Trending February 2024 # How To Tell If Your Sustainable Investments Really Are Good For The Planet # Suggested March 2024 # Top 5 Popular

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As the climate crisis rages on, banks and investors are starting to reckon with the effects of the crisis on the banking system. Banks are losing trillions of dollars worth of assets from both the physical threat of climate change and ever-changing policies, Reuters reports. Not to mention, the financial industry isn’t faultless when it comes to their own footprints. Dozens of major banks invested several trillion dollars in risky fossil fuel investments during the five years following the Paris Agreement. Still, large businesses, banks, and universities are starting to divest from fossil fuels and high-carbon emitting industries. 

But there’s another way for  companies and institutions to follow a more sustainable standard by putting money in the system instead of taking it out—ESGs. The buzzy term stands for “environmental, social, and governance” and is a set of standards for a company’s operations used to screen potential investments. For an individual investor, a typical ESG could look like opening an online brokerage account and checking off settings for a portfolio that is low risk and high in social responsibility. For a company or institution, it means putting ​​”capital in corporations that proactively govern and operate in an ethical and sustainable manner,” according to Nasdaq. 

Etienne Cadestin, the founder and CEO of Longevity Partners, an environmental consulting firm based out of the United Kingdom, calls ESGs “housekeeping” for companies that are concerned about their environmental impact and managing risk for businesses. 

[Related: How to find a bank that shares your commitment to the environment.]

“ESG investments are considered as a separate asset class but it shouldn’t be,” Cadestin argues. “ESG should be incorporated in every business’s modus operandi … it’s a best practice. It’s all about running a responsible business.” 

He is hopeful about the use of ESGs in current and future investments, and is excited to witness how quickly businesses are discussing responsible investing. Companies like his, as well as well known consulting firms like Deloitte and McKinsey & Company have come out of those conversations to guide others into sustainable and responsible investing. 

Cadestin started his career in 2009  working at the United Nations Environment Program on building a green economy, something unheard of at the time, he explains. The green economy is “low carbon, resource efficient and socially inclusive,” and growth in this economy is driven by reducing pollution and investing in sustainable energy, he says. 

“Climate change is accelerating and the sort of physical risks associated with climate change are real and we see it everyday, we’ve seen the floods in Germany, the fires everywhere,” he says. “Over the last two years I think there’s a huge state of consciousness that has risen.” 

Rebecca Greenan, Senior Vice President of Finance & Operations at software company Crux OCM says that ESGs are becoming more widely used across different industries to become more transparent about the impact of their investments or products. 

“(ESGs) are the three key tenets in measuring the sustainability and societal impact of a company,” she says.  “By analyzing how a company contributes to sustainable development, we can better determine the future financial performance of that company.”

[Related: Your retirement account can also help protect the planet.]

Greenan also explains that ESGs are also a vehicle for companies to align with their shareholders’ values. But there, as with many “sustainability” movements, there  is concern that ESGs can easily become another way for companies to greenwash their practices. According to a report from MarketWatch, “with the rise of consumer and investor interest in ESG comes the rise in greenwashing.” Greenan says investors should keep an eye out for how transparent a company is about their funds. 

“A genuine ESG program includes going to your supply chain and augmenting every single metric to ensure it is meeting ESG targets,” she says.  “[An] ESG has the potential to touch every single aspect and department of a company. Everything from infrastructure that they are building, to field operations, to transportation to internal systems and corporate culture. When you can ask any employee of any rank within the company what the company is doing to fulfill their ESG strategy and they can come up with an answer, you have a genuine ESG program.” 

She explains that if a potential investor or customer wants to ensure that a company they are interested in is not just greenwashing, they should ensure that the company’s ESG is transparent about the metrics used to measure impact. 

“When compensation is tied to ESG metrics with third party auditing, the company is showing that they are serious about implementing their ESG strategy,” she said. 

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How To Tell If Someone Viewed Your Snapchat Story More Than Once

Snapchat stories are for everyone to see. Well, everyone on your Friends list. We all know that Snapchat lets you check how many people have viewed your story and you can even see who viewed it on their phones. But can you know who viewed your story more than once? Does Snapchat notify you when someone replays your stories? That’s what we’re going to talk about in this post. 

What are Snapchat Stories?

Similar to Instagram’s story feature, Snapchat users can post images and videos to a disappearing timeline. Snapchat stories only last for 24 hours, after which they automatically disappear. Depending on your privacy settings, Snapchat stories can be viewed by anyone in your Friends list, or a specific few (private stories).

You can keep a tab on how many people view your stories, as well as who has viewed them. About video stories, if a person only views part of the story before closing it, it will not show up on the viewer’s list.

How to check who has viewed your story

You can check the number of views that your story has, as well as who those people are that have viewed your story. To check out the views on your story, launch the Snapchat app, and tap on your story at the top left corner.

On the next screen, tap on My Story under “My Stories” and select any of your stories to check who has viewed them.

When you tap the eye icon, it will show you a list of people who have viewed your story.

Does Snapchat alert you when your story is replayed?

When you view someone’s story a second time, the story uploaded won’t know if you replayed their story or how many times you viewed it. Similarly, Snapchat doesn’t send you a notification when your story viewer plays it repeatedly. There’s also no way you can check how many times someone replayed your story on their phone. 

When you check your Story views, you’ll only see the number of people who viewed it and who viewed it. Since viewing a story doesn’t count as active interaction on Snapchat, you won’t be notified every time your story is played on someone’s phone.  

How to tell if someone viewed your Snapchat story more than once

Snapchat does not have a definitive way to let you know that your story has been viewed multiple times. However, there is a trick you can use to find out if your story was viewed again, and by whom. It should be noted that this method does not let you know how many times your story was viewed by the same person.

To find out if someone has viewed your story again, you need to compare your current viewer’s list to a previous one. Snapchat generates the viewer’s list based on who viewed your story last. And, it keeps populating this list in the same manner.

So to find out if a person has viewed your story again, you must keep checking your viewer’s list. If the person’s name was below before, but suddenly comes to the top of the list, you can be certain that they just viewed your story again!

For example, if your story was viewed by A, then B, then C, your list will show C, B, and A from top to bottom (since C viewed your story last). Now if B views your story again, your list will change to B, C, A. This way you know that B has viewed your story more than once.

Related: ‘Who’s my bestie’ Snapchat filter: How to get and use it

Why is the same person at top of my Story viewer’s list?

In case you didn’t know, Snapchat story views are sorted in a reverse chronological manner, meaning the person who viewed your story first will appear last and the one who viewed your story most recently will appear at the top. In a way, Snapchat refreshes your story’s viewers list every time someone watches it on their phone.

If you notice that your story’s view count has increased but one person continues to appear on top, then you should know that this is the person to has watched your Snapchat story most recently. 

Tips for finding out who viewed your Snapchat story more than once

Take screenshots of your viewer’s list at periodic intervals. This way you can check where on the list a person was.

Try using private stories. The less the number of people that can view your story, the easier it will be to keep track of who is viewing it multiple times.

Do not keep your viewers list open. The list does not populate while open. You need to keep closing it and opening it again.

If a person is at the top of your viewer’s list and you know want to know if they replay your snap, you can ask a friend to quickly view your snap, and then wait to see if this person’s name moves to the top again.

Are there apps to check who viewed your story multiple times?

Although you may find a bunch of apps that claim to tell you how often someone views your Snapchat story, you should know that all these claims are deceptive. Snapchat doesn’t collect when or who views your story multiple times, so there’s no way other apps can extract such information from your account.

To be on the safe side, you should avoid installing such apps as they may have been created with malicious intent to trick you into sharing your Snapchat account credentials. We recommend staying clear of such apps to protect your user data. 

Why is my viewer’s list not changing?

If you notice that your viewers list is not changing, close the Snapchat app and reopen it so that it’s able to repopulate the list. If your internet is not fast enough, Snapchat may not be able to generate a refreshed list of viewers.

You should know that your Snapchat viewers list won’t repopulate if you currently have the list open on your screen. You will have to reopen this list from time to time to look for any changes.

Will I know if someone has taken a screenshot of my story?

Unlike a snap, when a person takes a screenshot of your story you will not receive a notification. But you can still see how has taken a screenshot of your story by checking your viewer’s list. When you open your story’s views, you will see a screenshot icon next to the names of all the people who took a screenshot of your story.

However, this number does not indicate how many times a single person has taken a screenshot, but only tells you the total number of people that took screenshots of your story. If your story was a video, you would never know if multiple screenshots of your video were taken by someone. 

What should you do if someone’s stalking you on Snapchat?

Any form of social media is about sharing a part of what’s happening in your life from time to time. In efforts to show your friends what you’re up to, you’re also giving away a part of your privacy to people who may not just be interested in you but are straight-up stalking you. If you find that someone on Snapchat constantly views your stories, screenshots them, or spams you unnecessarily, then you should take the following precautions to make sure they don’t stalk you in the future.  

Set who can contact you to “My Friends”

Inside the Settings screen, scroll down and select Contact Me inside “Who can”. 

On the next screen, select My Friends. 

Choose who can view your story

If you post stories often, you can choose who can view them on your profile. To make sure your stories aren’t viewed by unwanted people, you can restrict their viewership by setting it to “My Friends” or creating a custom list of people who you wish to see your stories. 

Inside the Settings screen, scroll down and select View My Story inside “Who can”.

On the next screen, select My Friends to allow everyone from your Snapchat friend list to view your story. 

If you wish to restrict some people in your friend list from seeing your story, you can do that by selecting the Custom option. 

On the next screen, select the people you want to block from viewing your story and then tap on Block. 

Your story viewership has now been customized with your preferred list of friends. 

Set Snapchat Memories to be visible to yourself only

Snapchat lets you save a collection of all the snaps and stories you have sent or received inside a separate section inside your profile called Memories. These Memories will then be visible on your profile if you’ve saved one from your story and by default, they can be seen by anyone who can see your story.

Inside Settings, scroll down and select Memories. 

On the next screen, turn on the Save to My Eyes Only by default toggle under “Save Destinations”. 

In case you haven’t set up My Eyes Only, tap on Quick Setup on the next screen. 

You will be asked to create and confirm a passcode to view your memories and private snaps. Follow the on-screen instructions to complete this setup. 

When done, My Eyes Only will be enabled for your Snapchat Memories. 

Enable Ghost Mode for Snap Maps

Inside Settings, scroll down and select See My Location under “Who Can”. 

On the next screen, turn on the Ghost Mode toggle. 

This will make sure that no one on Snapchat can see your live location or past locations. 

Report an account

The above steps may protect your account privacy to some extent on Snapchat but don’t guarantee that you’re safe from a potential stalker. If you suspect anyone of stalking you with malicious intent, you can report them to Snapchat directly. 

To report someone’s account on Snapchat, open their profile from the My Friends section inside your account. 

On the next screen, tap on the Bitmoji of the person you want to report. 

When their profile appears, tap on the 3-dots button at the top right corner. 

In the overflow menu, select Manage Friendship. 

Now, tap on Report. 

On the next screen, you select any reason why you want to report this person. 

If you have a snap that you received from someone and you want to report this snap, you can do so by swiping up on the snap and selecting Report in the popup that appears at the bottom. 

Related:

Do You Really Need Backlinks If You Are A Small Business?

If you ask someone to name one of the best ways to rank highly on Google, they are definitely going to mention backlinks. If you are not familiar with what this is in SEO, it is when a hyperlink to your domain is placed in the content on another website. It is a way you can move up the rankings and enjoy having more traffic.

But if you are a small business, do you really need to care about backlinks? Let’s break it down and take a closer look at what you need to know.

Do You Really Need Backlinks?

So, let’s quickly answer the question; do you need backlinks? The answer is yes. This still remains an important factor for ranking on Google alongside other strategies such as creating fresh and unique content. If you were looking for a shortcut, unfortunately, you are not going to find it when it comes to link building.

How Many Backlinks Does My Business Needs?

Now, we are approaching a more difficult question. A lot of businesses big and small want to know how many backlinks they need to be creating every month to see results. Unfortunately, there is not a straightforward answer to this question. There are so many factors associated with backlinks that are going to dictate how well they perform for your website.

In fact, it is worth pointing out that you could be able to rank very well on Google with just a few backlinks. It all depends on the quality of those backlinks. Indeed, the size of your business is not something to think about. A small business could easily outrank a large company if it has better quality backlinks.

Essentially, it is all down to getting a good website to link with you. We are talking about websites that Google class as popular and authoritative. You are going to know a website is a good choice because it will have high domain authority. This is going to be displayed as a number between 0 and 100. As you would expect, the high the domain authority, the best quality your link is going to be.

Therefore, in theory, you could have 20 backlinks with low domain authority websites and this does not do much for your ranking on Google. But, you could have one or two backlinks with a high domain authority website and boost your rankings significantly. The focus with Google is always on quality.

What are the Other Benefits of Backlinks?

Of course, we have discovered that creating backlinks is a good way to move up on Google SERPs. But, are there any other benefits you should be aware of? The answer is yes. With backlinks, this can be a good way to build authority. In other words, you can put your small business on the map and establish your brand on the internet. When you are linking with a well-known website, their reputation is going to help you.

How Long Until You Can Enjoy the Benefits of Backlinks?

When small businesses put a lot of effort into their SEO, they want to see results straight away. But, this is not how it works. It can actually take a number of weeks or even months to see the results of all your hard work. You have to make sure that you are patient and do not give up. Keep being consistent and the results will start to show.

Songbirds Near The Equator Really Are Hotter, Color

While writing of their 19th-century voyages to document the world’s biodiversity, European naturalists like Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace were struck by the appearance of the plants and animals they encountered in the tropics.

“The new organisms that they were observing were, to their eyes at least, incredibly rich and varied in color,” says Christopher Cooney, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Sheffield in England.

Their remarks sparked the controversial notion among scientists that animals and plants living near the equator are more colorful than those found at higher latitudes. But a new report by Cooney and his colleagues demonstrates that, for songbirds at least, this pattern holds true. 

[Related: Hummingbirds can see colors we can’t even imagine]

The researchers scrutinized 4,500-plus species from around the world and found that adult birds that bred in the area between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn boasted a more impressive diversity of colors than those native to other regions. The findings hint at several climactic and social pressures that might underlie the trend, the team reported on April 4 in the journal Nature Ecology & Evolution. 

“They did a great job of really capturing the breadth of what’s going on across the globe … and showing convincingly that this age-old idea is well-supported,” says Eliot Miller, an ornithologist at Cornell University who wasn’t involved in the research.

The color gradient that Darwin and his peers proposed has remained “shrouded in uncertainty,” Cooney says, for several reasons. Most prior studies have focused on limited geographic regions and used subjective measures of colorfulness, he and his collaborators wrote in the new paper. 

To address the question of how coloration changes with latitude, the team analyzed 4,527 species of passerines—which make up about 60 percent of known avian species and are often referred to as songbirds or perching birds—found in every habitat from the poles to the tropics. The researchers photographed the plumage of male and female specimens from the Natural History Museum at Tring at three different angles in visible light and in ultraviolet light that’s visible to birds. They then used computer algorithms to identify the pigments captured at 1,500 points on each body. “We wanted to generate estimates of colorfulness that are meaningful to the birds themselves,” Cooney says. 

University of Sheffield/NHM Tring

Miller points out that the inclusion of UV makes the analysis more complete. “They can do a better job of describing what birds can see in that way rather than just what we see,” he says.

From there, Cooney and his team measured the number of distinct hues in each individual’s feathers, and concluded that male and female birds near the equator were indeed on average more colorful than their temperate cousins. They estimated that colorfulness increased by roughly 20 to 30 percent from the polar regions towards the tropics.

The most colorful species the researchers examined was the paradise tanager, a small Amazonian songbird whose plumage is a riot of intense blues, greens, reds, and black. Next to the tanager, many high-latitude birds were “uniformly drab,” Cooney says. 

“There are exceptions to the general trend,” he adds. “It isn’t a hard-and-fast rule that there aren’t colorful birds outside the tropics.” The US has a number of colorful birds, including the painted bunting and American redstart.

The researchers photographed the plumage of a male green-backed twinspot, a songbird from sub-Saharan Africa. University of Sheffield/NHM Tring

The kinds of habitats where these colorful birds dwell might shed light on why they developed their vivid displays. Cooney and his colleagues observed that specimens tended to be more colorful in warm, wet environments and dark, enclosed forests. “Those conditions do occur outside of tropical regions and potentially explain why places like the Eastern US … do have very colorful species as well,” Cooney says.

Birds in heavily forested areas might require bright, flashy plumage to catch the attention of other members of their species in the dimly lit understory. What’s more, food is typically more abundant in moist, lush places like tropical rainforests than it is in the tundra and other harsh landscapes. “There’s just more energy available in those environments that organisms can potentially invest in traits that are showy,” Cooney says. It’s also possible that some species acquire the eye-popping pigments in their feathers from fruits and nectars that are more readily available in the tropics than at higher latitudes.

[Related: Can birds smell? This ornithologist is debunking a long-standing myth.]

The researchers further noticed that colorfulness seemed to correlate with the songbird diversity in a habitat. Species in more crowded patches might have evolved to be brighter so potential mates and rivals could differentiate them from their neighbors, Cooney says. 

Still, he emphasizes, additional studies are needed to explore the patterns he and his team documented. “There’s a huge amount more to be learned about the precise ecological and evolutionary forces that promote colorfulness,” Cooney says.

Another open question is whether songbirds are just one example of how life is more colorful in the tropics. “[Early naturalists] were talking about not just birds but other things like plants and insects and fish,” Cooney says. “It remains to be seen whether this is a general phenomenon that applies to all types of organisms, but I would suspect that it does.”

How To Check If Two Vectors Are Exactly Same In R?

To check if two vectors are exactly same, we can use identical function.

For example, if we have two vectors say x and y then we can find whether both of them are exactly same or not by using the command given below −

identical(x,y)

Check out the below examples to understand the result of identical function for two vectors.

Example 1

To check if two vectors are exactly same, use the command given below −

x1<-rpois(100,5) x1

If you execute the above given command, it generates the following output −

[1] 6 6 3 3 0 5 3 6 6 4 5 7 4 9 10 1 5 2 8 4 9 2 9 6 4 [26] 8 3 4 5 5 8 7 2 4 7 4 3 3 6 6 3 5 5 9 6 6 3 6 4 5 [51] 3 4 9 3 3 7 8 3 9 5 6 6 3 7 8 3 3 8 5 5 4 3 5 6 4 [76] 1 4 5 6 4 1 8 3 7 5 1 1 6 3 3 3 5 5 3 4 7 2 7 6 7

To check if two vectors are exactly same, add the following to the above command −

y1<-rpois(100,5) y1

If you execute all the above given commands as a single program, it generates the following output −

[1] 6 3 5 5 3 3 7 6 6 3 5 10 5 10 6 3 5 6 2 6 6 6 3 3 5 [26] 3 6 11 5 8 2 6 3 3 5 4 5 5 6 7 8 6 1 5 4 5 6 5 3 3 [51] 7 11 4 3 5 3 1 4 3 6 6 3 4 5 4 7 4 3 4 2 4 3 4 5 1 [76] 4 3 5 3 1 6 3 6 5 8 7 2 2 8 4 7 3 6 4 3 10 5 4 2 4

To check if two vectors are exactly same, add the following to the above command −

x1<-rpois(100,5) y1<-rpois(100,5) identical(x1,y1) Output

If you execute all the above given commands as a single program, it generates the following output −

[1] FALSE Example 2

To check if two vectors are exactly same, use the command given below −

x2<-sample(0:9,150,replace=TRUE) x2

If you execute the above given command, it generates the following output −

[1] 7 5 1 1 9 3 7 2 7 8 2 7 3 3 1 9 6 4 7 9 3 1 4 2 1 5 5 8 0 8 9 0 7 3 1 9 5 [38] 6 7 9 6 3 7 0 9 7 7 7 0 5 7 0 1 5 9 0 9 4 5 2 5 4 1 9 4 5 9 6 8 2 9 1 5 4 [75] 8 5 7 1 5 0 2 3 9 2 2 4 9 1 6 3 7 7 3 1 5 3 3 1 3 1 9 5 3 1 6 1 0 8 4 0 4 [112] 1 6 4 5 0 8 0 4 6 0 4 3 4 4 2 1 5 8 4 0 2 7 4 1 0 9 6 5 8 4 1 6 8 0 4 6 7 [149] 1 5

To check if two vectors are exactly same, add the following to the above command −

y2<-sample(0:9,150,replace=TRUE) y2

If you execute all the above given commands as a single program, it generates the following output −

[1] 8 3 3 4 3 2 1 5 5 4 6 2 5 4 5 7 6 2 8 7 2 2 8 1 7 5 1 9 4 8 2 9 3 1 6 3 5 [38] 5 7 6 3 0 0 5 0 7 7 7 2 2 0 2 2 2 1 5 3 0 8 0 7 5 9 8 5 1 0 9 4 7 8 6 5 7 [75] 8 9 0 5 8 3 6 8 3 1 0 4 3 8 6 7 6 5 1 4 0 3 8 6 8 8 6 4 3 0 6 8 4 3 1 5 1 [112] 7 0 1 7 4 7 1 6 3 5 7 1 6 0 9 9 3 3 1 5 5 6 6 4 7 6 2 4 5 0 9 5 8 9 5 9 4 [149] 7 7

To check if two vectors are exactly same, add the following to the above command −

x2<-sample(0:9,150,replace=TRUE) y2<-sample(0:9,150,replace=TRUE) identical(x2,y2) Output

If you execute all the above given commands as a single program, it generates the following output −

[1] FALSE Example 3

To check if two vectors are exactly same, use the command given below −

x3<-1:150 x3

If you execute the above given command, it generates the following output −

[1] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 [19] 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 [37] 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 [55] 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 [73] 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 [91] 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 [109] 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 [127] 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 [145] 145 146 147 148 149 150

To check if two vectors are exactly same, add the following to the above command −

y3<-1:150 y3

If you execute all the above given commands as a single program, it generates the following output −

[1] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 [19] 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 [37] 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 [55] 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 [73] 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 [91] 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 [109] 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 [127] 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 [145] 145 146 147 148 149 150

To check if two vectors are exactly same, add the following to the above command −

x3<-1:150 y3<-1:150 identical(x3,y3) Output

If you execute all the above given commands as a single program, it generates the following output −

[1] TRUE Example 4

To check if two vectors are exactly same, use the command given below −

x4<-150:1 x4

If you execute the above given command, it generates the following output −

[1] 150 149 148 147 146 145 144 143 142 141 140 139 138 137 136 135 134 133 [19] 132 131 130 129 128 127 126 125 124 123 122 121 120 119 118 117 116 115 [37] 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 104 103 102 101 100 99 98 97 [55] 96 95 94 93 92 91 90 89 88 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 79 [73] 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 [91] 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 [109] 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 [127] 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 [145] 6 5 4 3 2 1

To check if two vectors are exactly same, add the following to the above command −

y4<-1:150 y4

If you execute all the above given commands as a single program, it generates the following output −

[1] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 [19] 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 [37] 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 [55] 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 [73] 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 [91] 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 [109] 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 [127] 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 [145] 145 146 147 148 149 150

To check if two vectors are exactly same, add the following to the above command −

x4<-150:1 y4<-1:150 identical(x4,y4) Output

If you execute all the above given commands as a single program, it generates the following output −

[1] FALSE Example 5

To check if two vectors are exactly same, use the command given below −

x5<-round(rnorm(150),0) x5

If you execute the above given command, it generates the following output −

[1] 0 0 -1 -1 0 -1 -1 0 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 -1 0 1 0 0 0 -1 [26] 0 0 0 1 0 -1 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 1 0 -1 2 1 -1 1 -1 0 0 1 0 [51] 1 0 1 1 1 0 -3 0 0 -1 1 1 0 -1 0 -1 1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 0 0 [76] 2 0 -1 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 0 -1 -1 2 1 -1 1 -1 0 -1 0 0 0 2 [101] 0 0 1 1 0 -1 -2 1 -1 -1 1 0 1 2 1 0 -1 0 1 2 0 0 0 2 0 [126] -2 -1 0 1 2 1 -1 0 1 0 -1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 0 -1 0 -1 -1 1 1 1 0

To check if two vectors are exactly same, add the following to the above command −

y5<-round(rnorm(150),0) y5

If you execute all the above given commands as a single program, it generates the following output −

[1] -2 0 -2 0 -1 0 -1 -1 -1 -1 0 0 -1 -2 -1 1 -2 -1 -1 0 0 0 -1 1 0 [26] 1 0 1 -1 0 0 -2 -1 1 0 -1 0 1 1 -2 1 0 -1 0 -2 1 1 -1 1 -2 [51] 1 0 2 0 -1 1 -1 0 0 -1 0 -3 -1 1 -1 1 0 -2 0 -1 1 0 -1 -1 -1 [76] 1 0 1 1 0 -1 0 0 -1 1 -1 1 1 0 0 -1 -1 0 0 -1 0 0 -2 -2 0 [101] -1 1 -1 -1 0 0 1 -1 -2 -1 1 0 -3 -1 0 -1 1 0 2 -3 0 1 -1 0 0 [126] 1 1 -1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 -2 -1 1 0 1 -1 -1 0 -1 0 -1 -1 -1 0 0

To check if two vectors are exactly same, add the following to the above command −

x5<-round(rnorm(150),0) y5<-round(rnorm(150),0) identical(x5,y5) Output

If you execute all the above given commands as a single program, it generates the following output −

[1] FALSE

How To Check If A File Is Safe For Downloading

The internet has many websites that claim they have the correct file. Most of the time, you have to open the file to confirm the file is safe. And by that time, it may be too late to protect your PC from malware and virus programs.

This type of scenario is common on many websites. The pop-up may take you to a shady website where downloading files puts your PC at risk. If a pop-up appears, it is best to close it right away and try again.

Torrents is a highly popular P2P file-sharing website. Typically files found in torrent sites are copyrighted or commercial material. Most of them are provided by anonymous sources and there is no telling if the file is tampered with.

Applications downloaded from torrents may or may not be the applications you want. There is no incentive to provide the right file for downloading as a torrent. You may be downloading a malware program or a virus on your PC.

Apart from the legal aspect, torrents are highly unsafe for downloading files. You should avoid downloading torrents from unknown users. To confirm a file is safe, you have to download it from a known, trusted source.

HyperText Transfer Protocol is the backbone of the internet. Internet browsing and downloading works in a stream of HTTP requests and responses. Simply put, HTTPS is encrypted HTTP. Secure encryption ensures that the website you are visiting is trusted.

To protect yourself from download threats, always perform a safety check before downloading. Continue reading below to know some of the regular safety approaches to download a file.

Depending on the type of Antivirus you have, you can do a file check before or after performing a download.

Know your file formats. Whether a new or old Windows user, always make sure to enable file extensions in Explorer by default. It’s a security hazard that they turn it off by default. Turn it on from the explorer File options .

Many websites such as Fileinfo lets you search from their large database of file extensions. File extensions are three or four characters long. They are the last characters after the period (.) shown in the file name.

Note that these two factors are not complete indications of the validity of a file. They only tell you whether a file is trusted and downloaded by other users.

Md5 sum file hash is a popular means of verifying any file. Md5 algorithm takes a file and generates a 128 character unique hash. This way, if the download file is tampered with, the resulting hash would be different. 

Many download websites offer md5 hash along with the download link. With it, you can verify if the file you get is the same as the one they provide. This is a good approach if you trust the file provider to let you download your file safely.

Note that you would still have to download the file first before you can start checking it. You should open the file only after you’re sure it’s safe to do so.

Note down the file hash next to the download link.

Go to any online md5 hash checker tool.

Upload the file and let the tool generate hash for you.

Compare the file hashes together to make sure they are the same.

Windows Sandbox is a special feature provided by Microsoft as a testing ground. Even if you manage to break your sandboxed Windows, it won’t have any impact on your base Windows at all. So, it is a good idea to test all your suspicious download links in a sandbox environment.

Note that the feature is available in Pro and Enterprise versions only. Other Windows users can use a virtual box or VMware image instead.

Forums are the place to confirm the validity of any file. Most of the download websites provide a discussion forum for site visitors. Anyone can register for an account in the discussion forum and post their questions. Other experienced users can write answers and even upvote questions and answers.

Some users even make time to point you to the correct file that you’d need to download. Since anyone can post on the forums, you still need to be careful in believing what you read. I always recommend taking the file forums with a large pinch of salt.

Virustotal is a reliable site to perform safety checks. It has two modes, the first file mode and the second is link mode. File mode allows you to upload a file and verify if it’s safe. Link mode allows you to run a safety check even before downloading the file.

Virustotal runs virus scans against a database of multiple vendors. It then reports if the file passed all safety checks. For now, we will stick to using link mode.

To disable the automatic downloading of files, follow these steps.

Chrome Firefox Safari

Go to the Safari menu and select Preferences.

Under the General tab, select a File download location.

Select Ask for each download.

Under the General tab, select a File download location.

Select Ask for each download.

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