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The modern solar system spins serenely, the planets locked in seemingly eternal circles around the sun. But it wasn’t always so. This tranquility appears to have emerged only after a gladiatorial period of planetary clashes—one in which titans ricocheted off each other, perhaps ejecting at least one rival sibling from the cosmic arena altogether.

Researchers have spent years scouring the solar system for clues of how that comparatively chaotic epoch might have played out. In a modest cluster of far-off rocks, David Nesvorny, a planetary scientist at the Southwest Research Institute, has found a figurative blood spatter suggestive of one particular conflict: a tussle between Neptune and an unknown planet that saw Neptune emerge victorious. His analysis, which appeared in late December in a not-yet-peer reviewed publication, adds further support to the notion that the solar system was once home to more than its current cadre of worlds.

To get this cohort of distant objects to pop out when you run the simulations, says Nathan Kaib, a planetary scientist at the University of Oklahoma who was not involved in the research, it seems like “you really need a planet to scatter [Neptune] off of.” That means, in theory, at least one extra planet may have been whizzing around the sun in eons past, knocking Neptune for a loop.

One way researchers can learn about events that took place more than four and a half billion years ago is by studying a current collection of ice balls known as the Kuiper Belt. Starting near Neptune’s orbit and extending outward from there, these frozen objects have been doing their own thing for eons, blind to most planetary drama.

The exception is the nearby Neptune, whose orbit has synched up with the orbits of many Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs), including Pluto. This synchronization arises through subtle gravitational nudges from Neptune, which would have stopped those KBOs from forming in the first place. But since Pluto and its companions exist, researchers realized in the 80s and 90s, Neptune must have started out perhaps 10 to 20 percent closer to the sun and then slid outward later on (after Pluto and friends had already formed in peace).

But how did it relocate? One early idea was that it spiraled out smoothly as a result of regularly bumping into small objects, but a number of observations hinted at a more dramatic rearrangement: sometime in the solar system’s first millions of years, a number of near hits may have slingshotted planets into new positions on elliptical paths. Planetary scientists refer to this calamitous period euphemistically as an “instability.”

To get a better idea of what happened to Neptune during the instability, Nesvorny focused on one particular group of dozens of KBOs discovered over the last decade or so. Their orbits pass through the outskirts of the Kuiper Belt, but what really makes them special is how their paths tip roughly ten degrees out of the solar system’s flat disk—an indication that something pushed them out. “If you have certain orbit, it’s hard to tilt it differently,” Nesvorny says.

That something, according to new simulations from Nesvorny, is most likely a Neptune that slipped outward on an orbit with a just-so shape—one that falls somewhere between a perfect circle and a more severely squashed ellipse. Other scenarios just didn’t arrange this group of KBOs in the right place with the right slant.

To get Neptune moving in precisely that way would have taken a serious jolt, likely a close encounter with another planet of perhaps comparable mass. Previous studies, including work by Nesvorny, have suggested that the early solar system originally accommodated more giant planets than just Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, a scenario that grows more likely if all the orbits went screwy for a while. “If you have an instability, you’re significantly more likely to lose planets than retain your original four,” Kaib says.

When Nesvorny runs hypothetical versions of the solar system in a simulation with a third ice giant (in addition to Uranus and Neptune), everything fits. If the mystery giant nearly collides with Neptune and Neptune’s orbit stretches as it moves out, giving the band of KBOs their distinctive 10 percent incline. The evidence is circumstantial, but suggestive.

“This is science,” he says. “You never know things for sure, but it’s compelling enough for me.”

Since Neptune survived the encounter, the additional ice giant was likely ejected from the solar system to wander the darkness of the Milky Way. However, if it didn’t receive quite enough of a kick to fly completely free of the sun’s gravity, it just might have come to rest perhaps 30 times farther from the sun than Neptune is today—exactly where some astronomers have predicted an unseen Planet Nine. The booted planet hangs around only around five percent of the time in simulations, Kaib says, but those are hardly unbeatable odds.

Better understanding the possible clashes between young planets, according to Nesvorny, is simply a matter of mapping the undisturbed outer reaches of the solar system in greater detail. This task will be a major goal for the upcoming Vera C. Rubin Observatory, which is expected to begin scientific operations in 2023.

“Because we have the Kuiper Belt,” he says, “it shouldn’t be that difficult to figure out what happened.”

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Coming Solar Minimum Could Chill The Earth, New Forecast Predicts

Sunspots may be going into hibernation, a phenomenon unseen since the 17th century that could lead to cooler global temperatures, scientists said Tuesday. It’s not clear how rising temperatures from greenhouse gas emissions may offset global cooling, and scientists are still not totally sure how our star affects Earth’s climate, however. But a forthcoming period of solar quiet will help settle the questions.

Activity in the sun is building toward an expected peak sometime in 2013. Yet, despite a few notable solar flares, things are strangely calm. There are fewer sunspots in this cycle than expected, and they’re fainter than usual, for instance. The east-west plasma jet stream inside the sun is apparently missing, and the magnetic field’s pace of migration toward the poles is slowing down.

Based on these sets of findings, which were presented Tuesday at the annual meeting of the American Astronomical Society’s Solar Physics Division in Las Cruces, N.M., heliophysicists believe the current solar cycle, Cycle 24, could be the last one for a while. The sun might be entering a period of hibernation.

This was previously observed from 1645 to 1715, a period known as the Maunder Minimum in which there were practically no sunspots. The period coincided with part of the “Little Ice Age,” in which average temperatures in the northern hemisphere dropped by 2 to 4 degrees F.

Scientists said any temperature drops from a new prolonged solar minimum would be very small, however — likely not enough to offset warming from greenhouse gases. Recent 11-year solar cycles have changed global surface temperatures by 0.1 degrees C, said Judith Lean, a solar physicist with the US Naval Research Laboratory, in an AFP story.

Still, a prolonged solar sleep could impact space weather, space travel and even Earth communications. Less sunspot activity means less solar radiation, a slower solar wind and a weaker magnetic field, scientists said.


These small magnetometers (alien cubes?) measure magnetic strength on Earth and in the atmosphere to determine how much of the sun’s magnetic energy has been transferred to Earth’s magnetosphere. In 2009, that energy reached record lows, partly because of the speed of the solar wind and the magnetic fields embedded within it.

Yet another paper on recent solar activity showed that the deep solar minimum back in 2008, when the solar disk was spotless, caused magnetic effects on Earth to drop. These magnetic effects cause the aurora, for one thing, and in extreme cases could cause power grid failures on Earth or induce dangerous currents in long pipelines, according to a NASA news release.

Given the period of recent quiet, Solar Cycle 25 could be delayed until 2023 or 2023 — or even longer than that, according to Frank Hill, associate director of the National Solar Observatory’s Solar Synoptic Network.

“If we are right, this could be the last solar maximum we’ll see for a few decades. That would affect everything from space exploration to Earth’s climate,” Hill said.

Cosmic Log

Businesses Could Make Solar Panels And Electric Cars As Commonplace As Home Computers

Energy officials from the world’s largest economies are meeting in San Francisco with the aim of accelerating the shift to zero-carbon power. Today, they announced a new campaign that will grease the wheels for businesses to buy into renewable energy.

This strategy has a history of working. Just as corporate buyers are driving growth in the clean energy market, they have previously led the adoption of other emerging technologies, from the fax machine to the personal computer. Here’s how businesses can help cutting edge machines make it from the laboratory to your living room.

Expanding networks

For most of its long history, the fax machine existed largely as a tool for newspaper publishers. It wasn’t until the 1980s that it became ubiquitous in corporate offices. As fax machines proliferated, each one became a little more valuable, able to connect to a broader network of devices. This, in turn, drove consumer sales.

Old timey fax machine European Patent Office

Fax machines offer an example of network effects. The larger a network becomes, the more incentive there is to join. Electric vehicles offer another example. Each new electric car increases the demand for charging stations. Each new charging station improves the utility and convenience of owning an electric car, which encourages other consumers to buy in. Businesses that purchase EVs or provide workplace charging stations can help expand networks.

“Network effects are critical for alternative fuels, including electric cars and offerings like Toyota’s new hydrogen-powered Mirai,” Mark Jacobsen, professor of economics at UC San Diego, said in an interview. Plus, he adds, “if business car fleets move to an alternative fuel, for example, this could help spread understanding about how the cars feel to drive, maintenance, and reliability.”

Economies of scale

Fifty years ago an IBM computer cost as much as $9 million, required a quarter-acre of air conditioned office space and needed a staff of 60 people to keep it running. Only governments and large businesses could profit from buying one. Through years of building room-sized machines, however, Big Blue developed the manufacturing muscle and engineering know-how needed to produce the IBM Personal Computer.

This is a story about economies of scale. As operations grow, the cost of each unit sold decreases. Clean energy is subject to the same effect. Solar companies are moving more panels, expanding output and improving manufacturing, feeding a virtuous circle of tumbling prices and booming sales. Businesses that buy photovoltaic panels are helping producers reach economies of scale.

Solar prices and installation Department of Energy

“We see businesses helping solar energy reach economies of scale,” Jessika Trancik, an MIT professor of energy studies, said in an interview. “For example, a growing number of businesses are building commercial-scale solar installations, and these installations have been able to capture economies of scale.”

Clean energy is ready to explode

New technologies follow a familiar pattern, lingering on the sidelines until they become cheap and useful enough to be widely adopted. Once the market is saturated, the rate of adoption levels off. This is called the “S curve.” It describes the spread of fax machines, personal computers and a host of other technologies.

The S Curve Davidmountain, via Wikimedia Commons

Today, clean energy is peering up the steep incline of the S curve, waiting for falling prices to spark rapid adoption. Last year, renewables accounted for a majority of new generating capacity worldwide. Global sales of electric cars grew by leaps and bounds. Businesses can nudge emerging technologies along by helping them reach the scale needed to further drive down costs and improve performance.

Corporations are embracing clean energy

Businesses are driving a lot of the growth in clean energy. That’s because emerging technologies offer a bigger upside to companies that can pay high up-front costs, purchase in bulk and reap the long-term benefits. Corporations can save big by buying solar or wind energy at a low fixed cost through large-scale power purchase agreements. This allows companies to guard against volatility in the fossil fuel market, to say nothing of the reputational perks.

“One main reason that consumer-facing businesses can benefit from going green is the goodwill and support of their customers: there is increasing demand for products and companies that are reducing pollution,” said Jacobsen. This cuts both ways. Just as businesses curry favor by buying into clean energy, they also show consumers that emerging technologies are economically viable.

“Businesses can adopt clean energy in ways that are clearly visible to their consumers and employees,” said Trancik, “In this way, they can play a unique and important role in helping to build awareness of the falling costs of several key clean energy technologies, such as solar energy and electric vehicles.”

Apple, Google, Microsoft, IKEA and even News Corp, parent company of Fox News, have made enormous investments in renewables. New generating capacity added by corporations has more than doubled every year since 2012, according to the Rocky Mountain Institute.

Corporate renewable energy deals Rocky Mountain Institute

As part of the new campaign, today Facebook pledged to getting 50 percent of its energy from clean sources by 2023. Wells Fargo committed to buying enough renewable energy to power 100 percent of its operations by 2023. Several other influential corporations laid out similar goals.

These corporate commitments will push renewables even further, spurring the growth of clean power. Before long, solar panels and electric cars could be just as commonplace as the personal computer.

Jeremy Deaton writes about the science, policy, and politics of climate and energy for Nexus Media. You can follow him at @deaton_jeremy.

6 Early Childhood Tips. . . From A 5Th Grade Teacher?

Last year, the seven-year itch hit me hard, and after being quoted many times saying, “I was made for first grade,” I decided that it was time for me to make a change and move up, way up to fifth grade. I thought my transition would be cut and dried, like how you end dinner and begin dessert — but as with a lot of other changes in life, it was much messier than that. Now, seven months later, I’m still finding myself stuck somewhere between the lower-grade and upper-grade worlds, with a savvy co-teacher and 25 eager ten-year-olds by my side.

With middle school on the horizon, fifth grade is high stakes, and while I’m enjoying myself, I’m not sure how long I’ll stay. But there’s one thing I know for sure — this experience has taught me more about early childhood education than another year in first grade ever could have. Teaching some of the same kids in the same school has created the ideal conditions to constantly wonder, “What did I do (or what should have I done) when teaching first grade to prepare these kids for this stage?”

Over the past seven months, here are six things I’ve learned that early childhood educators should do every day:

1. Be clever with your compliments.

Some of the same students who were once saying, “I’m bad at math” are still saying, “I’m bad at math.” Statements like these are signs of a fixed mindset. They trick you into believing you are either “good” or “bad,” and that growth isn’t possible — which is why it’s important to tell them exactly what they are good at in each subject area, starting in the primary grades. Then they will understand that they have strengths along with their areas for growth, and by the time they get to fifth grade, hopefully they won’t be saying, “I’m bad at math” any more.

2. Teach into being an ally for everyone.

Recently Danny hasn’t wanted to come to school. He puts is head down for most of the day. Last week, he walked out of the classroom without permission — twice. I’ve had lots of conversations with Danny, and in each one, he reveals that nobody likes him and he’d rather stay at home. My co-teacher and I pulled the class together, presented them with this problem, and asked, “What should we do?” It was Maria who took out her soapbox and said, “We need to start treating him with more respect. It’s not that you have to be best friends with everyone. It’s that you have to support everyone, because learning is hard.” And there you have it. Maria said it best.

3. Talk about diversity.

In my class, we talk at length about Eric Gardener, why girls might not be playing football at recess, and what it means to be middle class. Research shows that fifth grade students need to talk about these things, but we must prepare them to do so by starting this conversation in kindergarten. My students are prepared — they came to me that way, because every teacher before me has taken the time to bring up topics of diversity in strategic, logical, developmentally appropriate, thorough ways. In kindergarten, they study skin color. In first grade, they define diversity. In second grade, they analyze who has access. . . and so on.

4. Trash your assumptions about their families.

In first grade, Felipe was angry about a lot of things including his parents’ divorce. Fast forward to fifth grade, Felipe is still angry (although less so) about a lot of things. Starting on day one, we decided to address this situation differently. This time, we included both Mom and Dad in our conversations about Felipe. In first grade, we assumed that living with Mom meant Dad had less insight to offer and less of an impact on Felipe’s daily life. Wrong! Now, we talk to both Mom and Dad, and while Felipe is still angry, he feels more secure in my class today.

5. Keep your eyes on the prize: the big ideas.

I’m both in love with and overwhelmed by teaching history! Luckily, John, the fifth grade teacher across the hall, is nothing short of an expert and reminds me every time we meet that it’s less about the details and more about the big ideas. For example, while it’s not important to learn each and every Jim Crow law, it’s important to know how those laws affected the daily lives of people in the South and how they affect our lives today. We only have ten months with our students, so what exactly do we want them to learn?

6. Celebrate hard.

The saying “work hard, party hard” is legit. In fifth grade, we’re always finding reasons to celebrate because the expectations feel so high — but I’m starting to realize that they always were. My first grade class learned how to read! They did more mental math in ten months than my grandmother does in ten years. In September, they told stories in pictures, and by June, they were telling stories with words on lined pages. And we forgot to party. What a bummer.

I encourage all of you to make big changes, to stretch yourself far beyond what you thought you were capable of doing, to leap out of your comfort zone, from early childhood to upper grades — for the sake of your students, yes, but also for the sake of learning more about this profession we love so much. If you have done that, well, please tell us, what did you learn? How did it go?

Windows Driver Foundation Missing

Windows Driver Foundation Missing [Services Error Fix]




Several users have reported the Windows Driver Foundation missing issue on their PC.

This error can occur because of outdated drivers, missing system files, the essential Windows service not running, etc.



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readers this month.

It can be really frustrating when your Windows PC lags or runs slowly when playing games or doing resource-intensive tasks.

Your PC might have all the processing power to handle those tasks, but if some drivers fail to load, then you will experience multiple issues with your PC.

One such error is the Windows Driver Foundation missing issue. When this error pops up, you should know that some important system-related drivers failed to load on your Windows PC.

Since drivers are one of the most important components that let the hardware communicate with the PC, any issues with drivers can malfunction the hardware process.

There are several users that have reported the Windows Driver Foundation missing error and are looking to resolve this problem.

Besides, if your PC is also throwing up Windows Driver Foundation missing errors, then this will also eat up a lot of resources and ultimately drain your device’s battery.

If you are also experiencing the Windows Driver Foundation issue, and looking for solutions for it, then you are in the right place.

Because in this guide, we will help you with a list of solutions, that have helped users resolve the problem. Let us check it out.

What is Windows Driver Foundation and the reasons for this issue?

Before we jump into the solutions to fix the Windows Driver Foundation missing problem, it is better to understand what it is and the reasons that are triggering the issue.

The Windows Driver Foundation is the former name of the Windows Driver Framework. When some important files go missing, you will see an error message Driver WUDFRd Failed to Load/Missing.

When this error message pops up, it indicates that there are some device drivers on your Windows PC that failed to load properly.

For most users experiencing this issue, the problem occurs after they have updated from an older version of Windows to a new version, let’s say Windows 10 to Windows 11.

Here are a few key reasons you might come across the Windows Driver Foundation missing error.

The device drivers aren’t compatible with the version of your Windows.

A third-party app is conflicting with device drivers.

Presence of corrupt temporary files.

Due to corrupt system files.

Windows Driver Foundation service isn’t running.

Wi-Fi drivers are not updated.

Your copy of Windows is missing some important system files.

Latest Windows updates aren’t installed.

The above are some of the most common reasons why you might experience the Windows Driver Foundation missing error.

Now that you have some knowledge about what the problem is and the reasons that are possibly triggering it, let us check out how you can resolve it.

How can I fix the Windows Driver Foundation missing error? 1. Restart your PC

A simple restart can do wonders and is one of the most common solutions you will hear people suggest when you come across any device-related issues.

Restart allows your PC to take a quick reset and load all the important system files right from scratch, which might have been missed during the previous session.

Before trying anything extreme, we would suggest you restart your PC and see if this fixes the Windows Driver Foundation missing issue.

Press the Win + I keys to open Settings.

Select Windows Update from the left pane.

Hit the Check for updates button.

Your PC will now check the system servers for a new update. If a new update is live, then it will prompt you to install it.

Microsoft pushes new updates that not only bring some new features but also include several bug fixes for the Windows OS.

It is highly recommended that you keep your Windows PC up-to-date so that you do not miss out on new features, the latest security patches, and bug fixes.

3. Run Windows Driver Foundation service

Expert tip:

Using the above-mentioned steps, you can head over to the Windows Services menu, and enable the Windows Driver Foundation service for it to function properly and possibly cure the problem.

Not only it is essential to have the latest version of Windows installed, but you should also keep all the device drivers installed on your PC, up to date.

Outdated drivers may be causing issues because they might not be compatible with the version of Windows OS installed.

While you can manually update the drivers for the devices on your PC, there is another easy way to do this.

Outbyte Driver Updater scans your PC for outdated drivers, shows you the result, and then updates all the drivers. Other features include fixing faulty or broken driver files, updating old device drivers, locating missing drivers, etc.

⇒ Get Outbyte Driver Updater

5. Disable hard drive hibernation 6. Run SFC command

Search for Command Prompt in the Start menu.

Run it as an administrator.

Type in the below command and press Enter. sfc/scannow

The System File Checker, or in short, the SFC scan command, checks your PC for all corrupt files, and if it finds missing or corrupt system files, it automatically repairs them.

Simply reboot your PC once the process is complete and see if this fixes the Windows Driver Foundation missing issue or not.

Alternatively, you can also use a trusted third-party software called Restoro. Using this tool, you can easily resolve the issues triggered because of corrupt system files.

If system-related files get corrupt, your system may not function properly. For such scenarios, you can either go ahead through the process of reinstalling the operating system or repairing it, or else opt for Restoro and see if it resolves your problem or not.

7. Run System Maintenance troubleshooter

Whenever you come across any device-related or driver-related issue, we would suggest you run the Windows Troubleshooter.

This built-in tool comes with all the troubleshooting capabilities and can help you cure several driver-related problems, including the Windows Driver Foundation missing issue.

Let the troubleshooter run, and it will give you a report about what is causing the issue, and it will also prompt you to do the needful to fix the problem.

8. Perform clean boot

Performing a clean boot starts your Windows PC with the minimal set of drivers that are required for the system to boot up.

Using this clean environment, you can easily determine if a background activity is interfering or causing conflicts on your PC with your game or program.

9. Clear the temporary folder 10. Reset Windows

Your PC will undergo the process of reset after you have executed the above steps. Choosing the option to keep your files will reset only the system files. Once the process is complete, you will be able to locate your personal files.

Moreover, resetting your Windows 11 PC should be the last option if none of the above-mentioned solutions helped you solve the Windows Driver Foundation missing error.

Using the above solutions you should be able to fix the problem. We also have a dedicated guide on how you can fix the Windows Driver Frameworks uses too much CPU issue.

Since Windows Driver Foundation is the former name of the Windows Driver Frameworks, you can also use the mentioned solutions in that post to possibly fix the problem.

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Introducing Our (Free) Scheduling Software

Booking appointments or free consultations is incredibly important for many local businesses, from plumbers and salons to accountants and wedding planners. It’s how you get new customers and bring in revenue. But actually getting those appointments scheduled often takes way more time than it needs to.

In fact, it takes on average seven emails to set up and confirm an appointment. Plus, one-third of people would prefer to schedule an appointment themselves rather than call the business or fill out a contact form.

So how can small businesses simplify and speed up the process while providing a good experience for their customers and potential customers?

Online scheduling software is the answer. With appointment scheduling software, customers can easily book an appointment with your business without all the back-and-forth—and in a way they prefer. And you save time you can put back into running your business. It’s a win-win.

Say hello to our scheduling software

We’re excited to help small businesses begin easily scheduling appointments with customers.

After a quick and simple setup process, you can start scheduling appointments on your website or from a customizable link and managing them with ease.

Our free scheduling software also includes features such as customizable themes to complement your branding and the ability to integrate with your Google Calendar so customers can only choose appointment times that work best for your business.

Once customers schedule their appointment, they’ll receive automated email reminders, so you don’t have to worry about no-shows or sending manual reminders yourself.

The ability to see all information regarding appointments in a single dashboard simplifies scheduling management for busy business owners.

You can choose from a free or pro version of our scheduling software:

Our free scheduling software provides businesses with one appointment type, three widget colors, rescheduling and cancellation options, and more.

The pro version of our scheduling software provides additional appointment types, widget colors, and features, including custom questions so you can prequalify customers as they request an appointment.

Both our free and pro versions include access to our dashboard and suite of other free and premium features.

Benefits of using scheduling software

Why use scheduling software? Here are a few benefits to consider.

Easily convert customers: Today, customers expect the ability to schedule an appointment online. By providing the option to schedule an appointment through a link or your website, you’re making it easier to convert a website visitor into a customer.

Be available 24/7: Many people are searching for your services after business hours. Online scheduling software allows you to capture these searchers after hours and convert them into customers.

Free up time: If your business handles a lot of appointments and scheduling, then you know how time-consuming it can be to coordinate. Scheduling software alleviates this pain point, allowing you to focus more time and energy on serving your customers while still booking appointments and consultations.

Who should use scheduling software?

Wondering whether or not scheduling software is right for your business? Small businesses in need of an appointment scheduler include home services businesses like roofers, pest control, HVAC; professional services businesses like lawyers, accountants, and real estate agents; health and wellbeing businesses like gyms, salons, and spas; and lifestyle businesses like interior designers or photographers.

This list isn’t comprehensive, of course. Basically, if you offer any type of service that requires an appointment, including free consultations, phone meetings, and more, then you would be a great candidate for scheduling software.

How to get started

Ready to try it out? Try our free appointment scheduler now, and learn more about ways we can help out here.

James Chang

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