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Net Asset Value Per Share (NAVPS)

In evaluating REITs, the value of one share of a mutual fund or exchange-traded fund

Written by

CFI Team

Published February 5, 2023

Updated June 28, 2023

What is Net Asset Value Per Share (NAVPS)?

The Net Asset Value Per Share (NAVPS) is a metric used to assess the value of a real estate investment trust (REIT), and it indicates the worth of one share of a mutual fund or exchange-traded fund. The NAVPS is obtained by dividing the net asset value of a mutual fund by the number of outstanding shares.

The assets, in this case, may include the market value of a fund’s investments, cash and cash equivalents, accrued income and accounts receivables, whereas the liabilities equals the sum of long-term and short-term liabilities, and accrued expenses such as utility costs and staff salaries.

Summary

The Net Asset Value Per Share (NAVPS) is a real estate metric that indicates the value of a mutual fund or an exchange-traded fund (ETF).

The NAVPS is obtained by dividing the net asset value (total assets less liabilities) of a fund by the number of outstanding shares.

The metric is used by investors to compare the performance of a fund against the market or industry benchmarks, such as the S&P 500.

How to Calculate the Net Asset Value Per Share

The manager of a mutual fund is required to calculate the net asset value per share per accounting period. They must provide important information such as the value of the mutual fund’s assets and liabilities, as well as the expenses incurred by the fund. The steps for calculating the NAVPS is as follows:

Step 1: Calculate the total value of the asset, and generate a profit or loss, depending on the prevailing exchange rates and market value.

Step 2: Calculate the total value of liabilities of the fund (short-term and long-term), as well as the interests and costs on the fund’s debts.

Step 3: Find the expenses incurred by the fund and book provision in the accounting period (to apportion the costs to the different net asset value periods). The expenses may include audit costs, administrator’s fees, taxes, and other operating costs.

Step 4: Calculate the net asset value per share. The formula for calculating NAVPS is given as follows:

Practical Example of NAVPS

XYZ Corporation is a mutual fund with five million outstanding shares and $100 million worth of investments. The assets of the company include $10 million in cash, $1.5 million in receivables and $500,000 in accrued incomes. Also, XYZ Corporation holds $30 million in short-term liabilities and $10 million in long-term liabilities. There are $1.5 million accrued in staff salaries. Using the given information, we can calculate the NAVPS as follows:

Step 1: Assets = $100,000,000 + $10,000,000 + $1,500,000 + $500,000 = $112,000,000

Step 2: Liabilities = $30,000,000 + 10,000,000 +$1,500,000 = $41,500,000

Step 3: NAVPS = ($112,000,000 – $41,500,000) / 5,000,000 = $70,500,000 / 5,000,000 = $14.10

The net asset value of a mutual fund changes on a daily basis, because the value of assets and liabilities change every day. The number of outstanding shares also changes constantly, as investors redeem their shares, and new investors buy new shares. It means that the NAVPS of a fund’s net assets may be $14.10 today and shift to $12 or $16 by the next day. Mutual funds and ETFs are required to compute their NAV on a daily basis, at the close of major US exchanges.

Net Asset Value Per Share vs. Market Price

The net asset value per share of a mutual fund refers to the price at which investors buy and sell shares on a regular trading day. However, it is different from exchange-traded funds, which trade like stocks throughout the day.

ETFs and closed-end funds are affected by the forces of supply and demand, which drives the share prices of a fund above or below the fund’s net asset value. The market price is the price at which investors can buy or sell shares during an active trading day.

The net asset value per share of an ETF is calculated at the close of an active trading day, and it represents the value of each share’s underlying assets. Although the NAVPS and the market price of an ETF may be different, the variance is usually relatively minor. Such a scenario can be explained by the ETFs redemption mechanism that keeps the market value and the NAV value reasonably close.

Importance of Net Asset Value Per Share

The net asset value performs similar functions as the stock price, as it represents the worth of one share of a mutual fund or an ETF. The NAVPS can be used to compare the performance of a mutual fund against the market or industry benchmarks.

However, analysts argue that the evaluation of short-term changes in the NAVPs is more productive than comparing long-term changes because most funds distribute capital gains and profits to shareholders on a regular basis.

On the other hand, one limitation of NAVPS is its daily price fluctuations due to market forces, as well as the fund’s expenses, which arise in due course. NAVPS is calculated at the end of the day for mutual funds when the market closes, and as a result, investors cannot determine the intraday value of their shares.

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Improve Your Asset Management With Mobile Asset Tracking Solutions

With asset management applications on handheld mobile devices, organizations can have greater visibility into not just the location of assets, but also the scheduling of proactive or preventative maintenance, tracking of work orders, and the staffing allocation for maintenance and repair operations.

Streamline Asset Maintenance

One of the biggest value-adds asset management software can provide is the ability to simplify and improve work and repair orders. Organizations often don’t have the information they need to make timely decisions. This results in over-ordering because they don’t know what parts they have in stock or, worse, equipment being offline because critical parts weren’t ordered in time. These seemingly small inefficiencies can add up to a big financial cost.

With asset management software like IBM Maximo, organizations gain the ability to track all asset types, check their health in real time, and streamline global operations, from procurement to contract management. This allows organizations to see their parts inventory in real-time and order and request parts from anywhere at any time.

Through IoT, which allows sensors to be connected to devices, organizations can also improve their maintenance strategy. With the ability to track when repairs are required, organizations can move from reactive, run-to-failure maintenance to proactive, preventative maintenance strategies that limit equipment downtime and ensure that maintenance is carried out only when necessary — providing significant time and cost savings.

Mobile Tools for Asset Management

The transition to mobile applications is also dramatically improving asset management practices. In most cases, maintenance employees are on the floor and in the field, where they need real-time, from-anywhere access to information, such as whether a part is in stock. In the past, organizations have used Wi-Fi-enabled laptops bolted down in trucks to communicate, which prohibits employees from walking around with the device and requires them to track information on paper and re-enter it into the laptop.

Now, however, rugged tablets are providing an affordable, reliable mobile option. With a solution like Maximo Anywhere, which is designed for mobile, no cellular service is required. Field workers can enter work orders — without Wi-Fi — that will be saved and uploaded to the home office once the mobile device is reconnected to the internet.

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Having mobile devices in the field also allows employees to access other features on the devices, like high-quality cameras or the ability to use augmented reality (AR) applications in scenarios such as determining where faults are for inspections. Mobile devices also help organizations avoid human error by eliminating manual processes and paper systems where information is easily lost or entered incorrectly.

Final Considerations

When deciding how to launch your digital asset management program and which mobile devices to use, keep these three considerations in mind.

Rugged Tablets: If there is concern that devices could get wet or exposed to dust, intense temperatures or significant altitude changes, a rugged tablet is probably the way to go. Also, in an environment where employees need to be wearing gloves to do their work, a rugged tablet with a capacitive touch pen, like the Samsung Galaxy Tab Active2, makes it even easier for workers to be highly productive while using the devices.

MDM Solutions: If you’ll be deploying a large number of mobile devices, you may also want to consider a mobile device management (MDM) solution to help you provision and manage devices throughout the organization. Samsung Knox Configure, for example, allows you to streamline the IT experience and improve employee productivity and security considerably through uniform device settings, ensuring no rogue apps are installed on devices.

CYOD vs. BYOD: Think twice about a BYOD program for mobile asset tracking solutions, as it will be more difficult to implement from a security, provisioning and management perspective. It’s worth exploring other options that let you maintain more control over employee devices.

Comprehensive asset management software offers cost and time savings. But the biggest benefit is fewer errors and more visibility into the condition of your assets and your maintenance workflows.

Learn how the Samsung Galaxy Tab Active2 can help solve your toughest business challenges, including Enterprise Asset Management.

How To Properly Migrate From Net Core 3.1 To Net 6

How to Properly Migrate From Net Core 3.1 to Net 6 Use the update assistant for a seamless move

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If you’ve been using .NET Framework for years, migrating to .NET Core may seem daunting. But it’s not as hard as it seems.

.NET Core 3.1 already reached its end of support, so continued use could expose you to vulnerabilities as Microsoft will no longer be releasing security patches.

Luckily, there’s a stable version with long-term support, and we show you how to upgrade to this version.

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Download Fortect and install it on your PC.

Start the tool’s scanning process to look for corrupt files that are the source of your problem

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The world is ever-changing, so you shouldn’t be surprised when developers migrate from the NET Core 3.1 framework to Net 6. All good things come to an end. 

Even Windows ended support for some of its previous OSes, and the same has happened to NET Core 3.1. Without further ado, here’s how to go about it.

Is .NET 6 compatible with .NET Core?

Yes, .NET 6 is compatible with .NET Core. The new version of the .NET Framework brings a lot of great new features and improvements if you’re wondering why anyone would migrate.

It is important to note that although .NET 6 is not the latest version, it is considered the most stable yet.

Another reason developers are migrating to this version is that it is a long-term support version that Microsoft will support for three years. For more information on its new features and how to download and install it, check out our article on the same.

When choosing a .NET version, you have to pick between two types. The Standard Term Support (STS)  and the Long Term Support (LTS) versions. STS last for six months while LTS for three years.

To create a cross-platform application using .NET, you need to use .NET Core. This framework from Microsoft allows you to build applications using the same code base regardless of whether it’s running on Windows or Linux.

So far, .NET has had no history of compatibility issues from the versions released.

Another question on your mind might be: Can I run .NET Core 3.1 in a .NET 6? Yes, you can. .NET framework is known to be backward compatible, so this should not be an issue. 

The problem is that there may be no official support for running a later version of the framework within an earlier version because the runtime may not be available. Some default apps only run on the common runtime language they were initially developed for. 

As such, you may have to create a configuration file for your app to run on the .NET Framework. Consequently, you can also use a NuGet package manager plugin for Visual Studio, which allows you to target multiple versions of NuGet packages at once.

How do I upgrade my .NET Core to .NET 6?

.NET Core 6.0 is a new version of the .NET Framework for cross-platform applications. It provides a modular, cloud-optimized, highly-scalable, secure, and performance-optimized development platform for your server-side applications.

Before you upgrade, you need the following:

Visual Studio 2023 or later is required for the migration

An up-to-date Windows version

You must also have a version of .NET Core SDK 

1. Manual upgrade 2. Use the .Net upgrade assistant

The .NET upgrade assistant is a tool that can help you migrate your existing application from a previous version of the .NET Framework to the latest version. The migration tool analyzes your project and guides how to update it for compatibility with the target framework.

If you have followed all the steps above and executed them correctly, you have successfully migrated your applications to .NET Framework, version 6.0.

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Debt To Asset Ratio Formula

Debt to Asset Ratio Formula (Table of Contents) Debt to Asset Ratio Formula

The term Debt to Asset ratio is used to analyze what portion of Asset is funded by Debt capital. A business can use mainly two sources of capital to support its business- Equity and Debt. Business deploys capital to either purchase Assets (Current or non-Current) or to fund its operational expense.

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The formula for Debt to Asset Ratio is:

Debt to Asset Ratio = Total Debts / Total Assets

Total Debts: It includes interest-bearing Short term and Long term debts.

Total Assets: It includes Current Assets and Non-Current Assets.

Step 1: You can find interest bearing short term debt under the current liabilities section in the Liability side of the Balance Sheet and long term debt under the non-current liabilities section in the Liability side of the Balance Sheet.

Step 3: Once you performed the above steps to arrive at the Debt to Asset Ratio, you have to divide total debt with total assets.

Examples of Debt to Asset Ratio Formula (With Excel Template)

Let’s take an example to understand the calculation of the Debt to Asset Ratio formula in a better manner.

You can download this Debt to Asset Ratio Formula Excel Template here – Debt to Asset Ratio Formula Excel Template

Example #1

Let’s consider an example to calculate Debt to Asset Ratio, assume company ABC is an FMCG company. At the end of the financial year Balance sheet of ABC looks like this. 

Solution:

Short Term Debts is calculated as:

Short Term Debts = Short Term Loan

Short Term Debts = 300

Long Term Debts is calculated as:

Long Term Debts = Secured Debt + Term Loan + Long Term Debts

Long Term Debts = 600 + 300 + 800

Long Term Debts = 1700

Debt to Asset Ratio is calculated using the formula given below

Debt to Asset Ratio = (Short Term Debts + Long Term Debts) / Total Assets

Debt to Assets Ratio = (300 + 1700) / 5750

Debt to Assets Ratio = 2000 / 5750

Debt to Assets Ratio = 34.78%

Example #2

Let’s take another example, this time; we are taking the financials of IFB industries. A publically traded stock in NSE and BSE. The company IFB Industries Ltd is into manufacturing and selling consumer durable goods such as Washing machines and Microwave ovens.

This is the balance sheet of IFB Industries Ltd for the period FY18 (Figures are in INR Lacs)

Total Assets can be figured out from the asset side of the Balance Sheet

Total Assets =1,08,200 for the period ending 31st March 2023

Total Debts is calculated as:

Total Debts = Borrowings (15) + Other Financial Liabilities (16) + Borrowings (20)

Total Debts = 1000 + 9+ 408

Total Debts =1417

Debt to Asset Ratio is calculated using the formula given below

Debt to Asset Ratio = Total Debts / Total Assets

Debt to Asset Ratio = 1417 / 1,08,200

Debt to Asset Ratio = 1.31%

Example #3

Let’s consider one more example; the company in the example is Dabur India Ltd. The company is in FMCG vertical.

This is the balance sheet of Dabur India Ltd for the period FY18 (Figures are in INR crores)

Solution:

Total Assets can be figured out from the asset side of the Balance Sheet

Total Assets = 5812.70 for the period ending 31st March 2023

Total Debts = Borrowings (22) + Other Financial Liabilities (23) + Borrowings (26)

Total Debts = 201.04 + 4.25 + 85.49

Total Debts = 290.78

Debt to Asset Ratio is calculated using the formula given below

Debt to Asset Ratio = Total Debts / Total Assets

Debt to Asset Ratio = 290.78 / 5812.70

Debt to Asset Ratio = 5%

Relevance and Uses

Debt is relatively less costly compared to equity for the Business. But business can’t run fully on debt. So business has to mix its capital structure with equity and some part with debt.

There are industry benchmarks for an optimum capital structure that are perceived to be ideal.

The debt to Asset ratio formula calculates what percent of a Business’s asset is funded using debt. Lesser the usage of debt is perceived to be sub-optimal usage of low-cost capital since debt is a cheap cost of capital and interest expense is a tax-deductible expense, optimum use of debt in the capital structure will help to maximize the shareholder’s wealth.

At the same time, excess debt in the capital structure perceived to be risky as debt is an interest-bearing instrument and demands fixed payments periodically. If the business is not performing well and operating profit is not enough to cover the fixed debt obligation, then this can trigger an event of default and take the company to bankruptcy.

The debt to Asset ratio is mainly used by Analyst, Investors, .and Lenders who track the company for various purpose.

If Debt to Asset Ratio is = 100%: This situation is also considered to be risky, this means the company has lost all the net worth, and the entire assets are funded by Debt.

If Debt to Asset Ratio is < 100%: This situation is considered to be less risky, this indicates the Assets of the company are funded by a mix of Debt and Equity Capital.

There is no single Debt to Asset Ratio which is considered to be optimal. The company under evaluation is considered to be safe if its Debt to Asset Ratio is in line with the Industry benchmark in which it is operating.

The debt to Asset Ratio formula is very important to assess the Financial Risk of a Company.

Debt to Asset Ratio Formula Calculator

You can use the following Debt to Asset Ratio Calculator.

Total Debts Total Assets Debt to Asset Ratio Formula   Debt to Asset Ratio Formula = Total Debts =

Total Assets

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= 0

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Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to Debt to Asset Ratio formula. Here we discuss How to Calculate the Debt to Asset Ratio along with practical examples. We also provide Debt to Asset Ratio Calculator with a downloadable excel template. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –

This Supercomputer Will Perform 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 Operations Per Second

A government laboratory in Illinois will receive the fastest supercomputer in the United States in 2023, and it will be the first to hit what’s called exascale-level processing. The mammoth machine, called Aurora, will live at Argonne National Laboratory, and will be able to accomplish tasks like simulating complex systems, running artificial intelligence, and conducting materials-science research.

So what’s the point of a supercomputer? Experiments like crash-testing a car are expensive, complicated, and sometimes dangerous. A supercomputer simulation, however, allows researchers to carry out those tests virtually, and track and change countless variables as they play out. Some supercomputers even simulate nuclear blasts, which is best done virtually, and not in the real world.

Then there’s energy research: researchers could use Aurora to test the design of a wind turbine blade. Instead of building real blades with multiple variations and seeing how they perform, a supercomputer lets you simulate that experiment, which is much faster and a whole lot cheaper. Or, consider climate research. “You cannot put the world in a bottle in a laboratory, and see what happens if we do this, that, or the other thing with our energy policy,” says Steve Scott, the chief technical officer at Cray, Inc, one of the companies building Aurora.

Think about powerful supercomputers as a way to virtually put the world in a digital bottle. Here’s what else to know about Aurora, by the numbers.

Number one

In 2023, when Aurora comes online, expect it to be the top machine domestically. “It’s targeted to be the fastest in the United States when it’s built,” says Alan Gara, a fellow at Intel, which is also working on the new machine. Or course, the US is not the only country investing in supercomputers. Right now, the third-fastest machine is in China, and as recently as November of 2023, the two fastest supercomputers were both Chinese, followed by Switzerland and Japan. “There’s a little bit of a race, and for good reason—these have become for tools for nations to compete in some ways,” Gara says. In brief, if Aurora is fastest in the world at some point, it’s safe to assume it won’t hold that spot perpetually.

A quintillion operations per second

Aurora will be able carry out a quintillion operations each second—a billion billion. Written out, that number looks like this: 1,000,000,000,000,000,000. In the realm of supercomputers and even some regular computer chips, performance is measured in FLOPS: floating point operations per second. Those operations are the complex math equations—adding or multiplying two long numbers together—that allow computers to carry out the problem at hand, like rendering graphics on a screen or running a complex simulation.

That quintillion operations per second capability is what makes Aurora an exaflop machine, and that means it will be able to do 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 hard math problems every second.

The top supercomputers right now are measured petaflops. A sprawling machine called Summit, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, can hit a peak of 200 petaflops—Aurora should be five times as powerful. Wind back the clock to the late 90s, and supercomputers clocked in at a teraflop. (Historically, chips and transistors have become smaller and faster.)

“The fastest supercomputers on the planet are about 200 petaflops, so this is on the order of five to tens faster,” says Peter Ungaro, president and CEO of Cray. “It is a massive jump in performance and capability in a very short time.”

A billion laptops

If you assume a typical laptop can carry out a billion operations per second, Aurora is the equivalent of a billion laptops all connected together. “That’s a phenomenal number,” Gara, of Intel, says. Of course, Aurora will run better than a billion laptops all strung together would, because supercomputers must also be wired in smart ways so that the components are interconnected efficiently, not to mention other practical issues like making sure the hardware is liquid-cooled. “That’s really what differentiates a supercomputer from just a pile of a billion laptops,” he says.

For another point of reference, the Xbox One X is currently the fastest gaming console on the market. It checks in around 6 teraflops.

More than 200 cabinets

Supercomputers aren’t one massive, singular machine sitting in the middle of an empty room. Instead, their hardware is in cabinets. Aurora will need more than 200 of them, and according to Cray, each cabinet is about 4 feet wide, over 5 feet deep, and over 7 feet tall. Since the cabinets need some space between them, the total area of the system will need to be at least 6,400 square feet. That means that at a minimum, the Aurora computer will take up more space than a basketball court.

Each cabinet will get hot, but Cray says that thanks to liquid cooling, they could keep each cabinet chilly enough to run with a quarter megawatt of power.

The Summit supercomputer in Tennessee. Oak Ridge National Laboratory

200 gigabits

Since the computing nodes within each cabinet and the cabinets themselves need to be connected to each other, switches and copper and fiber-optic cabling will network it all. Each cabinet has multiple switches, and each switch contains 64 ports. When the data is flowing from switch to switch, it can travel at a speed of 200 gigabits per second. Picture a fiber-optic cable stretching from a switch on one cabinet to another cabinet, and the data can move at a speed of 200,000 megabits per second. (For comparison, Netflix says you’ll need an internet connect of 5 Mbps to stream HD films, or 25 for 4K.)

And each node is connected by just three “hops” or less from switch to switch, says Scott, of Cray.

Ultimately, all this talk about teraflops, petaflops, and exaflops are benchmarks that computer scientists use to describe a machine’s capabilities. “These are just arbitrary milestones,” Scott says. “The challenge, of course, is just continuing to push the frontier.”

Share And Collaborate In Excel

We’ve been able to share and collaborate in Excel files simultaneously with our co-workers for quite some time. However, recently there have been some significant improvements to the Excel co-authoring experience that will blow you away.

All you need to co-author in Excel is a Microsoft 365 subscription and an internet connection. You can even invite people from outside your organization who don’t have a Microsoft 365 subscription to collaborate with you.

Watch the Share and Collaborate in Excel Video

Download Workbook

If you’d like to see how I built the workbook used in this example, please download it here. Note: it won’t allow you to experience collaboration as this is something you need to instigate by sharing your file with others.

Enter your email address below to download the sample workbook.

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Share and Collaborate in Excel Step by Step: Sharing Excel Files

To share an Excel file with your co-workers from in or outside your organization:

Make sure you’re signed into your Microsoft 365 account in Excel,

Save your file to SharePoint Online or OneDrive

Here you can specify what editing rights they’ll have (1) and then choose who to share the file with (2):

When someone else is editing the file, you’ll see their initials in the top right:

Note: people from outside your organization who aren’t logged into Microsoft 365 display as a Guest Contributor:

Make sure Autosave is turned on to see changes they make in the workbook within seconds after they’re entered.

Comments

In Excel Online you can also assign a task when you at mention someone:

Show Changes

The Show Changes tool, currently only available in Excel Online*, enables you to keep track of edits to your workbooks across any end point: Desktop, Online, Mac, iOS, and iPad. They’re retained for 60 days allowing you to see who changed what, where and when, along with the previous value of the cell.

*[UPDATE] Show Changes is also now available in the Excel desktop app.

Bulk changes are shown in the changes card allowing you to scroll through the list or collapse it via the ‘hide changes’ button:

You can reduce the list of changes to a specific cell, range of cells or sheet via the filter button:

To be clear, you can currently only see the Show Changes tool in Excel Online, but it will display changes made in Excel for the Desktop, Mac, iOS or iPad.

Version History

Show changes gives you the ability to revert to earlier edits on a cell by cell basis. Alternatively, you can use Version History to revert the file back to an earlier version:

This opens the Version History task pane where you can open earlier versions and restore them:

Sheet Views

Sheet Views enables you to create a custom view of the file that allows you to sort and filter the data without affecting what other users currently in the file see. You can save these custom views and quickly switch in and out of them as required.

Excel automatically names your new view Temporary View to indicate the sheet view isn’t saved yet. You’ll also notice the column and row labels are black with white font.

When a Sheet View is applied, an eye symbol is visible in the worksheet tab name and hovering over the eye will display the sheet view name in a tooltip:

You can switch back to the original view by choosing ‘Default’ via the sheet views drop down:

Sheet View Options is where you’ll find tools to rename, duplicate and delete views:

Notes on Sheet View:

You can only use Sheet Views in a document that is stored in a SharePoint or OneDrive location.

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