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Definition of Scala IDE

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List of Scala IDE with Explanation

We have a list of different IDEs available to edit our code. If we talk about Java, our most popular editor is Eclipse and IntelliJ. Below we can see the list of editors that we can use for the Scala language, which are as follows;

1. IntelliJ IDEA

Intellij idea is one of the most popular IDE we have. This editor provides support for many languages, which cover most of them like; java, typescript, groovy, Scala, SQL, Kotline, javascript, and many more. Inside this, we have so many build tools available that can be used to create our project based on the requirement. We have ANT, maven, and gradual support to make our applications. Using this, we can create a new project and import the existing project into the workspace, making the development easy. To start with the Intellij idea and how to use Scala with it, we will see some steps to follow, which are mentioned below;

First, we need to download the IntelliJ idea into our system. We can download IntelliJ Community Edition for better support for the language.

In the second step, we must check whether Java is installed on our machine. If not, we must install it because Scala uses Java libraries. To check whether Java is installed, we have one command for this; we should check for its version, javac -version. It would be best if you had Java 8 installed on your machine. If not, then we should install Java Jdk 8 or higher.

After setting up Java, we can open the IntelliJ idea and set the version of Java we want to use for the specific project.

Give the name of the project. Example: DemoScalaProject

Now start writing code for Scala. Go to the src folder and start writing your code. We can have one sample program to show it working. See below;

object Main extends App{ println("Welcome to Scala.!!") println("Setup done.") }

2. Eclipse for Scala

To start setting up a scale with Eclipse,, we have to download the Eclipse installer. Using an Eclipse installer, we can easily download the latest version of Eclipse.

After setting up, Eclipse, we must check for our Java version. If Java is unavailable on your machine, download the latest one. JDK 8 or higher.

Also, we have to download the Scala plugin from the Eclipse marketplace. Inside Eclipse,, search for the market and type Scala there. You will see various available plugins for Scala. Download one from the list.

Before creating the project, set up the SDK for Scala inside the settings menu.

After finishing, it will take around 3-4 seconds to load the project into the project explorer. Then you will see a project got created in your workspace by the name you have given.

Go to the src folder; here, you can create your packages and classes to start with your code.


object Main extends App{ println("Welcome to scala.!!") println("Setup done using eclipse.") }

From Eclipse, you can check out your code as well. We just have to select the correct version control for this.

3. NetBeans for Scala

After setting up this, we have to download the scala and setting up into the home variable.

Add the path of scale here with the name Scala_home

We have to add this path for the system variable.

After setting up the Scala home variable, we have to download the Scala plugin for Netbeans.

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List Of 2Xx Http Status Codes With Explanation – Webnots

The entire web works based on HTTP protocol. The browser sends communication to the server and gets response to display it on the frontend. During this process, there could be lot of errors happen. In order to troubleshoot these errors, web servers returns a three digit HTTP status codes in the response. This status code, also called HTTP error code, is an indication of what went wrong in the communication. Receiving HTTP status codes with 2xx series from the server response indicates that the server received the request from the client and processed successfully. Here we will explain the list of 2xx HTTP status code with explanation.

HTTP Request and Response Over Web

HTTP Status Codes

There are 5 different groups of HTTP status codes:

2xx Status Codes

2xx status codes indicate that the communication is successful and the web server could process the request received from the client browser. Below are the list of 2xx HTTP status codes.

200 – OK

201 – Created

202 – Accepted

203 – Non-authoritative information

204 – No content

205 – Reset content

206 – Partial content

Let us explain each status code in detail.

200 – OK

This is a typical response received from the server for a successfully processed request. For example, when you use tools like URL inspection tool available in the Google Search Console account you will see a response with “200 – OK” if the crawler can successfully access the webpage.

URL Inspection Tool in Google Search Console

200 – OK is correct response a server should return for a successful request which indicates there are no problems. You can also check the status of the server response codes using the HTTP header checker tool.

201 – Created

Status code “201 – Created” indicates that the server completed the received request from the client and created a new resource based on the received request. The initial request acts as a trigger for generating a new response in a server. For example, a server generates a new response based on a user login details.

202 – Accepted

When the server accepted the request from the client but not yet processed then the code “202 – Accepted” is returned. This is only indication of the acceptance of request but the result of request processing will be known later when the actual processing takes place.

203 – Non authoritative Information

When the server processed the request successfully but returns the information from another resource to the requested client then the code “203 – Non authoritative Information” is received. This status code is not valid in HTTP/1.0.

203 – Non authoritative Information

204 – No Content

When the server could not able to find any content for the received request, it sends a response code “204 – No Content” to indicate the client that no content is returned.

205 – Reset Content

This is similar to code 204, the request was processed successfully by the server but no content is returned. The difference here is that 205 code informs the client to reset the document view.

206 – Partial Content

Server returns this code when it sends part of the requested resource due to the range mentioned in the request header. For example, the client may request a range of file to download and use multiple streams to download the complete content.

HTTP Status Codes Guide

How Foldleft Function Works In Scala With Examples?

Introduction to Scala foldLeft

Scala foldLeft function can be used with the collection data structure in scala. Also, foldLeft is applicable for both immutable and mutable data structures of collection. This function takes two arguments as parameters. One is the binary operator and the second argument of the collection always points to the current elements of the collection. This binary operator is used to settle the elements of the collection.

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Syntax of Scala foldLeft:

This method takes two arguments as a parameter, and it traverses from left to right, so it is named as the foldLeft() method.

def foldLeft[B](z: B)(op: (B, A) ⇒ B): B


val result = list.foldLeft(1.1)(_ + _)

In this, we give the initial value to the function as 1.1 and try to sum all the elements present in the list. This can be applied to any collection data structure.

How foldLeft Function works in Scala?

foldLeft function traverse the element of collection data structure from left to right to it is named as foldLeft() function in scala. It takes two parameters, and also we can specify the initial value by using this function. This function is a recursive function and helps us from stack-overflow exceptions while programming.

This function is the member function of TraversableOnce in scala. TraversableOnce is a trait built to remove the duplicate code of Traversable and Iterator, which implements the common functions. This trait also contains abstract methods, and the Traversable and Iterator provide this abstract method implementation.

Now we will see one example where we will initialize our list of elements and trying to apply the foldLeft function on it.



val myList: Seq[Int] = Seq(10, 30, 50, 60) println(myList)

In this, we are creating one Sequence of integers containing around 4 variables and trying to print out the sequence elements.


val result = myList.foldLeft(0)(_ + _) println("result is  ::" + result)

After creating the sequence, now we want to sum all the elements present inside the sequence. For this, we are using the foldLeft function. First, we call foldLeft on our collection, followed by the initial value that we have assigned as 0. After that, we use the binary operator + to get the sum of all elements present inside the collection sequence. We can use any binary operator here depend upon the requirement.

We can also use the foldLeft function with string type of collection data structure; we will see one example.

Here we are creating one List if string that contains so many elements into it. After that, we are just printing our newly created list that all.



val myList: List[String] = List("amit", "sumit", "vinit", "lalti", "minit") println(myList)


Now we are trying to add some string after our every element present into the for this, we are using the foldLeft function, and inside this function, we are appending the string that we want to show.

We can also pass a function obtained value directly to the foldLeft function to concatenate the string.



val myList: List[String] = List("amit", "sumit", "vinit", "lalti", "minit") println(myList) var result = myList.foldLeft("")(valFun) println(result)

So in the above example, we are passing the value function directly to the foldLeft function. It is just a simple way and more readable to the developer. But i would recommend the first approach to follow.

Examples of Scala foldLeft

Given below are the examples of Scala foldLeft:

Example #1

In this example, we are modifying the string list elements by using the foldLeft function in scala.


object Main extends App{ val myList: List[String] = List("amit", "sumit", "vinit", "lalti", "minit") println("list before foldLeft function is  :::: ") println(myList) println("list after foldLeft function is  :::: ") println(result) }


Example #2

In this example, we are finding the sum of all the elements present inside the List collection data structure.

object Main extends App{ val myList: List[Int] = List(100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700) println("list before foldLeft function is  :::: ") println(myList) var result  = myList.foldLeft(0)(_+_) println("list after foldLeft function is  :::: ") println(result) }


Example #3

In this example, we are applying different binary operators on the list of integers by using the foldLeft function.


object Main extends App{ val myList: List[Int] = List(100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700) println("list before foldLeft function is  :::: ") println(myList) var result  = myList.foldLeft(0)(_-_) println("list after foldLeft function is  :::: ") println(result) var result1  = myList.foldLeft(0)(_*_) println("list after foldLeft function is  :::: ") println(result1) }


Example #4

In this example, we are finding the maximum value of the collection by using the max function inside the foldLeft function available in scala.


object Main extends App{ val myList: List[Int] = List(100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700) println("list before foldLeft function is  :::: ") println(myList) var result  = myList.foldLeft(0)(_ max _) println("list after foldLeft function is  :::: ") println(result) }



foldLeft functions traverse each element of the collection data structure and help us to perform operations on the element. Thus, it is more reduced and simplified, and untestable to the programmers. Also, it reduces the number of lines of code.

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This is a guide to Scala foldLeft. Here we discuss the introduction, how the foldLeft function works in scala? And examples respectively. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

4 Different Methods With Examples

What is CONCATENATE in Excel?

CONCATENATE in Excel is an essential function that allows users to combine data from different cells and display the result in a single cell. For instance, if you have a list of addresses with the name, street name, city, etc., in different columns, you could use the CONCATENATE function to combine each section into a complete address.

You can then copy the combined address or use it elsewhere.

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The CONCATENATE in Excel function is helpful for those who work with large volumes of data and want to combine the values of different columns into one. The utility of the function extends from connecting first and last names to linking data sections for generating unique codes.

Key Highlights

The function CONCATENATE in Excel can combine a maximum of 30 values.

This function always gives a text string, even if the source contains all numbers.

To work correctly, we must provide at least one text argument in the formula for the CONCATENATE function.

It gives a #N/A error if we provide an invalid value to an argument.

The function CONCATENATE in Excel combines the source values and displays the result in a new cell. Therefore, it does not alter the source giving users the flexibility to work on new and old values.

Syntax of CONCATENATE in Excel

The syntax for CONCATENATE function is as follows-

Text 1: It’s a required argument and the first item to join. It can be a text value, cell reference, or number.

Text 2: It’s also a required argument. We can join up to 255 items that are up to 8192 characters.

How to Use CONCATENATE Function in Excel?

You can download this CONCATENATE in Excel Template here – CONCATENATE in Excel Template

1. Using the Formula

Suppose we have a list of Names in Column A and a list of Dates in Column B and want to display the Name & Date together in Column C.

Here’s how we can do it:

Explanation of the formula:

A6: This is the first value we want to combine.

“: To insert a space between the combined values, we enclose it in double quotes.

TEXT(B6, “DD-MM-YYYY” ): The TEXT formula converts the number into a readable format. B6 represents the date, and DD-MM-YYYY is the format to display the same.

Note: Excel will display the output in a non-readable format if we concatenate a date with text without converting it.

2. Using the Function “fx.”

Step 1: Create a new column with the heading Product Code.

Step 2: Select the cell where you want to display the combined result. In this case, it is cell E6.

3. Using Ampersand Operator (&)

Suppose we have a list of Employee names in Column A and their Email IDs in column B. We want to concatenate these values to create a list of Employee Emails with their Display name using the Ampersand Operator (&).

Put the “=” sign and select the first cell to combine (A6). Enter the & operator and open double quotes. Put a space and open angle brackets. Enclose the second value (B6) between ampersand operators and double quotes. And lastly, end the formula with double quotes. The double quotes indicate that we want the output in text format.

Step 3: Press Enter key to get the combined result

To concatenate the Email ID with the Names of the remaining cells, drag the formula into the other cells.

4. Combine Text String and Cell Value Using CONCATENATE Function

Explanation of the formula

A6: The cell contains the first value we want to combine.

“: A space enclosed with double quotes to separate the combined values with space.

B6: We want to combine the cell containing the second value.

“MICROSOFT EXCEL”: It is the third value to combine. It is enclosed in double quotes to indicate that we want to display a text value.

Things to Remember

Same Order: The CONCATENATE function combines the values in the same order as in the data set. For example, if a column contains the alphabets in random order, i.e., A, C, D, F, and H, then the formula =CONCATENATE(A, C, D, F, H) will display it as

Manual Cell Reference: If you want to combine the values of a cell range, you cannot use an array (such as B1:B10). You must refer to each cell manually, e.g., =CONCATENATE(B1, B2, B3,..).

CONCAT function: In EXCEL 2024 and later versions of Excel, the CONCAT function in Excel has replaced the CONCATENATE function. However, it is still available to use for compatibility.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Answer: The shortcut for CONCATENATE uses the ampersand operator (&). To combine values using the (&) operator, follow the steps:

Step 2: Type the formula,

=A6&” “&B6

Note: To separate the values with space, we enclose space with double quotes in the formula.

Answer: Working with numerical data in Excel is relatively easy to manipulate, but combining or manipulating text can be challenging. This is where the CONCATENATE function comes in handy. This function allows users to merge text strings without changing the original values, making it an ideal option for financial reporting or presentations.

Unlike merging cells, the CONCATENATE function does not alter the original values. It also allows for combining different data types, such as text strings, numbers, and dates, which is beneficial for data analysis and presentation.

The CONCATENATE formula is =CONCATENATE(text1, text2, text3,…), where,

text1, text2, text3,… are the values we want to combine. We can combine up to 255 strings and 8192 characters in one formula.

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Different Types Of Backup Concentrate

Introduction to Backup Types

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Several types of Backup

As mentioned above, the types of backup concentrate more on “how” to back up rather than “what” to backup. Therefore, let’s study various types of backup in detail.

1. Full backup

It is the most classical or conventional way of backing up the entire spectrum of data right from files, subfolders, folders at the system level or data files, redo logs, procedures, control files at the database level.  The entire gamut of data will be backed up every time this full back up initiated.


A full backup is preferred in small setups where the consumption of backup storage is not that high.

It is Easy and simple to manage full backups.

Restoration is also easy and quick since it follows a straight and simple process.

The latest media is sufficient to restore full backups

It’s a slow and time-consuming process

Consumption of storage space is quite high and results in a lot of duplication of data.

System availability may be an issue to take frequent full backups.

2. Differential backup

This system involves backing up delta changes between the earlier full backup and current differential backup. Each time this backup is fired, the same process is repeated, which essentially means that files backed up in the earlier differential run in the cycle are also backed up, resulting in duplicates to some extent. Therefore, full backup media and the latest differential media are required to fully restore the system.


It takes lower storage media when compared to full backup

It is faster as it backs up only delta changes between earlier full backup and now

More frequent backups can be planned since it involves the lower volume of data to be backed up

Restoration is still faster when compared to incremental backup since it involves handling full backup media and the latest differential backup media.

When compared to incremental backup

It takes more storage space as it contains duplicates backed up in the earlier backups in the cycle.

Backing up is also slower since it handles a larger volume

When compared to full backup

Restoration is a little complicated as it had to use full backup and one more media.

The restoration takes more time for the above reason.

3. Incremental Backup

As in differential backup, a backup cycle starts with full backup and continues with multiple incremental backups. This system involves backing up incremental data created between the last backup and the current backup. For the first incremental backup, the last run is the full backup.

It isn’t easy this process through manual operation, and it is ideally managed through a vendor supplier tool or third party software.


It consumes the lowest storage media spaces because the volume of data to be backed up is low, and there are no duplicates in the data to be backed up.

Time taken for backup is also low due to the same above reason.

Many frequent backups can be planned, say daily, twice daily.

This system is used in database applications.

Restoration of data is very cumbersome as it involves full backup media and the subsequent incremental backups in the current cycle.

Restoration is also slower due to the above reason.

4. Mirror Backup Application Backup (Business Continuity Planning) Onsite model

In this set-up, a copy of the source application platform (primary) is maintained on a different floor or building in the same location as secondary. An initial full copy of the primary application is installed at the secondary site, and further changes in the primary are updated in the secondary site in synchronous mode by the application. Thus, it protects primary applications from any disaster due to hardware failures, corruption of databases, software failure, and other internal failures.

In case of any disaster, the application can be switched over to a secondary site without losing much time, and business continuity can be ensured. Moreover, the primary system can be rectified later and restored. However, it does not cover other disasters like power break down or natural furies like floods, earthquakes, and cyclones, affecting primary/secondary sites.

Offsite  model

In this model, the secondary site is maintained at an offsite location, and it is automatically updated at a frequent interval in an asynchronous mode. Therefore, it protects the primary site from natural disasters like floods, earthquakes, cyclones, political disturbances, etc.; the only issue in this model is primary and secondary sites should be interconnected with a high bandwidth network.

Cloud backup

It is a highly contemporary setup in which the backup of the data is done in the cloud, and the application can be switched over to the cloud if there is any disaster. Many cloud service providers offer this service, and it will result in cost savings if used prudently.


With so many options available for backing up their data, businesses will have to choose that method that suits their data strategy and budget and maintains business continuity.

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This is a guide to Backup Types. Here we discuss the types of backup concentrate more on “how” to back up rather than “what” to backup. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –

9 Different Types Of Depression

Are you Depressed?

It’s not an easy question to answer if you’re a student during a severe slump, a new mother unsure of the source of her sadness, or a retiree dealing with the passing of a dear one. At times, every one of us has a gloomy mood. But, there is a distinction with depression. Persistent melancholy and a lack of interest in things that were once enjoyable are signs of this significant mood disorder. Depression is simply a catch-all term for various distinct mood states.

Mild, fleeting bouts of melancholy are one manifestation of depression, whereas severe, chronic depression that lasts for years can be just as debilitating. Major depression, the most severe form of depression, is included in the clinical depression definition.

Several mental illnesses have symptoms of depression, although there are many distinct forms. This is why it’s crucial to consult a medical professional and have a correct diagnosis of depression to receive the most effective therapy for your specific kind of depression.

Seems like you could be experiencing one of these forms of depression −

1. Major Depressive Disorder is the most Prevalent Kind of Depression.

If you suffer from severe depression, you may experience and exhibit symptoms such as great sorrow, helplessness, depersonalization or a decrease in pleasure activities, fatigue, impatience, difficulty focusing, shifts in sleep or feelings of guilt, eating patterns, physical discomfort, and suicidal ideas. Major depressive disorder may manifest itself in a single episode, but it most commonly manifests as recurrent episodes over a person’s lifetime.

Antidepressant medicines are the gold standard, although talk therapy can also be effective. The good news is that many people suffering from severe depression react well to treatment.

2. Dysthymia, a Kind of Depression You May Not Be Familiar With

Dysthymia is a specific form of depression characterized by a persistent poor mood that may persist for a year or longer. People can get by, but not at peak performance. Some symptoms of depression are a lack of energy, an inability to focus, a change in eating and sleeping patterns, and general sorrow.

Talk therapy is more effective than medicine for this sort of depression. However, according to some research, a combination of the two may be most effective. Dysthymic individuals may also be more susceptible to significant or clinical depression.

3. Sorrow After Having a Baby (Postpartum Depression)

Extreme sorrow, anxiety, exhaustion, isolation, hopelessness, suicidal thoughts, the anxiety of damaging the baby, and a sense of disconnection from the kid are all symptoms of postpartum depression. This postpartum depression often begins shortly after giving birth, while it can manifest anywhere between days or months after giving birth.

Treatment may involve talk therapy and medication, but only if administered quickly by a trained medical professional.

4. Severe Winter Tiredness Linked to Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

It’s believed that between 4% – 6% of the US population suffers from SAD (seasonal affective disorder), a kind of sadness that worsens with the onset of winter. Winter blues are standard, but SAD is distinguished by its worry, irritability, daytime weariness, and weight gain symptoms. Wintertime is associated with this melancholy, most likely because of the diminished availability of sunshine. The reason why some persons are more affected by this dimming of the lights is unclear. The symptoms are often modest, although they can be rather severe.

5. Atypical Depression is Often Misunderstood

Contrary to its label, atypical depression is really relatively common. Even some medical professionals feel this form of depression is underdiagnosed, suggesting that it may be more prevalent than previously thought.

Compared to severe depression, this form of depression is little understood. A characteristic symptom of atypical depression is a feeling of paralysis-like heaviness in the limbs, in contrast to the lightness that is a hallmark of severe depression.

It’s possible for someone suffering from this form of depression to put on weight, increased irritability, and struggle in their interpersonal relationships. Low mood reactivity (improvement in mood in response to positive events) and a persistent tendency to be too sensitive to interpersonal rejection are other characteristics of atypical sadness.

6. Loss of Grasp on Reality, a Symptom of Psychotic Depression

Depression isn’t usually thought of as a symptom of psychosis, which is a mental condition marked by disordered thinking or behavior, erroneous beliefs (delusions), and false sights and sounds (hallucinations).

Sufferers of this form of psychotic depression often withdraw within themselves, becoming silent and unable to leave the bed. Antidepressants and antipsychotics may need to be used together to treat the patient.

7. Highs and Lows in Bipolar Disorder

If you’ve ever had severe lows followed by tremendous highs, you could have bipolar disorder

Mania manifests itself through elevated levels of energy and enthusiasm, as well as a heightened rate of cognition and impaired decision-making. Depression and mania might alternate many times a year or even more frequently. Around 3% of the population suffers from this condition, making it one of the leading causes of death by suicide.

There are four primary forms of bipolar disorder, each characterized by different symptoms. As compared to Bipolar II, which is defined by hypomanic episodes (milder than manic episodes) in addition to depression, cyclothymic disorder, and other specific bipolar and related illnesses, Bipolar I is characterized by at least one manic episode.

Mood stabilizers are the standard treatment for this kind of depression.

8. Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder 8: When Depression hits Women Every Month

During the second part of their menstrual cycle, some women experience a kind of depression known as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Some of the symptoms are low self-esteem, worry, and erratic emotions. PMDD affects around 5% of women, although its symptoms are far more severe than those of PMS, which affects up to 85% of women.

When symptoms of PMDD are at their worst, they can profoundly impact a woman’s social life and her capacity to carry on with her daily activities. Using antidepressant medication with psychotherapy and dietary changes may effectively treat this kind of depression.

9. Sadness Due to Life Circumstances

In the aftermath of a traumatic or life-altering event, such as the loss of a job, the passing of a loved one, or the end of a relationship, a person may have situational depression, also known as adjustment disorder.

Medications are seldom necessary for treating situational depression, three times more frequent than severe depression. The reason is: it usually clears up once the event has concluded. Yet that’s no reason to disregard it: If situational depression symptoms persist, they may indicate severe depression.

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