to come?

Amplification Checklist

Now you have considered the above information, here’s a handy checklist to aid you during your social amplification:

Outline your objective

Set goals on how to achieve your objective

Recognise which channel or channels would best suit your niche

Decide which type of ad suits you


So now you should be aware of the options and capabilities of social amplification. You’ve worked hard on your content, hard enough for you to be proud of it. Showcase it in all its glory by creating a social amplification strategy so you can get all the rewards your effort deserves.

Thank you to Kyle Kirkland for sharing his thoughts and opinions in this blog post. Kyle is a social media consultant at

Thank you to Kyle Kirkland for sharing his thoughts and opinions in this blog post. Kyle is a social media consultant at Zazzle Media , a UK-based digital marketing agency with a reputation as one of the leading lights in the world of digital content creation and distribution. You can connect with Kyle on LinkedIn

What 8 Of The Top Marketers Do On Social Media

There are so many opinions on what works and what doesn’t when it comes to social media.

I decided that it was time to take a look at my favorite marketers that I feel have successful social channels and see what it is they do to get ahead.

I boiled it down to eight marketers – all of whom are doing their own thing to create an engaged following and successful business.

1. Dr. Ai Addyson-Zhang Uses Platform-Specific Content

Dr. Ai Addyson-Zhang is a digital education expert.

When you Google “Dr. Ai Addyson-Zhang” the top 6 results are as follows:


Twitter (with tweet cards).

Inside Higher Ed.

Her site (



It seems as though Dr. Ai has done a remarkable job of building authority on her social sites.

As I went through her profiles, I noticed something right off of the bat – all of the platforms have their own type of content.

Addyson-Zhang goes live on LinkedIn on Wednesdays and Fridays.

On Twitter, she jumps in Twitter chats, shares news around current events, and posts about her kids.

Facebook is a bit different; she shares photos of her children and square video recaps of her LinkedIn live shows.

Medium is really where Addyson-Zhang got her start. Just like everyone else, she uses Medium for long-form, blog-like content.

These blog posts incorporate media from all of her platforms such as screenshots of Tweets, embedded videos from LinkedIn and photos that she shares on Facebook.

Lesson Learned

By differentiating the content you share on each platform, you are prepping the audience for the content you are going to be sharing.

2. Sarah Evans Does PR

Sarah Evans is a Digital Correspondent and the owner of Sevans Strategy.

Upon visiting her Twitter profile, you’ll learn right away that Sarah does PR and she does it well.

Her handle is @PRsarahevans – PR is right in her name!

And when you look at her bio, you’ll learn that she’s been featured in CNN, Mashable, and Forbes.

So yeah, she’s probably pretty good at what she does.

Not only does her name and bio clearly state that she does PR and is good at it, but all of her posts point to that as well.

If you follow Evans on LinkedIn or Twitter, you will see that she is always putting out calls for resources to cover certain stories.

To go a step further, she also shares out the tools and resources she uses on a daily basis.

Lesson Learned

Through sharing your resources and letting others know what you do upfront, you could be in the perfect position to be seen as a thought leader.

3. Barry Schwartz Gets It Done

Barry Schwartz is probably best known for his work on Search Engine Roundtable, a personal-blog-style search engine optimization information hub.

He consistently puts out credible information concerning search.

He is the epitome of getting stuff done.

There are so many roadblocks people face when it comes to creating content that it is often easier to just walk away from creating altogether.

Schwartz doesn’t do that though.

Despite being an agency CEO, he still publishes blog posts every day Monday-Friday and publishes video blogs just about every other day.

Nothing is super fancy or super time-intensive, but it is always done and that is what is important.

Lesson Learned

If you commit to getting things done and always showing up, you will build trust within your community.

4. Brian Fanzo Builds Community

Brian Fanzo is a digital futurist and keynote speaker (disclosure: I work with him).

If you take a peek at his social platforms, you’ll likely see a mix of things ranging from photos of his daughters to thought leadership type videos.

His feeds are very human.

Fanzo shares the more intimate portions of his life.

He doesn’t just show the good, he’s also transparent about the bad.

When you join in on the conversations he takes part in, you’ll see that he goes out of his way to relate with others and keep the conversation going.

By being human, Fanzo builds a community rather than a following as his “followers” feel connected with him.

Lesson Learned

Be human on social media through transparency, authenticity, and conversation.

5. Dan Knowlton Is a Storyteller

Dan Knowlton is the co-founder of Knowlton, a Kent-based digital and social media marketing agency.

Truly, this comes as no surprise as you move through his social feeds.

All of the content Knowlton puts out is well made and tells a story.

From time to time, he posts clips from his latest podcast (in which he tells the story of being a business owner), tells stories of content he creates for his clients, and shares some fatherhood anecdotes.

No matter what piece of Dan’s content you stumble across, it’s almost a guarantee that it is a piece of a much larger story.

Lesson Learned

Your timelines should paint a picture of who you are.

Not all of them have to tell the same exact story, but you should always keep in mind the bigger picture before you post.

6. Julia McCoy Creates for Others

Julia McCoy is the CEO of Express Writers and a content marketer by trade, so it isn’t surprising that she publishes a lot of content.

I counted, on average:

2 posts daily on LinkedIn.

About 10 on Twitter daily.

Around 6 Facebook posts daily.

4 to 6 articles a month on Search Engine Journal.

Occasional posts to SEMrush, MarketingProfs, and Huffington Post.

And she’s written three books.

The woman is a content machine!

Here is the thing though:

She doesn’t only create content for herself.

As I mentioned earlier, McCoy is also a contributor to multiple publications (both in and outside of the marketing industry).

She uses her abilities to help others and does it often.

Instead of constantly selling her service, she helps others by creating for them.

Lesson Learned

Through helping others, you broaden your network and position yourself as an expert – so help often!

7. Ross Simmonds Has Conversations

Ross Simmonds is a Digital Marketing Strategist at Foundation Marketing and he’s also the co-founder of Hustle & Grind.

When it comes to Simmonds’ social media activity, the majority of it is based around conversations.

Simmonds is 100% behind the idea of giving more than receiving (he straight up told me that!).

This must be why he is constantly looking to join in on conversations.

He answers tons of questions as well as most of his mentions.

By giving more information than he asks for, Simmonds is able to build a network without even trying!

Lesson Learned

Leave LinkedIn In-Mail in 2023 and focus on creating true connections through meaningful conversation.

8. Mari Smith Mastered Curation

Mari Smith, the Queen of Facebook, is known to most in the industry for her extensive knowledge of both organic and paid Facebook strategies.

As I was navigating through her social profiles, it was very apparent that Mari is always learning.

Mari Smith is a master content curator.

She shares regularly on all of her social platforms, but the majority of the time her feeds are a curation of the content she is learning from.

She doesn’t simply copy and paste links though, she goes out of her way to add her opinion and strategies as it relates to the article.

Lesson Learned

By curating content, you ensure your feed is always fresh while also exercising your expertise.

What Works for You?

It’s nearly impossible to think through all eight of these lessons every time you go to publish a piece of content, but it is important to remember the ones that work best for you.

Take into consideration the goals of your social channels, then select the lessons you feel are the most applicable to your and your social strategy.

More Resources:

Image Credits

All screenshots taken by author, March 2023

Social Media Marketing – Not For Everyone?

After 10 years of preaching the merits of search engine optimization to sceptical business owners, I’ve found there’s a new challenge in online marketing and it’s a funny one.

Nearly all business owners I meet think they should use social media marketing to promote their businesses, but a good number have a real aversion to using social networking channels.

Do you convince such people that they need to push on, as social media marketing is a necessity these days, or is social media just not for everyone?

Whilst we’ve all heard the benefits of using social media to promote businesses, the dilemma is that using social media as an effective marketing tool also requires:

some technical ability (albeit pretty basic);

time, when you may already have issues with time management;

putting yourself ‘out there’, the social aspect of social media is intimidating to many;

creative writing skills;

a budget to hire a professional to get started or run your campaign, if you just cannot manage it internally.

Even after discussing the ways of managing all of these issues – sometimes over and over again – I still get resistance in many cases.

“I can’t see myself telling the world what I’m having for breakfast.”

“I just don’t get Facebook.”

“It’s just not ME!”

So I’ve become a Social Media Marketing Evangelist, and I’ve been able to convert nearly all of those ‘with little faith’ through:

inspiring with case studies of related businesses that have shown real results through social media marketing;

brain storming content ideas related to the areas of the business that the client is most passionate about;

using channels that are most suited to the clients skills and interests – videos for YouTube may really excite a person less inclined to write blog posts;

working out a time management plan that fits with the clients’ other responsibilities;

identifying others that may assist the client (at no or low cost) – teenage children are a good resource for sole traders, while using a variety of staff members works in larger organisations;

showing how to set a realistic budget for social media marketing in case professional assistance is needed on a regular basis;

setting up tools for integrating accounts and automated posting;

discussing the other benefits of using social media – communicating with and retaining existing customers, networking, keeping tabs on competitors, etc.;

meeting the sceptical parties in an organisation to get their buy-in and discuss setting up a social media marketing plan and policy.

Usually at some point along this path I see the client become more comfortable with using social media.  Most become full converts after signing on new clients and making more sales through their social media efforts, for example:

a small business owner, who barely used email a year ago, is now happily chatting with prospective clients on Twitter on a daily basis;

a sole trader that couldn’t see himself ‘rattling on about my daily habits online’, has a popular YouTube channel showing off his services;

a marketing assistant that had to struggle with the business owner for the okay set up a social media campaign, now amazes him with the number of sales they get through their Facebook page and Twitter.

Perhaps the super sceptics will have to take their chances using more traditional marketing methods, but as there has been such a shift in marketing practices toward using social media, they may very well fall behind their competitors and will have to come to terms with it sooner or later. In this case they are probably best off hiring a professional social media consultant to run their campaigns for them.

Social Media Marketing may not suit everyone initially, but it’s definitely something that business owners, marketing and sales staff do need to come to terms with to be competitive in the business world today.

Social Media Mining – Introduction With Examples

What is Social Media Mining?

Social Media Mining is basically a reward system. Here one gains rewards and points based on their activity and contribution to the community. Social Media Mining works to generate content, engage current users, and get more users.

Even though almost every single social media platform provides some reward, only platforms that have adopted Social Media Mining allow their users to monetize the reward gained.

Note: Social Mining or Social Media Mining differs from Social Media Data Mining.

We will discuss the following topics in Social Media Mining:

How does Social Media Mining work?

Examples of Social Mining

What are the perks and demerits of Social Mining?

Let us talk about them in detail.

1] How does Social Media Mining work?

Social Mining works on Blockchain technology, and the engagement is tokenized. So, whenever a user interacts with a piece of content, creates something, or shares something, their activity is tracked, and based on that, they get rewarded. The rewards are given, keeping the following steps in mind.

To calculate the reward that should be given to the user, scores and ranks are allocated based on their contribution.

Based on the rules and policies of the organization, tokens are allocated to the user.

Once the tokens are generated, they are sent to the waller of the user. They ensure transparency and security in this process.

After the user has received these tokens, they can turn them into cryptocurrency or use them within the platform to access premium features.

The tokens earned during this process can also be used to influence decisions and governance of the platform.

2] Examples of Social Mining

Now that we know how the Social Mining platform work, we should look at some of the examples for the same. There are various Social Mining projects, but we will talk about Reddit.

Reddit, undoubtedly, is one of the most popular social media platforms in the world. However, most people don’t know about Reddit Moons. Reddit Moons are ERC-20 tokens; they have monetary value as they are built on Arbitrum layer-2 solution. Active SubReddits members are given r/CryptoCurrency. One can redeem them to get premium access or Reddit Coins.

There are other Social Mining platforms, such as Hive, SteemIt, and YUP. Here, you will get rewarded with points that can then be redeemed.

3] What are the perks and demerits of Social Mining?

Everything is not hunky-dory with Social Mining, they are some demerits that should be addressed, and at the same time, there are some perks as well. In this section, we will discuss both of them to help you decide.

Following are the perks of Social Mining

Social Mining helps users to interact more and build a larger network. Since there is an incentive to participate, they will more likely interact with the content of other creators.

Due to this interaction, more and more users will get empowered to share their content. Not just general users but also artists will be able to monetize their art.

Lastly, using Social Media won’t just be a waste of time; one can easily make a few bucks out of it.

Although there are various perks, we need to discuss some of the demerits of Social Media Mining.

In the quest for quick money, some users will try to manipulate the algorithm, which is borderline cheating, to get more out of the platform. This is not healthy for the platform and its users.

Not just that, one should also be aware of the fact that cryptocurrency is not stable. It fluctuates, and its values can increase or decrease depending on the market.

It also makes the user addicted to the platform. We humans are so addicted to rewards that this can backfire and can have an impact on our personal and emotional well-being.

Read: Botnet Tracker lets you track the activity of live Botnets worldwide

What is an example of Social Media Mining?

There are various examples of Social Media Mining; however, let us discuss one more example, which is Hive. Hive is a social media platform that was driven by Steem, another Social Media Mining platform. Hive gives its users a lot of control over the content and doesn’t promote censorship of the content. Also, it rewards engagement and time given to the platform. Hive has also outperformed Steem, which is one of the biggest players in the Social Media Mining industry.

Also Read: Why do companies collect, sell, buy or store personal data

What are some uses of Social Media Data Mining?

Read: How to protect your Privacy on Social Media and Internet.

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