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Making a Case for Classical Music New York Times’ Tommasini champions the new

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Anthony Tommasini (CFA’82) talks about his role as chief classical music critic for the New York Times. Photos by Joshua Paul

At an age when schoolmates were captivated by Mickey Mantle, Anthony Tommasini had a different idol: Giacomo Puccini. When he was 15, he would ride the train to Manhattan from his Long Island suburb to blissfully endure the vertigo of the fifth balcony of the Metropolitan Opera House. There, he soaked up the exhortations of a pining Tosca and the arias of a lovesick Madame Butterfly. From then until now, when he occupies a seat in the orchestra, the chief classical music critic of the New York Times has been consumed by music.

He has also been a weighty supporter of boundary-pushing artists like Norwegian pianist Leif Ove Andsnes, Los Angeles composer Stephen Hartke, and composer and 2009 Pulitzer finalist Harold Meltzer. When George Steel, a relative newcomer to opera, was hired two years ago as general manager and artistic director of the New York City Opera, Tommasini applauded what others saw as a risky move. Now, the company is inarguably on the upswing.

Born to musically indifferent parents, Tommasini as a preschooler incessantly picked out tunes on a toy keyboard, “like Schroeder,” he recalls. After he persuaded his parents to buy an actual piano, he attracted attention not only for his playing—at 16 he won a competition performing a Mozart concerto at Manhattan’s Town Hall—but also for his unbounded appetite for musical knowledge.

Tommasini—Tony to his friends—is no snob. Winner of the School of Music’s 1998 Distinguished Alumni Award, he is as likely to wax poetic over Frank Loesser’s Guys and Dolls as he is over Christoph Willibald Gluck’s Alceste. To the occasional grumblings of insular opera aficionados (“…the narrow limits of Tommasini’s personal aesthetic seem to constrain his appreciation of large segments of the wide world of opera,” sniffs one blogger), Tommasini is committed, he says, to writing reviews that speak to both specialists and novices. “I’m a generalist, in the very best sense of the word.”

His mentors include composer Virgil Thomson, the New York Herald Tribune music critic from 1940 to 1954, and Richard Dyer, now retired after 33 years as the Boston Globe’s classical music critic.

His long friendship with Dyer began in December 1986, when the Globe critic asked the young freelancer, who had contributed a few pieces to the paper, if he would be willing to drive to Worcester on New Year’s Eve to cover a Pavarotti concert that was a recap of one Dyer had already written about.

“He’d been well trained as a musician,” says Dyer. “He really did know what he was hearing. As my predecessor, Michael Steinberg, once said, ‘I was interested in people who shared my standards, but not my taste.’”

Tommasini brought a fresh outlook; he was interested in new music and over time, says Dyer, “he became more widely and profoundly educated.”

After contributing for almost a decade to the Globe, Tommasini decided his apprenticeship was over. “I wanted a job,” he says. “But there was no job.”

His partner was about to attend medical school in New York, and a friend suggested that Tommasini come to New York and be a freelancer. “I did,” he says, and wrote for several publications until the Times offered him a contract, which led to a staff position and culminated in his promotion to chief classical music critic in 2000.

A fixture on behalf of the Times at the Bayreuth Festival and other long-esteemed classical showcases, Tommasini is equally attentive to new, occasionally disastrous incarnations of staples such as Puccini’s Tosca or Mozart’s Don Giovanni. And he is distinguished from many classical music critics by his passion for American composers and underperformed contemporary works that excite and astonish him, such as Judith Weir’s A Night at the Chinese Opera.

The classical music world’s general resistance to new compositions irks Tommasini. “You don’t hear people saying, ‘I love movies, but who wants to go to a new movie?’” he says. “Suppose you had a repertory theater that produced four new plays, four 19th-century plays, and four early to mid-20th-century plays”—the same ratio “would be a radical season for the Boston Symphony Orchestra.”

And he dismisses people claiming classical music is elitist. “What does it cost to go to a rock concert or see the Yankees or the Knicks play?” he asks. “Rush tickets, at $20, can be for the best seats in the house, and there is more free classical music than any other art form. BU alone has about three events a day.”

“Of all the performing arts, classical music has been the most hopelessly bound to past repertory,” Tommasini wrote in the Times’ Critic’s Notebook in 2002. “It’s essential for those who want this art form to have a future as well as a history to encourage new work and cajole ensembles, orchestras, and opera companies into supporting living composers. Yet such calls are not meant as a criticism of the standard repertory. These works have survived for a reason. The problem is that repertory staples are trotted out too often for their own good.”

“What I admire in Tony’s criticism is not only his wide and deep knowledge of music—rare is the critic who holds a doctorate in music and has made professional recordings—but the humanity of his outlook,” says Alex Ross, who covers classical music for The New Yorker. “In a phrase, his writing is keen and kind.” And according to Dyer, “Tommasini was a nice guy 20 years ago and he still is, in a job that has corrupted more than one. He never puts on airs in his writing or in his thinking.”

His home, although it boasts location, location, location (it’s a stroll away from the iconic Cathedral Church of St. John the Divine, and a person unafraid of heights can lean out the window for a sweep of the entire park, east and south to Manhattan’s glittering skyline), is as free of ostentation as Tommasini himself. Photos of family and friends punctuate shelves housing a vast CD collection. A wall in his Spartan home office, where he writes his Times reviews and essays, is a portrait gallery of friends lost to AIDS. Those early, cruel years of the HIV epidemic still resonate with Tommasini and have infused him with an ever-percolating gratitude for his professional accomplishments and good fortune, the surprise of rich new musical works, and the companionship of the man he loves.

Born in Brooklyn, Tommasini grew up in a family of five in Malverne, N.Y., where his first exposure to live music was a production of the 1956 Harold Karr musical Happy Hunting, starring Ethel Merman. Later he would take his parents to concerts, but for years his classical fix came largely from an unwieldy collection of records, which in those days, he recalls, cost no more than $3. “In seventh grade I went to St. Paul’s, a small, all-male private school in Garden City, where I was the music,” he says. He taught himself to play the organ he alone commanded every morning at chapel. “I liked being a big shot.”

At the end of his sophomore year, Tommasini was accepted to a summer program at Dartmouth College sponsored by Juilliard Prep. The experience transformed his life both musically and socially. “I was home,” he says. “The one thing I’d never done was play with other musicians, and the program threw me in with them; they were used to it, but it was all new for me. I remember wasting time just going to orchestra rehearsals for hours.”

Tommasini was admitted to the highly regarded Oberlin College Conservatory of Music, but he opted for a broader liberal education at Yale. “I knew I was smart, and I wanted to go to a good college,” he says, “but I also thought, I’m a talented pianist, but I’m not great.” After four years of music woven into solid academics, he went on to earn a master’s in music at Yale, followed by a doctorate at the College of Fine Arts. Under the tutelage of BU’s Leonard Shure, Tommasini rethought his prospects as a concert pianist. Shure was “an astonishing pianist and teacher, and I never knew I could work so hard, partly because we were all terrified,” he says. Throughout his late ’70s and early ’80s years at BU, he waited tables at Victoria Station. “It was exhausting,” says Tommasini, who also taught piano privately until the day he began teaching music at Emerson College.

When he came up for tenure in his early 30s, Emerson did away with his position. “The moral of the story,” he says, “is that the best thing that ever happened to me was not getting tenure at Emerson, or I might still be there, and none of this would’ve happened.” His Emerson experience taught Tommasini a lesson he likes to pass along to young people: “It’s very important to have perseverance, but you don’t want to be so fixed on a goal” that you miss other opportunities.

It was at Emerson he encountered Virgil Thomson. At the time, the school’s focus on musical theater meant that talented singers weren’t getting roles because “they weren’t good actors or they were fat,” says Tommasini, who decided to embrace productions where the music came first. When Emerson staged the Thomson opera The Mother of Us All, Thomson loved the production, and a friendship was born. In 1984, Thomson, who had produced a series of lyrical musical portraits of subjects ranging from his Paris contemporary Gertrude Stein to the colorful New York mayor of the 1930s and ’40s, Fiorello LaGuardia, composed one about Tommasini. Tommasini in turn played piano on a recording of some of Thomson’s works. He later focused on Thomson’s portraits in his doctoral thesis, which became the biography Virgil Thomson: Composer on the Aisle, published in 2004.

After Emerson, Tommasini was casting about for teaching positions, when he offered himself to the Globe, and to Dyer, whom he knew slightly. For two years Tommasini photocopied every Globe article he wrote and sent them to Thomson in New York. “We’d meet at the Chelsea Hotel, where Thomson had an apartment, for the postmortems,” says Tommasini. “Between him and Richard Dyer, I had the best mentors.”

Nearly 30 years later, Tommasini says, he still looks to the legacy of Thomson for the humanity and humor that bring criticism to life. “It’s impossible to come up with words to describe a piece of music, and every day I have to come up with those words, and it’s always been hard and never gets easy,” he says. “But Virgil came up with the most homespun ways to get across how music sounded. No one ever topped him at that. It was miraculous. And hilarious. And charming.”

His place in the firmament of music scribes secure, Tommasini still considers himself part educator. “I still care a lot about illuminating things and about teaching,” he says. “Some opera bloggers hate me because I don’t throw terms like tessitura around. But if I’m writing a review of Das Rheingold, I’m also writing for people who have never seen an opera.”

After experiencing a 2002 Metropolitan Opera performance of Madame Butterfly in the company of a young friend unfamiliar with the tragic story, he wrote: “The uplift in Madame Butterfly comes from Puccini’s music. As the story sinks into tragedy, the searing, melodically haunting music expresses the inexpressible about infatuation, selfless love, foolish devotion, motherly bonding, and abject shame. That Puccini takes you so deep provides a kind of comfort—the comfort of sad truth.”

Rather than glorying in ownership of a towering international voice in what he calls the most conservative of the performing arts, Tommasini appears humbled by the notion. He’s accustomed to people expressing envy of his concertgoing lifestyle, but reminds them that the real work—the writing—comes afterward. It’s hard work, always. And when it comes to producing that work, on deadline, day after day, says Tommasini, his status, however powerful, is mainly a distraction.

“A lot of people are waiting to see what I’m going to say, but if that were in my head, I couldn’t write,” he says, describing music criticism as a mix of opinion and news. Unlike theater critics, whose opinions can close a Broadway show, music critics can encourage or discourage readers to attend a production that is going to have its 11 performances no matter what a reviewer says. But the self-effacing Tommasini does apply his influence, happily, when he implores concertgoers to open their minds and expand their horizons.

Tommasini believes we have entered what he calls a “postdogma period,” characterized by American composers and musicians from the new generation. These are the people who, with Tommasini cheering on the best of them, will, he writes, “save classical music from itself.”

Susan Seligson can be reached at [email protected]. Alan Wong can be reached at [email protected]. Devin Hahn can be reached at [email protected].

This article was originally published in the Winter-Spring 2011 edition of Bostonia.

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Making The Case For Going Case

I decided to go completely case-less. Most of you guys probably think I already do that, since I never have a case on my devices when I’m filming a new video.

But that, as it turns out, hasn’t been so. I used to only keep my iPhone nude for aesthetic purposes on film. As soon as I hit the shutter release on my camera to stop filming, back in the case she went.

Then I read something that changed my perspective on things. After seeing this post by John Gruber, I started thinking. Why are we so obsessed with encapsulating our devices in protective covering? Aren’t we ridding ourselves of the pleasure of using it as it was intended and designed to be used?

I decided to embark on an experiment. One that could prove costly, but at the same time provide me with a since of liberation. I was going to go case-less…

That was two months ago, and I’ve never looked back. It’s hard for me to imagine ever going back to using a case after using my iPhone 5 without one for the last two months.

I will admit that I have yet to throw caution completely to the wind, not yet at least. I purchased AppleCare+ just in case my phone is cosmetically damaged to the point where it bothers me. I’ve also placed a thin square patch of film on the back on my slate iPhone 5, because the anodized aluminum is so prone to scratches. That being said, it’s barely even there, and it’s certainly not providing me with any real protection in the event of a catastrophic drop.

I’ve received some pretty funny responses from friends, family, and even random strangers upon them seeing my case-less iPhone 5.

“You must be pretty brave to do that,” noted one stranger in a local Starbucks.

“That’s insane!” proclaimed an OtterBox obsessed friend.

Just a few months ago, I would have at least sympathized with them, but now I think they’re downright ridiculous for covering up such a fine piece of hardware. They pay all of this money for a device, and they don’t even get to touch it, can’t even feel it, and can barely see it. It all seems silly to me now.

Of course, going case-less has its downsides. For one, it’s inevitable that you phone will suffer from a few scratches here and there. These scratches are largely unnoticeable without a thorough examination of the device, or without the sun hitting it at just the right angle, but they’re there.

The slate iPhone 5, as you know, is prone to scuffs due to the anodized aluminum coating. I’m a victim of “scuffgate“, and I do notice more than a few areas on my iPhone where the bare metal is showing beneath the coating. Again, it’s not something that’s immediately discernible, but a close up view will reveal the imperfections.

I have to admit, at first, I was kind of annoyed with the hairline scratches on the screen, or the scuffs on the aluminum housing. I began to second guess the rightness of my decision to go without a case. But then I got to thinking, I really use my iPhone. I mean I really use it. As someone who blogs about iOS devices for a living, I put my iPhone through more stress than the average iPhone owner. It truly is a testament to the design of the device, that I only have the few scratches and scuffs that I do.

I’ve dropped my iPhone on a hardwood floor multiple times. I lay it face down or face up on virtually any surface. I’m always placing it in my pocket with keys and other potentially dangerous objects, and yet, it still looks virtually brand new.

All things considered, I do not regret my decision to go case-less one bit; not one iota. It’s such a liberating feeling to be able to directly interface with your device without any barriers. You don’t have to worry about cases interfering with the camera, or being too bulky. You get to truly enjoy an item, which by its very nature, is truly meant to uninhibitedly touched.

Apple Music Classical Is Everything I’Ve Wanted Spotify To Be

Dhruv Bhutani / Android Authority

Julian Bream’s 1957 rendition of Weiss’ Tombeau Sur la Mort left a lifelong impression on me. As a ten-year-old, it ignited a passion for music and inspired me to pick up the guitar. In my formative years, I grew to enjoy Mahler, followed the Vienna Philharmonic, and dug out every rendition of my favorite movements. Ironically, it also taught me just how vital metadata can be for a great music-listening experience. 

Over the years, my tastes evolved towards a diametrically different genre — metal. For all their differences, the two genres have sufficient overlap in ideologies. Both are focused on technical proficiency, nuance, and emotion. They both also suffer from a problem of curation, more specifically, metadata. It’s hard to blame the average listener for lumping all metal into a single bucket of heavy music when streaming services have treated the genre irreverently. Even today, streaming services can’t tell the difference between the Gothenburg school of black metal, symphonic black metal, and, say, ambient black metal.

Which music streaming app has the best interface?

806 votes

Metadata powers digital music

I spent a significant chunk of my teenage years amassing a sizable music collection. I’ve devoted hundreds of hours to cataloging and adding metadata to make sense of my spiderweb of a music collection.

Today my music library sits on its own dedicated NAS drive, and depending on my mood, I can dive deep into a discography, find relevant side projects or create a dialed-in playlist within seconds. However, convenience trumps categorization, and most of my music listening happens via streaming, even though the experience sucks. That’s where Apple Music Classical stepped in. 

A quick tap and swipe into the Apple Music Classical app reveals a refreshingly simple interface fine-tuned for the classical music listening experience. The neatly organized grid of categories shows genres, composers, periods, and more. It never takes more than three taps to get to a list of artists, new albums, and more within that specific genre. This shows deference to already existing data, and puts the power of discovery in the hands of the listener. It’s in sharp contrast to how most music streaming apps would prefer you listen to playlists classified by mood, editorial curation, or a mix of both. 

Apple Music Classical understands its userbase knows what it wants to listen to.

Prefer something even more fine-tuned? Swipe right to the instruments tab; the app lets you get into the weeds with guitars, harpsichords, pianos, and more. It’s designed for listeners who want to get intimate with their music.

The playlist model of discovery isn’t wrong, it’s just not conducive to getting intimate with an artist.

It’s not that the playlist model of discovery is inherently wrong. It’s a great way to get a sense of the cultural zeitgeist for pop music or if you are in the mood for some 180 BPM metal at the gym. Unfortunately, playlist-based listening keeps listeners circling within a group of similar-sounding music. How often do you sit up, pause and tap at the playlist to discover an artist and dive further into their works? I feel that the playlist model is entirely at odds with the one thing music lovers like me care about — getting to know the artist.

That same respect for the genre extends to how the Apple Music Classical app displays artist photos, artwork, or life history. Instead of adding jarring video clips or heavy-handed graphics, the app has been designed from the ground up to be respectful to the artist and remain a simple carrier for music. The approach isn’t entirely new, of course, and could be considered an extension of the similarly designed artist page in the regular Apple Music app. However, the focus on curation over becoming a tastemaker for the broadest audience is telling.

No streaming app is perfect, but Apple Music Classical gets close

Dhruv Bhutani / Android Authority

For all its wins, the Apple Music Classical app isn’t perfect either. For the first-time explorer of classical music, the breakdowns by genre or composer can be intimidating, and a streaming service should, by definition, aim for a wider reach. Sure, it’s got some great playlists already, but discoverability can be an issue for someone new to the genre. However, I’d wager that it’s a problem associated with Classical music, not categorization.

Apple Music Classical is a clear example of an app built by people who genuinely care about music. It’s an app that trusts you, the music listener, to know your mood, educate yourself about the nuance of specific pieces or movements, and immerse yourself in an artist’s works. It’s also a great starting point for balancing discovery with curation. 

Apple Music Classical takes a deferential approach to the listener, and balancing it with better discovery is the sweet spot.

I hope Apple takes cues from the Classical app and incorporates some of the interface tweaks and features into the standard Apple Music app. As it stands, the Music app can seem borderline chaotic. I’ve never listened to a single Bollywood track on Apple Music, yet my browse page is chock-full of recommendations for the latest releases. That makes no sense.

Similarly, Spotify’s upcoming TikTok-ification flies in the face of granular music listening. No, Spotify, I do not care about devotional music or the latest Happy Tamil Music playlist.

Apple Music Classical is proof that a better music listening experience can co-exist with the chaos of streaming recommendations. But will any other service learn from it? That’s the million-dollar question.

Apple Music Classical is available for free to all Apple Music subscribers. Subscriptions for Apple Music start at $10.99 a month for individuals, and you can subscribe to a family plan for $16.99 a month.

Yes, Apple Music Classical supports high-resolution lossless streaming as well as spatial audio.

At launch, Apple Music Classical is exclusively available on an iPhone. Apple does, however, plan to launch the app on Android.

No, Apple Music Classical requires always-on internet access.

Software Engineering Cycle In Classical

What is Waterfall Model

The waterfall model is an early software development model that involves the sequential execution of tasks starting with feasibility and flowing through various stages of implementation until the final deployment in the live environment. Requirements flow into the design, which flows into building or performance, and finally into tests. Since the testing process happens at the end of the model, it has been challenging to pass feedback up the waterfall.

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To work on the waterfall model, we need to understand its application approach based on both internal and external factors, which can be as follows:

No ambiguous requirements in the application.

Stability of product definition.

It is technology understood.

It is not dynamic.

Extensive resources with appropriate expertise are available to support the product.

Concise length project.

The excellent document, clear and fixed requirements.

The history of the waterfall model dates back to 1970 when Winston W Royce introduced its first sample in an article. According to this model, one should move to the next phase only after completing the previous phase’s testing, review, and verification. It emphasizes the logical progression of phase steps. Its functionality is similar to the water flowing over the edge of a cliff.

The name ‘waterfall’ for this software development approach comes from the fact that it progresses systematically from one phase to another in a downward fashion. Since it was first published by Winston W. Royce in 1970, the waterfall model has been used widely in software development. Programming models are used in the software development process cycle to plan the various stages of application development. One such model is the waterfall model.

Phases of Waterfall Model

Given below are the phases of the waterfall model:

With the above infographics, we can understand that the waterfall model has a total of 7 stages of the design and development software cycle, which are as follows:




Coding / Implementation


Operation / Deployment


So we can see that the waterfall model works hierarchy from top to bottom, with one phase completed with full verifications and then switching to another step, including phase processes like Conception, Initiation, Analysis, Design, Construction, Testing, Production/Implementation, and Maintenance. To get a more brief knowledge about the waterfall model, we need to understand its processes deeply with its work model. A primary prerequisite phase must be understood before starting the deep stages of knowledge. It is about the feasibility study for the software product. It deals with the financial and technical aspects of the project requirements. This phase deals with correcting the measures based on the analyzed benefits and drawbacks. Thus the best solution is chosen.

1. Requirements

Specifically, we need to know and understand what we have to design, what we have to develop, its processes, what its functionality will be, etc. It provides input material for the developed product, and the expected impact is studied, finalized, and documented. It also gives us the extension to decide the hardware or software requirements of the product, which will be designed, developed, and captured in all phases.

2. Analysis

It results in designing models, schema, and business rules.

Requirement gathering and analysis: First, all the information and need for the product development are gathered from the customer and processed for analysis. The primary role of this part is to eradicate incompleteness and inconsistencies related to software product development.

Requirement specification: Then, the above-analyzed requirements are documented in an SRS (software requirement specification ) document. It serves as a path between the customer and the SRS development team. This SRS documentation manages and settles any disputes in the future.

3. Design

After completing and verifying the first phase, system design is the next crucial phase to study. It helps in specifying software and hardware requirements for product design. It also helps in the overall architecture of the system design. So the requirement specification is mainly studied and verified in this phase. It is also helpful in transforming the SRS document into a functional design and development of the software product. So we can say that in the designing phase, one makes the overall architecture for the software development project.

4. Implementation

With the system design fully verified, the implementation phase comes in a row. During the development phase, small programs called units are created using system design inputs, then tested and implemented in the next phase. Each team in the implementation phase undergoes development, and its full functionality is tested, known as unit testing. This phase transforms the system design into source code containing fully functional program modules. It includes the development, proving, and integration of the software.

5. Integration and Testing

In the implementation phase, we incorporate the design and development of each unit from the earlier phases into a module or system. We then test each unit before conducting various tests, such as load testing. The testing environment undergoes a constant software check to determine if there is any flow or error in the design or code. The purpose of testing is to ensure the stability and feasibility of the software and prevent any disruptions or bugs during production that may affect the client. The testing phase involves rigorous testing of the entire system to identify any faults or failures that may have occurred after implementation.

System testing consists of three different types of activities, which can be given below:

Alpha (α) Testing: The testing done by the development team.

Beta (β) Testing: It is the testing done by a friendly team of customers and users.

Acceptance Testing: It is done after the alpha testing and beta testing. The customer tests the software after delivery and decides whether to accept or reject it. This phase involves debugging any remaining issues.

6. Deployment of the System / Operations

Upon completion of non-functional, functional, alpha, and beta testing, the software product is ready for deployment to the user or customer system or release to the market. The deployment phase includes the complete system’s installation, migration, and user or customer environment support.

7. Maintenance

Changes during the maintenance phase primarily relate to modifications requested by the customer or users after installation and testing. These changes may include fixing bugs or addressing defects uncovered during live use of the system, or addressing customer requests. So the client is provided with timely and scheduled maintenance and support for the developed product. It may surprise you that the effort put into a software product’s design and development phase accounts for only 60% of the total effort, with the remaining 40% devoted to the maintenance phase.

There are three types of maintenance which are given below:

Corrective Maintenance: We may not discover some errors during the design and development phase. We only consider them when the customer uses the product. This is only corrective maintenance, correcting issues or errors not found in the development phase.

Perfective Maintenance: Customers request this maintenance to improve and expand the functionalities of the system or software.

So in the above discussion, we deeply know each phase of the waterfall model with full specifications. The waterfall model is more significant in the software than in the mechanical industry. Each phase has its importance, leading to more effective and stable software.


It allows for departmentalization and control.

An individual or a team can set a schedule with deadlines for each stage of development and proceed a product through the phases of the development process model one by one.

As it undergoes easily understandable and explainable phases, it overcomes many issues, making it very easy to use.

Due to the rigidity of the workflow model, it is straightforward to manage as each phase in the waterfall model has specific review and deliverables processes.

The waterfall model works for smaller projects with well-understood requirements.

You can set a schedule with deadlines for each stage of development and then proceed with the product through each phase of the development process model one by one.

Clearly defined stages.

Well-understood milestones.

Easy to arrange tasks.

We document the process and results.

Reinforces good habits: define-before-design.


The model is adequate for smaller projects and projects with well-understood requirements.

Not a good model for complex and object-oriented projects.

Not suitable for projects where requirements are at a moderate to high risk of changing.

Estimating the time and cost for each phase of the development process presents a challenge.

Not a good model for complex and object-oriented projects.

We do not produce any working software until late in the life cycle.

Cannot accommodate changing requirements.

It isn’t easy to measure progress within stages.

High amounts of risk and uncertainty.

Poor model for long and ongoing projects.

Adjusting scope during the life cycle can end a project.

No feedback path.

No overlapping of phases.

It is challenging to accommodate change requests.

Risk and uncertainty are high with this process model.

Where to Use the Waterfall Model?

Now, after encircling all the scenarios, we come to a point where we want to know where to use the waterfall model.

Majorly waterfall model is used in a defense project; the requirement is evident because they analyze it well before moving to the development phase.

We can apply the waterfall model to migration projects where the requirements remain the same, but we may vary or change the platform or languages.


The waterfall model is more suitable for small software development projects than larger ones because completing each phase, including design, development, and implementation, before moving on to the next makes managing the project at a smaller scale easier. However, in larger projects, issues and errors can occur more frequently due to the complexity of the model. Implementing the waterfall model means completing the testing phase before deployment, which may result in less optimized and accurate software.

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How To Open A Pc Case Safely

Knowing how to open your PC case properly, whether for dust cleaning or to install a new part, is an important skill when owning any computer. I remember vividly trying to open my first PC case, only ending up breaking it and inhaling copious amounts of dust.

In this article, you will learn the best practices for opening any PC case properly, how to avoid critical errors and some other valuable tips (such as breathing dust-free air), so stay tuned till the end!

Preparing Before Opening Your PC Case

A few things to remember while handling any electronic devices is to have sufficient space to place your PC, so you can reach the side panel easily. 

What’s important here is that you never want to disassemble it on plastic surfaces or carpets, since that can cause static electricity discharges and destroy your hardware parts.

If you do this on your desk, also ensure that there are no liquid spill hazards. It’s always a good practice to wipe your PC case with a soft cloth before handling it so that you don’t fill your desk with dust and debris. 

How to Open a PC Case

Depending on the brand and manufacturer of your PC case, it might have slightly different ways to open the side panel. Almost all PC cases are held back with screws on the backside and snap in place using small insertions around the edges of your PC side panel. 

Here are the exact steps to do this. Make sure not to skip any and do them in order:

Turn Your Computer Off

When doing any manipulations where you are handling, repairing, or modifying any PC, the first thing is to power it down correctly. 

Unplug Any Cables From Your PC

All PC cases have an on/off power switch at the Power supply at the back, start by toggling it off. Then you can continue by pulling the power cable connected to your power supply unit on the backside. 

Remove All Connected External Cables to Your Case

The next step is to unplug any connected peripheral devices, screens, and everything. An important thing to remember is that specific cables such as VGA or Ethernet cables can’t just be pulled by force. They either have a small clamp that snaps in place or are held in by screws. 

This step will make handling the computer and opening the PC case much more accessible.

Remove All the Side Panel Screws on the Back

Most PC case side panels are held in place by two to four big screws on the backside. 

Find an appropriate screwdriver that fits snugly and remove the outermost screws from the PC case. Please note, just remove the side panel screws, not the surrounding ones that hold the actual computer together.

Most PCs use Philips-head style screws, and some PC side panels can also be unscrewed without any tools or feature a simple clamp instead of screws.

Take care where you put all the screws, since finding and replacing the same side panel screws can be difficult.

Remove the Side Panel

Start by gently pulling and twisting the side panel until all retaining slide locks are disengaged. Some side panels come off once unscrewed, but most are held on every side or corner by a few small metal slide locks. If you face too much resistance, double-check if all the backside screws are removed to avoid damaging your case.

Some side panels use glass, so be careful how you handle such side panels. 

How to Safely Clean Your Opened PC Case?

Now that you opened your PC case, hopefully hassle-free, you can proceed to perform some essential maintenance. Every couple of months, this should be done to keep your PC running quietly and under cooler temperatures. 

The number one most important thing is never to use a vacuum cleaner, as it could short circuit your PC components.

The second thing is, please do any dust removal in an open or well-ventilated space. Also, use a dustproof respirator or mask, so you don’t inhale all the dust during cleaning. 

Here are the steps on how to remove all the dust from your case:

Go in circular motions and check that every angle and corner is covered. Pay special attention to the fans’ CPU, GPU, and air intake fans. Don’t also forget to dust off your power supply unit. 

How to Put Your PC Case Back?

The steps to assemble your opened PC back are as follows: 

Using moderate pressure, insert the screws on the back side panel to the case itself.

Tighten the screws, but pay special attention not to over tighten them. You are not assembling a space shuttle, so there is no need to have the screws on as tight as possible.

How to Prevent Dust Buildup On Your PC Case?

The most practical tip that will minimize the times you need to go through the lengthy disassembly and cleaning process is to keep your environment well ventilated. 

The second most important thing is to never place your PC directly on top of a carpet, especially if there are air intakes on the bottom of the PC case. 


Opening your PC case can seem intimidating, but it’s a straightforward procedure once you know it. Taking precautions beforehand is also important to avoid damaging expensive and sensitive components, especially during massive GPU and CPU price inflation.

Now you know how to open, clean, and reassemble your PC correctly.

5+ Best Edm Making Software To Download For Free

5+ best EDM making software to download for free




Do copyright regulations interfere with your plans to produce electronic dance music? An EDM  software will take care of that.

In this article, we have gathered the

best EDM software

to help you create any type of beat.

If you’re an artist or a music producer you know that audio digital tools are part of the process to create good music.

Our guide below will provide qualitative DAW software that will incredibly enhance your sound with professional tools.

Get the right software to support your ideas!

Creative Cloud is all you need to bring your imagination to life. Use all the Adobe apps and combine them for amazing results. Using Creative Cloud you can make, edit, and render in different formats:




3D models & infographics

Many other artworks

Get all apps at a special price!

The thought of producing EDM (electronic dance music) may have crossed your mind several times especially if you are a content creator, budding music artist or a DJ.

For content creators, music is a big part of their production. However, the recent copyright laws have made it difficult to use free music available on the Internet. A copyright strike and you may end up losing your channel.

The best solution here is to either purchase a license to music or create your own EDM. EDMs are created using DAW (Digital Audio Workstation) software.

Every Digital Audio Workstation is different, as a result finding the one that caters to your needs is important.

While we cannot promise you to make the next Marshmallow, what we can certainly show you is the best DAW software for EDM.

In this article, we have gathered the top music production software to help you create any type of beats for EDM.

Adobe Audition is the pinnacle when it comes to professional Digital Audio Workstations allowing you to edit, mix, record, and even restore audio.

Designed to deliver a polished mix with pristine sound, the Audition includes multitrack, waveform, and spectral display features that help accelerate production workflows.

Its complex toolset is matched by step-by-step tutorial guides to ensure the perfect usage of its audio transforming capacities.

Regarding sound effects, Audition offers plenty of free effects you can add to your tracks, like fade-in or fade-out for making your songs as original as possible.

Moreover, the benefits provided by this great tool helps to record, edit or mix your music professionally, resulting in a satisfying sound of your music. With its comprehensive audio tools, you’re able to produce tracks that will impress the most critics.

There are other plenty audio effects you can enjoy, such as reverb effect or parametric equalizer designed to improve your recordings. Another capability is the noise reduction option that removes every unwanted sound from your track, transforming it into a crystal-clear melody.

To conclude, such powerful software can assure your EDM music quality thus increase your chances to be heard worldwide.

Let’s quickly go through its key features:

Audio cleanup, restoration, and precision editing tools (spectral frequency display, Diagnostics panel, and effects)

Record, mix, and export audio content for videos and podcasts

Complex sound effect design and robust audio toolkit

Record, edit and integrate music clips

Step-by-step, interactive tutorial guides

Seamless integration with Adobe Premiere Pro and other Adobe Cloud Suite apps

Essential Sound panel for professional-quality audio

Remix (easily and automatically rearrange any song to fit any duration)

Adobe Audition

Adobe Audition is the best professional audio software for recording and producing audio!

Free trialVisit website

ImageLine’s FL Studio is a powerful DAW software that can help you create some of the sleekest beats. Apart from creating EDM, the tool is equally good for creating and recording any kind of music project.

The base version Fruity Edition of the tool lets you create basic melody and loops while the producer edition offers full song creation and audio recording features.

To aid complex score editing and manipulation, it comes with the best in industry Piano Roll that can be used to send a note to plugin instruments.

It also offers a flexible editing timeline with tracks that can hold notes, audio, and automation.

You can use over 80 plugins for instruments and effects covering synthesis, compression, equalization filtering, and distortion, etc apart from support for third-party plugins.

Other notable features offered by FL Studio include a vectorial interface, automation recording, VST, ReWire support, Live DJ Control, the ability to render 4K videos using FL Studio, and more.

FL Studio is both powerful and complex, but once you master its use, the possibilities are endless. The company offers a trial version of the same for you to try before making a purchase.

Let’s sum up its key features:

Intuitive and modern looking users interface

Support for 4K audio

Multiple display support

Excellent MIDI composition tools

Free future upgrades

FL Studio

Fruity Loops is the best software for creating EDM and can be handled easily by newcomers or professionals.

Check priceVisit website

Magix is the same company that owns Vegas Pro video editing software. It also offers its music production DAW software Acid Pro. The Acid Pro comes in multiple versions.

Acid Pro was mainly known for its loop tools. However, the latest version of the software comes with a wider feature set than ever.

The user interface of Acid Pro is nothing different from other DAW tools with a model GUI offering intuitive loop-based composing.

It is standing on the new and powerful 64-bit architecture and comes with a new set of features that include instruments including synthesis, sampler and drum, new plugins, guitar, and mode.

It also comes with two new Vita Solo instruments Pop Brass and Orchestra Ensemble.

Then there is the exclusive Analogue Modelling Suite but only for Acid Pro 365 users offering classic-style effects of limiter, compressor, and transient modeler.

Expert tip:

Acid Pro 365

Check out Acid Pro 365 to create your music using professional tools, without having to worry about copyrights.

Check priceVisit website

Zulu DJ is a professional mixing software that offers enough features for a professional and is easy enough for a beginner to get started.

It is a premium software for the home edition and extra features like a multi-track mixer, audio editing tools, audio converter, and vocal voice changer and more can be added at an additional cost.

There is a free version of the DJ Zulu available as well, but some features get disabled after 14 days trial while others remain functional.

Zulu DJ claims to be a complete mixing solution offering powerful features along with an intuitive user interface.

It also comes with features like the ability to easily crossfade between tracks, real-time pitch, and tempo adjustment, seamless music mixing with auto-play mode, and support for multiple audio formats including MP3, Wav, and other popular formats.

You can also add effects like Distortion and Reverb in real-time. The VST plugin support allows you to add more functionality to the tool.

An easy-to-use interface, real-time automatic BPM detection, and the ability to add all the popular effects on the fly make DJ Zulu a good choice for anyone looking for mixing software.

Zulu DJ

Make your most enjoyable tracks using this proficient mixing program and go crazy with your music.

Check priceVisit website

From producing music to performing Live, Ableton Live is among the simplest digital audio workstation you can find today. The latest version of Ableton makes it even better with a new set of features.

The Ableton Live is divided between two views – the arrangement view and the session view. The Session View enables you to play music live in real-time using scenes made from audio clips.

This allows you to combine a drum, bass, and guitar track in a single scene if needed and the next scene may only include bass and drum with guitar track removed.

The latest version also includes new devices – Wavetable, Echo, Drum Buss, and Pedal to create new sounds with the help of live instruments and effects.

Ableton Live can also capture and edit multiple MIDI clips using the arrangement view that enables quick and creative editing with tools like stretch and audio fade.

Hence this resourceful music producer tool offers the whole experience of recording your music and master it at full resonance. Regardless of your music genre, such efficient software guides you with every single note.

It also has Push 2 integration for viewing MIDI notes on Push display and Max For Live integration as well.

Ableton Live is a fully loaded professional tool that is ideal for mixing and EMD production. Grab the demo and try it to check if it meets your requirements.

⇒ Get Ableton Live

Bitwig is that new kid in the block but offers similar functionality as of Ableton Live which is also due to the fact that some of the former Ableton developers have helped in creating Bitwig.

Bitwig is a professional digital audio workstation for Windows and other platforms offering flexible workflow for recording, live performance, and sound design.

It comes with a complete package of 80+ instruments and effects along with over 10 GB of professional-grade sound content ready for production.

The flexible panel-based user interface offers three layouts: Arrange, Mix, and Edit so that you can focus on the work in hand with a required set of tools.

It also supports multiple monitor setups to boost your productivity. The Detail Editor enables you to make destructive edits to a clip using stretch, split, copy, pan, reverse, add, move, and pitch tools.

Other features offered by Bitwig include standard note editing tools, the ability to open multiple projects at a time, fades and crossfades for audio clips, and hardware integration.

The demo of Bitwig is available for download, make sure you grab the demo before betting your money on it.

⇒ Get Bitwig

We have listed the top DAW software for EDM production and audio mixing. While some offer ease of use, others bring industry-standard tools to create the best piece of EDM in the coming time.

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