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Java Tutorials and Guide

Java is a high-level programming language developed by the sun microsystem. First, it was conceived by James Gosling, Patrick Naughton, Chris Warth, Ed Frank, and Mike in the year 1991. Initially, it was named “Oak,” and it was renamed “Java” in 1995. Java is a highly object-oriented, platform-independent, and secure programming language.

One of the most important factors in the java programming language is its Bytecode conversion. Byte codes in Java are a highly optimized set of instructions designed to be executed by Java Virtual Machine. JVM works as an interpreter for the byte code.

We require JDK (Java Development Kit) to use java programming language, including JRE (Java Runtime Environment).

Why do we need to learn Java?

Simple: Java is designed in such a way that a programmer can easily learn and use it effectively. If a programmer is aware of some basics of Object-Oriented Programming, learning java will be easier.

Object-oriented: In Java, everything is an Object. Java was not designed to be source code compatible with any other languages. This benefits a clean, usable, and pragmatic approach to objects. It can easily extend since Java is based on the object model.

Platform independent: Unlike other programming languages, java code is not converted to platform-specific Machine language. Rather java code is converted into platform-independent Bytecode, and JVM interprets it.

Multithreaded: Java meets the requirement of creating interactive and networked programs. Java supports multithreaded programming that allows writing programs that perform various tasks simultaneously.

Robust: Running java program on multiplatform environment and executes reliably. Java has a strictly typed language. Therefore, it checks java code at compile time and runs time.

Architecture neutral: Java designer’s main goal was “write once, run anywhere, anytime. The changes in the Platform or in the machine do not affect the java code.

Distributed: Java is designed to run on a distributed environment or Internet because it handles TCP/IP protocol, and it also supports Remote Method Invocation.

Applications of Java

Java is used in various application developments following are some real-time applications of Java.

Desktop GUI applications: Java provides the facility to develop Graphical User Interface-based desktop applications by various means like AWT (Abstract Window Toolkit), Java Swings, and JavaFX. AWT consists of various components like menus, buttons, and text boxes. Etc…JavaFX is a media package that provides 3D graphics.

Mobile applications: Advanced java technology – Java 2 Micro Edition is a cross-platform technology that provides to develop of applications that run on any platform, i.e., Java-supported devices like mobile phones or smartphones. And recent technology of android is also scripted in Java with other APIS.

Embedded System: Embedded electronic devices ranging from tiny chips to large electronic gadgets like refrigerators, TVs, and large electromechanical devices are coded in Java.

Enterprise Applications: Java Enterprise Edition supports to development of enterprise-level applications like banking. JEE provides APIs and a runtime environment for scripting.

Web Applications: Java Advance technologies like Servlets, JSP, and Struts support the development of web applications. Using these technologies, a programmer can develop highly secure web applications that are easy to code.

Simple Java Program


public class SimpleExample1 { public static void main(String[] args) { int a = 10; System.out.println("Hello……EDUCBA"); System.out.println("Value of a = "+ a); } }



To learn java programming, a language programmer should have prior basic knowledge of any programming language such as C. Since Java is a purely object-oriented language, basic knowledge of any object-oriented language like C++ is necessary, and it becomes easier to understand Java. The only programmer needs to understand the basic syntax and structure of the java programming language.

Target Audience

Starting from the java standard edition, it’s a greater beginning for java programmers Standard Edition support to develop, ranging from Desktop applications to embedded systems. Advanced java version, i.e., J2EE technologies, support to develop Enterprise level applications, web applications, gaming applications, etc.

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10 Interesting Things About Java Programming Language Features

Introduction to Java Programming Language

Java (another word for “coffee”) is also a programming language that is the base for nearly every kind of networked app. Want the perfect Java recipe book? Eager to know what’s brewing and which are the latest trends in this programming language? Learn more about Java programming language features designed initially for entertainment appliances here.

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Features of Java Programming Language

Below are the features of the Java Programming Language:

#1: Java was born from a language named Oak

Oak was originally a platform-independent language for communicating with video game consoles, VCRs, and other recording appliances.

Meanwhile, the World Wide Web’s reach expanded, and Oak’s developers, James Gosling and his team, shifted their focus to the Internet.

Oak became Java and WebRunner. The Oak-enabled browser transformed into another avatar: the HotJava web browser.

Java was invented in 1992 after Oak (named for the tree outside Gosling’s window) underwent a transformation.

Legend has it that Java was named at a cafe the development team used to visit, and the magic number “0xCafeBabe” in the class files is the specific name of the coffee house.

Java was developed at Sun Labs, where the team started a “clean up” of C++ and ended up with a whole new language and runtime.

#2: There are a host of Java sites for aspiring developers #3: Java is a programming language with unique features

Java forms the foundation for developing and delivering embedded and mobile applications, Java game programming, web content, and enterprise software. Java has close to 9 million developers worldwide. From laptops and PCs to gaming consoles and supercomputers, the aroma of Java permeates just about everywhere. Programming in Java is all of the following:

#4: Java Basic Syntax involves 4 components- object, class, methods, and instant variables

The method comprises the header and the method body. All parts of a method are as follows: modifiers and return type.

Exception handling is a key feature of Java in that the method catches an exception using a blend of try-and-catch keywords. A try/catch block is placed around the code, making it a protected code that generates an exception.

#5: Java programming language features are case-sensitive

All Program Java components, such as classes, variables, and methods, are called identifiers.

As Java is a case-sensitive language, identifiers would differ depending on whether the upper or lower case is used. For example, “hello” would differ in meaning from “Hello.” Identifiers should begin with a letter (A or a), currency character($), or underscore (__). One should know that keywords cannot serve as identifiers.


Legal identifiers, i.e. those that work- _value, $salary

Illegal identifiers, i.e. those that malfunction- KLM123, #AB2

After the first character, identifiers can have any character combination.

Class Names: the First letter should be in the upper case for every class name. If a class has several words in its name, each inner word’s first letter must be in the upper case.

Method Names: These should start with lowercase letters. Where there are several names to form the method, each inner word must be in the upper case.

File Name: Names of program files should match the class names; otherwise, the program will not compile.

For example, if the class name is “MyJavaProgram”, the file should be saved as “”

There are 2 categories of modifiers, namely access and non-access.


Access Modifiers: default, public, private

Non-Access Modifiers: final, abstract

The 4 access levels are as follows:

Visible to package (the default). Modifiers are not necessary.

Visible to class alone (private)

Visible to everyone (public)

That which is Visible to the package plus subclasses (protected)

The 3 kinds of variables in Java are as follows:

Local variables

Class/static variables

Instance/Nonstatic variables

Java Arrays: These are objects that store many variables at the same time through an Array, which is an object on the heap itself.

Example of Java Enum syntax:

public enum Level {High, Medium, Low}

Enums can be on their own or within a class. Methods, constructors, and variables can also be defined within enums.

In Java development, keywords are reserved words that cannot be used as constants, variables, or other identifier names.

Types of Comments in Java

#6: Java has different types of built-in data, including strings, numbers, integers, and booleans

There are 2 data types in Java, namely Primitive Data Types and Reference/Object Data Types.

8 primitive data types are supported by Java, predefined by the language, and named via keyword. These are:









Reference Data Types

These are variables created using defined constructors within the classes and are employed for accessing objects. These variables cannot be changed because they are of a certain type. For example, the Employer, Employee, etc.

Class objects and various array variables also come under reference data type.

Null is the default value of a reference variable. The reference variable refers to the object of the declared or new compatible type.

Literal is a source code representation belonging to a fixed value represented directly in the code in the absence of computation. Literals can be assigned to primitive type variables. String literals in Java are specified by enclosing a sequence of characters between double quotes. An example of the string literal is “Hello There.” Java programming language features also support special escape sequences for string and char literals.

Types of Operators

Arithmetic Operators: The following arithmetic operators in Java: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, modulus, increment, and decrement.

Relational Operators

Bitwise Operators

The Bitwise Operators

Logical Operators

Conditional/Ternary Operators- Consist of three operands and help for the evaluation of boolean expressions.

One writes this operator in the following way:

variable x=(expression)?value if true: value if false

instanceOf Operator – This one comprises the description of whether an object is of a particular type (class or interface). This operator is written as:

(Object reference variable) instanceOf (class/interface type)

Loop Troop: while, do…while, for, enhanced for

Keyword Types: break, continue

While the break keyword is for stopping an entire loop and must be used within the loop or switch statement, continue the keyword is used in loop control structures using the loop to jump to its next iteration.

Understanding what core Java is about is a must before mastering this programming language. So what are the core concepts? Well, they are as follows:

Object-oriented programming concepts ( this includes abstraction, containment, inheritance, encapsulation, and polymorphism).

Reasons why Java is a platform-independent language that can be run on all OS like Mac, Windows, and Unix

Manner and Nature of Java Virtual Machine

Understanding the Java collection framework

In-depth knowledge of data types and a few Java lang classes like String, System, Math, etc

Coding Competitions

Mastering Java is all about putting theory into practice. Simple coding exercises are good to begin with. Still, suppose you have to get the perfectly brewed recipe. In that case, you need to try out different types of logic exercises ( for example, finding prime numbers between 1 to 2000, creating a Fibonacci series, computing number factorials, and more) and file input/output exercises such as listing files, reading and displaying files on console, creating a file with the content. It would help if you tried string manipulation exercises such as parsing numbers from strings, replacing part of the string and building number pyramids, or creating 2 player text-based games.

Next are the servlets and JSP, which are good standard APIs. JSF or JavaServer Faces is a web framework helping in user interface simplification for Java web applications. Building web-based applications is next, and these can be presentation or service-based. It takes very little time for programming skills to go obsolete. This is why Java programmers should try to keep in touch with the current trends to gain an edge over others. The mastering theory will not help you; applying it will.

 #8 Software developers all over the world use Java

Java has been refined further, tested considerably and extended, and proven by a whole range of software developers and architects. This programming language ensures the development of high-performance apps for numerous computing platforms. Advanced Java can boost productivity, communication, and partnership, besides reducing enterprise and consumer applications.

So, why does Java score over the others?

You can write and run Java programming language features and software on any platform.

Users can create programs running within a web browser and access available web services apart from developing server-side applications for online polls and commerce firms. HTML forms processing and much more.

One can write customized apps using Java and write efficient applications for every type of electronic device, including wireless modules and mobile phones.

Numerous colleges and universities offer Java programming courses. Notable among them is the Oracle Academy, which provides support, training, and certification to K12 vocational and higher education institutions for teaching purposes.

Developers can further sharpen their skills and learn Java programming language features on how to come up with the perfect cuppa by reading the Java web developer site developed by Oracle and also subscribing to Java technology-focused newsletters and magazines using the Java tutorial or signing up for virtual, taught or web courses and/or certifications. There are also many visual education tools, such as BlueJ and Alice, to impart training in this programming language to developers.

#9: Java has significant language features that offer benefits to users

Java is easy to master, and there are numerous classes and methods in six key functional areas that have to be learned.

Input/output classes are there to read and write data from numerous sources, and networking permits communication across computers online or through a LAN.

Platform-independent GUI applications can be created through Java’s Abstract Window Toolkit.

Java Applet is a special class that lets you come up with downloadable simple Java programs that can be run on client browsers.

The applet is also perfect for a stand along with apps and the creation of programs that can be downloaded on the web page and run on browsers.

Java is very much like its popular kin C++ as far as syntax is concerned. This has made it very easy to use.

Moreover, this programming language does not require free dynamically allocated memory, creating fewer memory errors and making the programs simpler to write.

#10 Java can be used anywhere and everywhere

The compiled code causes no operand stack over or underflow

It performs legal data conversions and only legal object field access

All upcode parameter types undergo checking so that they are legal

Another property of Java development that lends itself to multiple platforms is the top performance. Java Programming Language basics environment compiles the bytecode into native machine code at runtime.


Java Programming Language basics are much more than a usual programming language. It is a multi-platform unique programming language with inbuilt security to prevent hacking. From a safety point of view as well as convenience, Java clearly scores over other programming languages. So, if you need a pick-me-up in the virtual world, Java coding is the programming language that will leave your cup more full than empty in every way!

Recommended Articles

Here are some further articles to learn more:

Java Vs. Python: Which Language Is Right For You?


Programming languages are a core component of computer science and are essential for creating various applications. In recent years, Java and Python have become the most popular programming languages. Java has been around for a while and is, therefore, more popular than Python. Nevertheless, Python has now started to gain popularity due to its simplicity.

Both languages are developers’ favorites, providing a wide variety of libraries.

If you need help deciding which programming language would be a better fit for your project, Java or Python, read this article to better your understanding of both. Here, we shall look at the differences between them and see which suits your project.

Table of Contents Difference Between Java and Python

Here is a table that briefs you about the primary differences between Java and Python. Have a look!

Java Python

Java is a compiled language. Any platform with a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) can run the compiled code because it is converted into bytecode. A Python interpreter can run programs written in the interpreted computer language Python.

Java was created for class-based and object-oriented paradigms. Python supports the functional, procedural, object-oriented, and imperative paradigms.

More time and effort are required for the developers to keep understandable Java code. Python keeps the code brief, organized, and readable.

Java is a language with strong typing. It prevents the compiler from changing a variable’s data type unless the variable is type-casted. Since Python is a dynamically typed language, declaring variables is unnecessary. The interpreter can recognize and modify the variable’s data type without declaring it.

Java is faster as all the types are assigned during compilation. Python is slower because it uses an interpreter and assumes the types as it runs.

Source: Scand

You may be wondering which is better, Java or Python? The following section covers different areas of dissimilarities between the two.

Language Features – Java and Python Syntax and Readability

Java: Machine learning is a statically typed language with strict syntax rules. It requires semicolons (;) to separate statements and curly braces ({}) to define blocks of code. This can make the code more verbose, but it also creates a more structured approach. If you have enough coding knowledge and experience, feel free to work with Java.

Source: Cuelogic

Type System

Java: Java has a static type system, where the type of a value is known at compile time. This helps prevent type-related errors before the program is executed but may require more upfront planning.

Python: Python has a dynamic type system, where the type of a value is determined at runtime. This can make writing code faster and more flexible, although it can also lead to runtime errors that might have been caught with static typing.

Object-Oriented Programming

Java: Java is strictly an object-oriented programming (OOP) language, where everything revolves around the concept of objects and their interactions. Inheritance, polymorphism, and encapsulation are the three main OOP features supported in Java.

Python: Python supports multiple programming paradigms, including OOP. Python’s OOP capabilities include support for inheritance, polymorphism, and encapsulation but may be less enforced than in Java. You can write object-oriented code in Python if you prefer, but you aren’t required to do so.


Java: Java provides built-in support for multithreading and concurrency through the java.util.concurrent package, along with powerful synchronization primitives like monitors and locks. Java supports both parallelism (simultaneous execution) and concurrency (shared resource management).

Python: Python has limited native support for concurrency due to the Global Interpreter Lock (GIL), which allows only one thread to execute at a time. Although, the issue can be resolved by using more than one interpreter. Nevertheless, Python supports concurrency libraries like asyncio and multiprocessing, which help circumvent the GIL for specific use cases.

Error Handling

Java: Java handles errors through a robust exception-handling mechanism, which includes checked (compile-time errors) and unchecked exceptions (runtime errors). Checked exceptions must be explicitly caught or declared by the developers to be thrown or instantly fixed, enforcing good error-handling practices.

Performance and Scalability Speed and Efficiency

Java is faster than Python as it is a compiled language, while Python is an interpreted language. Java code must be compiled before running, ensuring that errors are detected before the code is executed. Whereas Python code is directly executed without prior compilation, which can cause issues during runtime.

Memory Management

Java is better than Python in memory management. Java has a garbage collector that automatically removes objects that are no longer needed or have no references. Python also has a garbage collector but is not as efficient as Java’s.

Parallel Processing

Python is better than Java in parallel processing. Python has a module called “multiprocessing” that allows for parallel processing, while Java’s parallel processing capabilities are complex and require more lines of code.

Handling Large Datasets

Python is better than Java at handling large datasets. Python has libraries like NumPy and Pandas specifically designed for handling large datasets, while Java does not have a similar library.

Java is better suited for complex and large-scale applications, while Python is better for data analysis, scientific computing, and machine learning.

Use Cases and Industry Applications Web Development

Java: Java is a popular choice for web development due to its extensive library support, scalability, and performance. It is used with frameworks like Servlet API, JDBC (Java Database Connectivity) API, and Java EE (Enterprise Edition) for building robust web applications.

Python: Python has gained popularity in web development because of its simplicity and the availability of frameworks like Django and Flask. These frameworks allow developers to create web applications quickly and efficiently.

Data Science and Machine Learning

Java: Java has several libraries available, such as Weka 3, Deeplearning4j, and MOA, JSAT, which can be utilized for data science and machine learning tasks. In fact, the Java Virtual Machine is one of the most widely used ML platforms as it enables developers to work with identical code across multiple platforms.

Python: Python is the go-to language for data science and machine learning due to its extensive ecosystem of libraries, like Pandas, OpenNN, NumPy, and Scikit-learn, as well as deep learning libraries, like TensorFlow and Keras. The programming language is widely used in building blockchain-based applications like smart contracts, cryptography, etc.

Mobile Application Development

Java: Java is used for multi-platform mobile app development; as most developers say, “With Java, write once, run everywhere.” Nevertheless, it is significantly used for Android app development due to its official support by Google in Android Studio, based on IntelliJ IDEA software.

Python: In comparison, Python is less widely used for mobile app development as it does not have pre-built mobile development capabilities; however, frameworks like Kivy, PyQt, and Beeware’s Toga library exist to create cross-platform mobile apps with Python.

Game Development

Java: Java is often used in game development for Android devices or games built on platforms like PC or consoles using engines such as libGDX, Litiengine, GreenLightning, Jbox2D, and JMonkeyEngine. Surprisingly, one of the most popular games, Minecraft, was written in Java!

Python: Python is used for game development, although its use is not as prominent as C++ (with DirectX and OpenGL) and Java. However, many game developers have successfully developed games using Python using libraries like Pygame, Pyglet, Kivy, Panda3D, and many more.

Enterprise Software Development

Java: Java has long been a common choice for enterprise software development due to its stability, scalability, security features, and ability to support large-scale systems. Especially with Java EE (Enterprise Edition), the complexity of building large-scale software applications is significantly reduced. The platform allows for easy, universal software deployment for multi-tier, server-centric applications.

Python: Python is increasingly adopted in enterprise contexts, particularly for smaller projects for task automation, data analysis, and rapid prototyping. However, Java remains the more established language for large-scale enterprise software development.

Integrated Development Environments (IDEs)

Java and Python both have a wide range of IDEs to choose from. For Java, the most popular IDEs are Eclipse, IntelliJ IDEA, JDeveloper, and BlueJ. On the other hand, Python is often associated with IDLE, but it also has many other popular IDEs, such as Pycharm, Spyder, Visual Studio, and Jupyter.


Source: JetBrains

Libraries and Frameworks

Java has many libraries and frameworks available for developers. Some of the most popular include Spring, Hibernate, Struts, and Spark. Python also has a strong set of libraries and frameworks, with some of the most popular being NumPy, Pandas, TensorFlow, and Django.

Community Support and Resources

Both Java and Python have large and active communities of developers. Java has been around longer, so it has a larger community overall. However, Python has been growing rapidly in recent years and has become very popular for data analysis and scientific computing, so its community is also very active and growing quickly. Plenty of resources are available for both languages, with numerous blogs, forums, and online courses available for both.

Job Market and Career Prospects

Now that you have read about how each language works, what the syntax is, which language is more suited for mobile development, etc., the logical question is Java or Python, which is better for future development?

Demand for Java vs. Python developers

Java: Java has consistently been a popular programming language, and its demand continues to be strong in the software development industry. Many large-scale applications, like web applications and Android app development, utilize Java for its stability and scalability. Enterprises still prefer Java because of its vast ecosystem, making it a top business choice.

Python: Python has grown significantly in popularity over the last few years, primarily due to its simplicity, readability, and versatility. It is widely used in industries like web development, data science, machine learning, artificial intelligence, and more. Python’s demand stems from these emerging fields and the fact that it’s an excellent language for beginners.

Salary and Career Growth Potential

In India, the starting salary of a Java developer with no experience is around INR 2,000,000 per annum. With skills and experience, it can go as high as INR10,00,000 per annum.

Python: Python developers also enjoy competitive salaries, especially if they specialize in more in-demand fields like machine learning or data science. The career growth potential for Python developers is substantial since Python’s applicability spans numerous industries. Many roles focus on specialization or diversity involving other programming languages.

The starting salary of a Python developer with zero experience is somewhere around INR1,90,000 annually. With time and experience (4-9 years), it can go as high as INR 9,00,000 annually.

Future Trends and Predictions

Possible improvements to Java’s performance may arise from innovations in Project Panama (connecting JVM with native code for other APIs written in C++/C, etc.) and Loom initiatives.

Source: Vaadin

Source: TechnoBrains


Both programming languages have their benefits and drawbacks. For starters, Python is straightforward to learn, easy to code, and has a large library. On the other hand, Java is more compatible and excels at creating games and apps for mobile devices. They are both powerful, widely used programming languages that can evolve to accommodate cutting-edge technologies.

Hence when we look at Java vs. Python, one must consider various factors such as their project requirements, ease of learning, performance, scalability, libraries, and community support. While Java boasts strong performance and scalability, making it well-suited for large-scale systems and web applications, Python’s simplicity and versatile library collection make it an excellent choice for beginners and projects focused on data analysis or machine learning. Ultimately, the decision is contextual and should align with your needs and goals.

Visit Analytics Vidhya (AV) to learn more about Java and Python and explore their application in data science, machine learning, and other related fields like artificial intelligence. AV is a top-notch educational portal that is a one-stop destination for all learning materials and expert ML, AI, and data science guidance. They offer a vast selection of blogs, courses, and a community of experts to help you prepare for a technology-dominated future.


Badges And The Common Core

When today’s K-12 students enter college and embark in their careers, they will most likely encounter a wide array of game-like elements, such as badge systems. In June, Blackboard Learn, a learning management system for higher education, announced a partnership with Mozilla to support digital badges. In the corporate world, badge systems are also used to increase employee productivity. Mozilla’s Open Badges Backpack serves as a virtual resume to display one’s mastered skills.

Gamifying Education

One of the main goals of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) is to prepare students for “college- and career-ready performance.” According to chúng tôi “English language arts and math were the subjects chosen for the Common Core State Standards because they are areas upon which students build skill sets which are used in other subjects.” Badges can acknowledge the learning that has occurred along the way.

Game-based learning (GBL), like the CCSS, places a strong emphasis on mastering skills. In a gamified classroom, students start at the “newbie” level, and then build skills and “level up” to become masters. The “boss level” is when students apply all of the skills mastered to overcome a difficult task.

GBL does not necessarily mean that students are simply playing video games in school. A variety of non-digital games, including boards, cards or dice, can “gamify” learning as well. Problem-based learning (PBL) and challenge-based learning (CBL) units can be gamified by adding game mechanics, such as rules, missions and leaderboards. PBL and CBL lend themselves well to gamification because they present students with authentic tasks to perform using accumulated skill-sets. Teachers can also “mod,” or modify, pre-existing games to fit skills and content.

Creative Ways to Meet the Standards

CCSS skill mastery can be acknowledged with a digital badging system. Badge accumulation can occur in a non-linear fashion; some students may earn different badges than others. This strategy, known as embedded assessments, is common in gamified classrooms. Embedded assessments are built into the overall learning experience. A teacher can award CCSS badges during a gamified unit rather than at the end. In this respect, badges can support differentiated learning. For instance, a student may earn a badge at any time for meeting CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.7.4: “Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with pertinent descriptions, facts, details, and examples; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.”

The CCSS only guide English language arts and math teaching. Other disciplines, such as science and social studies, should “anchor” or support the Standards. In social studies, a student can earn a badge for meeting CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.9, when he or she can “analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic.” Similarly, science teachers can recognize students who meet CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.9-10.10 by reading and comprehending “science/technical texts in the grades 9-10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.”

In order to maximize student engagement, a teacher can add a hidden challenge, known as an “Easter egg.” Easter eggs empower the student to test the boundaries of the learning system. For instance, a student may solve a secret riddle in a lesson and, in the process, meet CCSS.Math.Content.HSS-MD.B.5a: “Find the expected payoff for a game of chance.”

Deploying a Common Core Badge System

In a badge system, there are three interconnected participants: the issuer, the earner and the displayer. In the classroom, as opposed to a video game, the teacher is the issuer and the student is the earner. There are many options for badge displayers, including Youtopia, ForAllBadges, ClassBadges and Edmodo. Many of these sites let teachers create virtual classrooms and also provide predesigned artwork. You can download this PDF for a helpful, side-by-side, badge-displayer comparison chart.

Badges recognize the achievements that produce intrinsic satisfaction. Basically, when a student enjoys a task, learning feels less like work and more like fun. Intrinsic motivation differs from the extrinsic goals that are traditionally associated with school (grades) and with work (paychecks).

According to Cathy Davidson, badges “recognize competencies, skills, training, collaborative abilities, character, personal contribution, participatory energy, leadership and motivational skills, and other so-called ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ individual and cooperative talents.” The teacher’s role is to scaffold knowledge and skills as the student progresses through the content. The difficulty for acquiring Common Core badges should increase, or level up, as skills build up. The boss level badge represents mastery of a Core Content skill. Students who earn boss level badges should perform well on CCSS benchmarks and state tests, such as the PARCC Assessment and the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC). A Common Core badge system can also bring fun to the process of learning and mastering new skills.

Alienware M15X (With Core I7

To fans of high-end hardware who want to be a little more mobile: Check out the new Alienware M15x. Take Alienware’s M17x, shrink it down to the all-purpose size bracket (our test unit had a 15.6-inch screen), and pop in a Core i7 CPU. If you don’t need to read any further, that’s about as reductive as it gets. While a baseline machine starts at $1499, the real power doesn’t exactly come cheap (our review unit, as configured, sells for about $2999). But how does the M15x fare versus its bigger brother? Surprisingly well.

Of course, a downside to all this power is that this high-performance rig can barely muster 2 hours of battery life. So you wind up with an all-purpose PC that lasts a little less than half the average run time. Keep the power supply handy and be somewhere near an outlet next time you want to play World of Warcraft.

Moving back to the outside of the hood, let’s take a look at that 15.6-inch screen. It actually has good color reproduction with the brightness kicked up all the way. And, in games such as Left 4 Dead, the dark moody corridors don’t get blasted out with ridiculous gamma settings. But as I just said, I needed to jack up the brightness to really get the best picture in mixed light settings. You plan to use the M15x in a cave? No worries, set it lower. And, it goes without saying that it was more than capable of outputting good quality video–at least as good video as the DVD-ROM drive could provide. While you can upgrade to a a BD-ROM drive, that wasn’t on board here. But with the 1080p video we installed on the 250GB hard drive, a sample clip of a space shuttle looked crisp, with yellow-ish gray smoke plumes erupting in front of the early morning sky at the launch site.

One thing is for sure, this is nothing like the last-gen version of the M15x. That creaky box felt like it was held together with duct tape and true grit. The new M15x, by comparison, is a fairly solid, seamless chassis. In fact, you’d be hard-pressed to find many screws (they hide behind the battery for access to upgradable components).

And the keyboard? It certainly felt good enough as my fingers danced over the keys. Actually, maybe I should say that my fingers moved over the dance floor because you can change the color schemes on running lights around the machine. But I digress. Though the touchpad is a little on the small side for my tastes, it’s textured and easy enough to use. The buttons also have a good amount of give as they jutted above the large wrist rest. Still, the buttons could stand to be a hair bigger. Truth be told, though, if you’re setting up shop with this machine somewhere, you’re probably going to opt for an external mouse, anyhow.

Coming in, I wasn’t quite sure what to expect from the Alienware M15x this time around. But, thanks to the new guts and scaling down most of the M17x’s designs, this machine is making me a believer. That said, this laptop certainly doesn’t come cheap or last long on a single charge; and while this “all-purpose”-size rig may fit in your bag, it also may just tear a hole in the bottom. But it delivers on exactly what you’d expect: high-end gaming performance.

Vhdl Programming For Sequential Circuits

VHDL Programming for Sequential Circuits

This chapter explains how to do VHDL programming for Sequential Circuits.

VHDL Code for an SR Latch library ieee; use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; entity srl is port(r,s:in bit; q,qbar:buffer bit); end srl; architecture virat of srl is signal s1,r1:bit; begin q<= s nand qbar; qbar<= r nand q; end virat; Waveforms VHDL Code for a D Latch library ieee; use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; entity Dl is port(d:in bit; q,qbar:buffer bit); end Dl; architecture virat of Dl is signal s1,r1:bit; begin q<= d nand qbar; qbar<= d nand q; end virat; Waveforms VHDL Code for an SR Flip Flop library ieee; use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; entity srflip is port(r,s,clk:in bit; q,qbar:buffer bit); end srflip; architecture virat of srflip is signal s1,r1:bit; begin s1<=s nand clk; r1<=r nand clk; q<= s1 nand qbar; qbar<= r1 nand q; end virat; Waveforms VHDL code for a JK Flip Flop library IEEE; use IEEE.STD_LOGIC_1164.all; entity jk is port( j : in STD_LOGIC; k : in STD_LOGIC; clk : in STD_LOGIC; reset : in STD_LOGIC; q : out STD_LOGIC; qb : out STD_LOGIC ); end jk; architecture virat of jk is begin jkff : process (j,k,clk,reset) is variable m : std_logic := '0'; begin if (reset = '1') then m : = '0'; elsif (rising_edge (clk)) then if (j/ = k) then m : = j; elsif (j = '1' and k = '1') then m : = not m; end if; end if; q <= m; qb <= not m; end process jkff; end virat; Waveforms VHDL Code for a D Flip Flop Library ieee; use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; entity dflip is port(d,clk:in bit; q,qbar:buffer bit); end dflip; architecture virat of dflip is signal d1,d2:bit; begin d1<=d nand clk; d2<=(not d) nand clk; q<= d1 nand qbar; qbar<= d2 nand q; end virat; Waveforms VHDL Code for a T Flip Flop library IEEE; use IEEE.STD_LOGIC_1164.all; entity Toggle_flip_flop is port( t : in STD_LOGIC; clk : in STD_LOGIC; reset : in STD_LOGIC; dout : out STD_LOGIC ); end Toggle_flip_flop; architecture virat of Toggle_flip_flop is begin tff : process (t,clk,reset) is variable m : std_logic : = '0'; begin if (reset = '1') then m : = '0'; elsif (rising_edge (clk)) then if (t = '1') then m : = not m; end if; end if; dout < = m; end process tff; end virat; Waveforms VHDL Code for a 4 – bit Up Counter library IEEE; use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; use ieee.std_logic_unsigned.all; entity counter is port(Clock, CLR : in std_logic; Q : out std_logic_vector(3 downto 0) ); end counter; architecture virat of counter is signal tmp: std_logic_vector(3 downto 0); begin process (Clock, CLR) begin if (CLR = '1') then tmp < = "0000"; elsif (Clock'event and Clock = '1') then mp <= tmp &plus; 1; end if; end process; Q <= tmp; end virat; Waveforms VHDL Code for a 4-bit Down Counter library ieee; use ieee.std_logic_1164.all; use ieee.std_logic_unsigned.all; entity dcounter is port(Clock, CLR : in std_logic; Q : out std_logic_vector(3 downto 0)); end dcounter; architecture virat of dcounter is signal tmp: std_logic_vector(3 downto 0); begin process (Clock, CLR) begin if (CLR = '1') then tmp <= "1111"; elsif (Clock'event and Clock = '1') then tmp <= tmp - 1; end if; end process; Q <= tmp; end virat; Waveforms


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