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Famous brands are often instantly recognizable because of their signature logos, symbols and slogans. They’ve created and trademarked these brand identifiers to protect their brand images. Businesses of all sizes may consider trademarking their brand indicators so competitors can’t use them and consumers won’t be confused. 

We’ll explain what a trademark is, how to register and submit a trademark, and how to decide whether a copyright or trademark is the right way to protect your brand reputation and valuable intellectual property.

What is a trademark? 

A trademark is a phrase or symbol that functions as a brand image or indicator. It includes words, names, images and symbols that identify a company or brand and distinguish it from other companies or brands. 

The concept dates back to ancient times when skilled artisans working with metal or ceramic would imprint their distinct maker’s mark on a finished product. Even today, you can often distinguish between a high-quality piece of jewelry and a knockoff by the maker’s mark. 

Registering your intellectual property with the government gives you a registered trademark, allowing legal enforcement for both physical products and digital assets.

Did You Know?

Trademark disputes can lead to business lawsuits to stop an entity from infringing on your trademark.

What is trademark strength?

A trademark has an associated “strength” that shows how defensible it is as your unique mark vs. how widely other entities can use it. 

Consider the Apple logo — an apple with a bite taken out of it. It’s a strong trademark because other entities can’t use that specific symbol or even somewhat similar symbols defensibly. In fact, Apple has been involved in many trademark lawsuits preventing other companies from using logos that are simple graphic designs of a single fruit (such as the pear-shaped logo for a meal prep app called Prepear), arguing that they will confuse customers.

On the other hand, Apple trying to trademark the word “apple” would be weak; a bakery using apples does not violate Apple’s registered trademark if it describes its pies as apple pies. Nor is Big Apple Bagels in violation for using New York City’s nickname.

What makes a strong trademark?

A strong trademark is entirely original. The brand name Xerox is an example. No entity was called Xerox before the company created the name and used it in its branding. 

Strong trademarks are either completely unique words or images, or ones that have a unique use. Going back to the Apple example, the word “apple” is far from unique. However, its use for a technology company is unique, making it a strong trademark. If another company wanted to use the name Apple Technology, it would be sued for trademark infringement.


Choose an original, easy-to-remember brand name that appeals to your target audience and relates to your products or services. But don’t make it too specific — you may want to expand eventually.

How can you protect your trademark?

Register and defend your trademark to protect it. 

Register your trademark. A registered trademark lets you make your mark public knowledge and gives you precedence against future similar marks being registered.

Defend your trademark. You must defend your trademark if you want to preserve it. If you allow other brands to use something too close to your trademark for too long, your trademark becomes diluted and no longer as easily defensible. Too-broad usage of a too-broad trademark means you lose the ability to claim the trademark. If you see another company using your trademark, start the legal process by sending them a cease-and-desist letter. If they refuse, you may need to hire an intellectual property attorney.

Bottom Line

Consider obtaining intellectual property insurance to help protect your trademark against entities using your intellectual property without authorization.

How do you submit a trademark?

If you pursue a registered trademark for your assets, take the following actions after you obtain a trademark application through the federal Trademark Electronic Application System (TEAS).

1. Add contact information for the mark’s owner.

The owner may be the legal entity under which your business operates, or it may be an individual. The contact information should include the following:

Mailing address

Email address

Fax number

2. Determine your mark format.

When you submit your trademark, you must indicate one of these three mark formats:

Standard character for words, letters, numbers and combinations of these characters in any font or format

Special character for words, letters, numbers and combinations of these characters in particular fonts, formats or colors, or for images and other visual design elements

Sound mark for audio trademarks (a prominent example is the MGM lion’s roar)

3. Complete the picture and specimen section.

The first two steps of the TEAS are quick to complete. Providing a picture and specimen may take longer.

Picture: For the picture section, submit a drawing, whether hand-drawn or computer-generated, if you are registering a special character mark. Your file must be a JPEG attached to the TEAS application.

Specimen: For the specimen section, you’ll take one of these actions.

Submit an electronic audio or video file for a sound mark in WAV, MP3, MPG, WMV, WMA or AVI format. Audio files have a maximum size of 5MB, and video files have a maximum size of 30MB.

Submit a graphic showing the planned use for your trademark if it is a standard or special character mark. This graphic could display your mark on merchandise or marketing materials.

4. Indicate your mark’s goods and services.

In this section of the TEAS, detail the goods and services for which you’ll use your mark. Follow the U.S. Acceptable Identification of Goods and Services Manual as a guide, and use any relevant wording you see in the descriptions there. If necessary, you can detail your goods and services in your own words.

After you submit your TEAS form, you can’t change your trademark’s goods and services.

5. Indicate your trademark’s filing basis.

Choose one of the four bases below.

Use in Commerce: This category describes marks used in goods or services that you already offer.

Intent to Use: This category is for marks you intend to use within the next four years. You must start using the trademark and provide proof of specimens before registering it.

Foreign Application Exists for the Same Goods or Services: If you have applied to file a trademark domestically within the last six months, use this basis to indicate a foreign application for that same trademark.

Foreign Registration Exists for the Same Goods or Services: If your trademark already exists internationally, you must use this basis and provide information for the U.S. application, such as a copy of the trademark’s foreign registration certificate.

6. Submit your application.

After you pay your filing fee, which can be as much as $400 per good or service class, the USPTO will refer your application to an attorney, who will review it within three months. You will be contacted if you must remedy any mistakes before your application reaches the USPTO’s weekly publication, the Trademark Official Gazette, where other trademark holders can counter your application if it appears similar to their marks. 

If you successfully counter any challenges (or face no challenges), your trademark will be approved after the months to years it can take to adequately address a trademark lawyer’s concerns.

Did You Know?

After your trademark is registered, it’s crucial to remember your trademark renewal dates and monitor new trademark filings to ensure no one infringes on your trademark.

What are some common trademark FAQs?

Here are answers to some of the most frequently asked trademark questions. 

What can you trademark?

There are many guidelines for what constitutes a trademark, and the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) provides a series of educational videos to help you navigate trademark law.

Can you trademark a website graphic?

In general, you can’t trademark your website’s graphic design, even if it’s unique. You also likely won’t be able to trademark website graphics and illustrations. If you create illustrated characters for use in your branding, you can copyright those characters, but you can’t trademark them.

Can you trademark a logo?

You can trademark your brand logo and, if it’s sufficiently unique, your brand name. If you have individual products with their own logos, you can trademark those logos and names as well. Otherwise, you’re looking at copyright, not trademarks, to defend your creations.

How can you let others know about your trademark? 

There are two kinds of trademark indications: the small ™ and the ® mark (the letter R enclosed in a circle). You can only use the ® after your trademark is successfully registered with the USPTO. You can use the ™ symbol to indicate that your name or image is either an unregistered trademark or that your trademark is currently pending. 

How long does it take to get a registered trademark? 

Once you submit the application, it takes about three to six months to hear back from the USPTO. Then there is a period of due diligence, during which the USPTO ensures that your item is eligible for a trademark. Altogether, the process usually takes between eight months to a year.

Jennifer Dublino contributed to this article.

You're reading How To Submit A Trademark

How To Test A Motherboard

In my 30 years of experience as a computer technician, a motherboard is one of the most challenging components to diagnose due to the number of components connected to it.

If a motherboard fails, you could have blue screens, freezing, beeps, inability to detect USB drives and other hardware, and more.  This guide will teach you how to test a motherboard with a multi-meter before installing other PC parts.

You will need the following tools to complete your motherboard diagnostics testing.

A Phillips screwdriver or power switch jumper

A multimeter to check voltages

A working PSU (Power Supply Unit)

A new CMOS battery if necessary

CPU thermal paste

Set the motherboard on a flat, non-conductive surface such as a wooden table.

Install the processor and apply thermal paste.

Attach the CPU cooler and connect it to the motherboard.

Place at least one RAM module into the slot labeled (DIMM 1). 

Attach the GPU to the motherboard and connect the necessary power connector if necessary. Read your GPU manual to verify.

Plug the ATX 24-pin connector from the PSU (Power Supply) into the motherboard.

Connect the monitor to the HDMI connection on the side of the board for onboard graphics or into the GPU if it’s your primary display.

Plug the PSU power cable into a surge protector or wall outlet.

To turn on the computer, use a power switch jumper, or if you do not have one available, you can even use a screwdriver to complete the power circuit shown above.

After verifying a successful POST, turn the PC off by flipping the switch located on the power supply back to the off position.

If the computer boots to the BIOS, you are good to go. Unplug everything, and install the motherboard into your case and install everything as usual. If your motherboard did not POST, retry the steps again, and if it still fails, contact the motherboard manufacturer and request an RMA to get a new motherboard.

Motherboards can be one of the most stubborn components to diagnose due to the sheer number of tiny parts embedded in them. In my experience, when motherboards fail, they typically will not boot, power on, or anything. The following steps can help narrow down your symptoms.

The Power-On-Self-Test or (POST) happens each time you turn on your computer. If your computer is operating normally, you should continue the startup. If you are unable to complete the POST, then proceed to the next step.

Verify that your motherboard is not shorting out on your case. Verify that you have correctly installed stand-off screws in all the correct screw locations inside the case.

Check your system for possible overheating. Open the case and ensure that there is not dust covering the fans, components, and motherboard. If so, use a can of compressed air found at your local hardware store to clean it.

Listen for beep codes when booting your PC. These beep codes will help you identify the faulty component or issue. For a list of beep codes and what they mean, go here.

Use the BIOS to check for updates, download and install them. If no updates are available, restore or reset your BIOS to reverse all settings to default and restart the computer.

If you still cannot access the BIOS because your computer keeps restarting, Replace the CMOS Battery. If your PC continues into BIOS after battery replacement, your motherboard issues should end. But if they do not, continue diagnosis.

Finally, remove all components other than the CPU, the CPU Cooling Fan, and the RAM. If your motherboard boots and POSTs, you will need to add one piece of hardware at a time until you find the faulty component.

If you cannot diagnose your motherboard with the steps listed above, it is time to use a multimeter. You can purchase one at your local hardware store or on Amazon. This one at Amazon sells for less than $13 and works great.

If you have a multimeter, then you will be able to detect issues with the motherboard easily. Even if you have never used a multimeter in the past, I will walk you step-by-step on how to test your motherboard for component failure.

The first thing you want to look for with the multimeter is a short circuit. These are common issues and can happen when there might be a surge in electricity. Below we will be verifying the AC voltage of the motherboard.

Standard 24pin ATX pin layout

Next, remove the motherboard from the case and refer to the layout picture or this ATX 24-pin chart to find the PINs. Using the red lead, test each of the following: (3,5,7,15,17,18, and 19) must have a 0 reading. Anything else indicates a bad PSU connector.

The last test will require you to remove the ATX power adapter and the CPU from the motherboard. Test the same ATX pins located on the motherboard. Any reading other than 0 means there is a problem with the motherboard connector.


To check DC voltages, follow the steps below. The steps here are slightly different than AC voltages.

If you have found that the motherboard has failed, don’t try repairing it on your own. Even if a repair is successful, improper voltage regulation could destroy everything in your computer. It is always better to have an experienced electronic technician repair the motherboard or replace it than venturing to fix it yourself.

With the computer turned off, carefully probe the back of the connector using the black lead.  It should be in contact with one of the negative pins 15,17,18 or 19, registering a 0 voltage.

Use the red lead to probe and verify the following pins:  Pin 16 (green in color) reading between 3-5 volts and Pin 9 (purple color) reading 5 volts.

Now, start the PC.  Pin 16 (green color) should drop down to 0 volts.  If it doesn’t, this is indicative of a faulty switch.  (Turn off the PC)

Finally, use the red lead on Pin 8 (gray color) should read 5 volts.  Start the computer and press the reset button; now, the voltage will drop down to 0 volts, then go back up to 5 volts.  If not, this is a good indicator that you have a defective RAM slot, and you will need a new motherboard.


You don’t have to have a CPU to verify that the motherboard is working and powering connected components like case fans and RGB lighting. I know because I have done this on numerous occasions.

How to test a capacitor on a motherboard?

Unfortunately, there is no way to test the capacitor on a motherboard without removing the capacitor itself. However, you can visually inspect each capacitor for rust, cracks, leaks, or bulges, and this will give you a good idea that the capacitor is damaged.

Can a motherboard be repaired?

A motherboard can be repaired by an experienced electronics technician in many cases and may still be less expensive than a replacement if it is an older PC. If you have to purchase a new motherboard, you may also have to replace the CPU and RAM. 

Is replacing a motherboard worth it?

The fact that the motherboard is responsible for distributing controlled amounts of current throughout the computer and its peripherals makes it very worth it. A failing motherboard could cause surges of current that could potentially destroy your RAM, GPU, CPU, etc. 

What happens if my motherboard is damaged?

If you just purchased your motherboard and it was damaged when you opened it or during installation, it should be under the manufactures warranty. You will need to call the manufacture and request an RMA (Return Merchandise Authorization).

If you have had the motherboard for a long time and it is out of the warranty period, you will need to purchase a new one.

How To Become A Full

Becoming a full-stack developer is the dream of many engineering students. Full stack development means building a web 2.0+ application with dynamic web pages consisting of databases, videos, images, etc.

This article will discuss how to become a full-stack web developer in 2023.

Learn The Basics Of Web development

The first and foremost important step to becoming a full-stack developer is to learn a few basic languages which are popularly used to build web applications.

HTML − This is a markup language used to design the skeleton of the web application. Among several versions available, you should consider HTML5 to learn.

CSS − This markup language is used to add styles to web pages. The pages designed in pure HTML only can be customized sparingly. CSS was introduced with the popular need for developers and users to add beautiful styles to web pages. CSS3 is the latest version of CSS; hence, you should prefer to learn this.

JavaScript − This is also known as the language of the internet because, on average, over 70% of web applications are built on javascript. Modern browsers like firefox, chrome, etc., directly execute the javascript codes in the console, which is enough to say that JavaScript is a popular scripting language in web applications.

Typescript − This language was created by Microsoft Cooperation. This offers the developers a few more functionalities like aliases, class-based implementations, etc. You need to understand this language to learn a few frameworks like angular, etc.

Learn Frontend Frameworks

After learning all the basics of web development, you should learn a few libraries and frameworks. Until now, what we discussed is ok for building a static application, but they are not enough to make complex web applications. Hence it is necessary to learn some front-end frameworks. However, you should learn any one framework.

React JS − This is the most popular javascript framework for building front-end applications. This was released and maintained by Facebook.

Next JS − This framework is built on top of react. This adds a few extra functionalities like optimizing the images, making the web application more SEO-friendly, etc.

Angular JS − This was developed and maintained by Google. This framework is very convenient for making large-scale applications in production.

chúng tôi − This was released in February 2014 and has been gaining popularity since then.

UI/UX design

A few tools are helpful, and you should learn them to make beautiful web applications.

Bootstrap − A popular CSS framework that helps develop fast and responsive web pages.

Tailwind CSS − This is very familiar with Bootstrap, with additional features that are more customizable.

Material design, Figma, etc., are a few other popular design frameworks and tools you can opt to learn.

Server Side Language

The languages and frameworks we discussed till now are enough to make a front-end web application. However, to make a full-stack web application, we also need to develop the web application’s backend. To learn the associated frameworks, we, however, need to understand a few languages first.

Node JS: This is not a programming language. This is a runtime environment. However, you should understand this since it is the most popular backend environment.







Server Side Frameworks

After learning the languages of server-side rendering, you should move forward to learn the frameworks and libraries.

Node JS − This is the most popular framework to make backend applications and is aligned with the front-end applications like react, next JS, etc. Under this framework, you should learn important libraries like express JS, koa, chúng tôi etc.

Django − A very popular python backend framework that is written in python. This is a very convenient backend framework for creating large-scale production applications.

Flask − This is another python framework for the backend. However, this is less popular compared to Django

Database Management System

Since MERN applications consist of databases, having a strong knowledge of the databases is important for a developer. You should focus on any one database and move on with others whenever there are any requirements.

Relational Database − This is the most widely used database management system. MySQL, SQL, etc., are the most common examples of such databases.

NoSQL − MongoDB and Elasticsearch is a popular databases among the categories of these databases. MongoDB is highly recommended here.

Cloud Databases − Firebases, AWS, and Microsoft Azure are popular examples of such databases. These databases are becoming popular since real-time databases are in popular demand nowadays.


Knowledge of deploying web applications over some hosting platforms is also an essential skill in 2023. This also includes management of the hosted websites.

Hosting Platforms −These platforms offer a port for your applications to run over the web through the server. Heroku, Digital Ocean, Azure, and AWS are examples of some popular hosting platforms. AWS is highly recommended for big-scale production applications.

Web servers − These are powerful computers that host your applications. Apache, Linux, and Microsoft provide web servers to clients.

Important Tips

You should follow a few important tips to be a more successful full-stack developer.

Prefer to learn from the official documentation. These are prepared by the developers and are always up to date.

Take help from the internet to fix bugs, e.g., StackOverflow.

Do not learn another framework before completely understanding one framework. It’s very easy to switch the frameworks.


What we have learned in this article should be enough to become a full-stack developer in 2023. However, we would like to know the readers that these are not all we can learn. You will gain enough experience and understanding of web applications if you learn all these. Hence you can switch on to any other frameworks and libraries whenever required.

How To Make A Handkerchief?

Making a handkerchief is an age-old technique that dates back to early civilizations. It can be used in different and many creative ways. It is also a great way to showcase one’s skills. Handkerchiefs are small pieces of fabric that can be tied around the wrist like a bracelet.

Apart from being fashionable, handkerchiefs are also helpful for keeping your hands dry and cleaning items such as spectacles or goggles. Read on for more details about how to make a handkerchief and its uses.

Step-by-Step Guide on How to Make a Handkerchief

Let’s first identify the supplies needed to make a handkerchief. You need a fabric (you can choose cotton, silk, or other fabrics depending on your liking), scissors (to cut your fabric), a needle (to stitch your fabric), and thread (to sew the fabric together).

Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Uses of Handkerchiefs

Handkerchiefs are helpful for many different things. They can be used to clean your hands, cover your mouth if you are sick, clean your spectacles, or as a fashion accessory. Handkerchiefs were once very much in fashion and could be used as a currency. They were also commonly given as gifts. Aside from being used as an accessory, handkerchiefs are also great for keeping your hands clean.

If you get something on your hands, you can wipe it off with your handkerchief instead of using your other hand. Handkerchiefs are also great for cleaning your important things such as mobile or laptop. If you get something on your screen, you can wipe it off with your handkerchief, and make the screen clear and completely visible.

Tips on How to Care for Your Handkerchief

If you want to make your handkerchief a durable and valuable fabric, you must take proper care of it. First, clean your handkerchief regularly. You can either clean it by hand or use a washing machine. You can also use fabric conditioner if you want to.

After cleaning your handkerchief, let it air dry and fold it neatly. You should also neatly store your handkerchief. You can either store it in a drawer or a closet. You can also choose to display your handkerchief on a shelf if you want to. If you store your handkerchief in a drawer, you can use a hanger to keep it neatly folded. You can also use drawer organizers to keep things neat.

How to Customize Your Handkerchief

If you wish to customize your handkerchief, you can do so with embroidery or by adding a patch. You can embroider your name or initials onto your handkerchief if you want it personalized. You can add a patch to your handkerchief if you want to be creative.

You can choose to add any design or image to your handkerchief. You can also choose to add a patch with your name or initials on it. You can also tie your handkerchief around your wrist. If you want to keep your hands warm and dry and do not want to use gloves, you can tie your handkerchief around your wrist. You can also use it as a fashion accessory by tying it so that it covers your hands.

Creative Ways to Use a Handkerchief

If you are bored of using your handkerchief for its intended purpose, you can use it differently. You can use it as a bag for small items, such as your wallet or phone if you do not have a bag.


You might find that teaching yourself how to manufacture handkerchiefs is a lot of fun. You are free to use whatever material you like, and the finished product will be crafted according to the specifications you provide. Embroidery and patches are two more personalization choices that can be applied to the item, and either can be used.

Handkerchiefs may serve two functions: first, they can be used to wipe your hands clean, and second, they can be hung up about the house as decorative elements. As a token of your love and concern for those your dears, you can choose to present them a handkerchief. For various designs on it, you can check with various options, including the Internet.

How To Create A Tablet

There’s a reason every office building, mall and hotel has a permanent map as soon as you walk in: People want their information relevant, easily digestible and accurate, and there’s no better way to introduce them to your space than by providing exactly what they’re looking for.

And tablet-based kiosks can do much more than any static display ever could. Whether presenting information in multiple languages, using touchscreen menus to quickly navigate a wealth of information, or even hosting a face-to-face call with someone who can provide greater assistance, tablets make it easy and uncomplicated to create an informative, user-friendly experience, which has become increasingly important today.

How do you make all this work? Here are four key steps to creating a tablet-based kiosk.

1. Define objectives

It’s OK to start with a vague initial thought: “I want a map,” or “We need a product catalog,” or “Our daily schedule doesn’t meet our needs.” But before you go any further, you need to lay out a clear vision of what the end result is going to look like.

An information kiosk usually presents a seamless interface and runs a single application, so your definition doesn’t need to be complicated — and shouldn’t be, because complicated kiosks are not very successful. It’s easier if you have a single application already selected, but it’s not required. Because modern tablets are based on modern browsers, building a web-based application for a kiosk is not a major undertaking.

In some cases, you may want to set up a multi-app kiosk, which allows managers or users to cycle between two or more specific functions with locked-down settings — for example, your company app plus a web browser that can only access your corporate website. As you expand your kiosk’s apps and settings, keep in mind the more you have, the more complex your configuration will be. Beginning in June 2023, Samsung Knox Configure officially introduced support for multi-app kiosk setups — which can streamline the process of creating and maintaining this type of arrangement for your business.

But whether you have one app or several, it’s important to be specific and clear. Be sure to answer these five questions:

What specific information will the kiosk present, and how will that leverage the kiosk’s interactive power? For example, event information might be the starting point, but a map and directions might be the very next thing guests want to see.

What kinds of users will engage with this kiosk? Also establish a rough idea of the number of users, because kiosks usually only service a single user at a time. This helps in planning the number of stations.

Where will the information be stored and updated? Ideally, a kiosk will be connected to an online system using Wi-Fi (or Ethernet if necessary) that provides constantly updated information. Standalone tablet-based kiosks don’t deliver the kinds of information people are accustomed to getting today, and will take more effort to keep updated.

How much time will they spend at the kiosk? When you define the time window, whether it’s “10 seconds” or “10 minutes,” you set expectations about the experience at your kiosk.

Will you need special hardware features, such as printers or cameras? If you want anything beyond a touchscreen, get that requirement down on paper early.

2. What should the kiosk look like?

There’s a big industry of companies making specialized mounting hardware to secure tablets of all sizes, which offers a lot of flexibility and options to the implementing team. Do you want something in a standalone cabinet? Mounted to a wall? That a user can carry around? Having a vision of how it should look will help your team select the right mounting system.

A diagonal screen size of around 10 inches is very common, and tablets of that size can be purchased for $250-$500 — although the cost of the tablet itself is not a major part of the whole project (more on that later). Smaller screen sizes, such as the more compact 8-in. tablet are also available, with prices in the $150-$300 range. Larger screens are available as well, both in tablets and as standalone touchscreens, but they do drive up costs.

Keep in mind any special hardware features you might want to use, such as cameras and external printers, and how they will integrate with the kiosk. For example, a kiosk that looks like a traditional lectern won’t offer a particularly pleasing camera angle — you’ll want something that faces the user head-on.

Avoid keyboards, whether real or virtual, which can be frustrating and time-consuming when used for anything longer than two or three words. Mice and styluses should also be eliminated except in controlled environments. Touchscreens with simple tap gestures should be all that’s needed to navigate. This also simplifies the construction of the kiosk and gets information out front, with minimal distractions.

3. What’s the use case?

This step is where the project gets handed from business leader to IT group, because the following steps involve technical implementation. This is also the time to include any special cases or details, such as multiple languages or specific data sources (such as nonkiosk applications) to be used.

It’s important to have the big picture of how the kiosk will fit in with other applications, either in place or in the pipeline. If the kiosk is a natural complement to a mobile application or needs similar branding and user experience, this is the time to get these details on the table. Integration between user mobile devices and the kiosk application can be simple, such as by taking a picture of a QR barcode displayed on the kiosk, if that helps extend or improve the experience.

One great way to hand off the project at this point is to use “persona-based” scenarios. These help explain your vision to the technical team responsible for implementation. Personas are a simple way of presenting different use scenarios, and they help everyone involved in the project get on the same page.

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For example, if you’re creating a catalog kiosk for use in a retail location, you might define “Preshopper Pete,” someone who already knows exactly what he wants when he comes into the store and just needs to get to the right location as quickly as possible. Then there’s “Economical Ellen,” who is interested in knowing where you’ve placed the discounted and marked-down items today. Finally, “Browsing Billie” wants to find a particular department so they can browse items without anything specific in mind.

If the cute persona names and specific flows are too much or don’t fit, don’t worry — the key here is to describe how a user is going to approach the kiosk and get information that is accurate, useful and received as efficiently as possible. You could, for example, just write “a user will walk up to the kiosk, find their event on a list on a single page, touch it and see what room it is in and when it starts and ends, along with a map of how to get there.”

The more time you spend defining what you want now, the better the chance you’ll get it, so get as many details down as possible.

4. Design with a life cycle view

The tendency for IT teams will be to immediately look at hardware and software one-time capital costs: how much the tablets and mounting hardware costs, and the cost to design the application. But these costs are only a small part of the big picture. The real costs are management and maintenance.

From the first moment, converting a standard off-the-shelf Android tablet into a kiosk device, locked and secured, can take hours of effort, and is error-prone even for teams accustomed to dealing with tablets. Thinking about the mundane details of how tablets will be deployed, updated and managed is easily overlooked — and you shouldn’t let that happen.

Fortunately, you’re not the first organization to want to use tablets as an accelerator for a kiosk project. Tablet vendors are building infrastructure beyond just providing tablets — they’re helping with the total life cycle. These cloud-based software tools can grab a device, push a rock-solid configuration to it and define all the critical kiosk features, such as disabling buttons or system management functions, or applying corporate branding.

For example, Samsung’s Knox Configure tool includes “ProKiosk mode,” which provides a list of settings needed to fully turn an Android tablet into a secured and dedicated kiosk device — everything from screen timeouts to audio levels to network definitions to autolaunch of specific applications, and all the settings in between — some of which aren’t even available in the normal operating system GUI. Knox Configure also provides for continuous updating — changing profile settings or updating software as the project moves from development to operations phases.

Using off-the-shelf tablets, mounting hardware and configuration tools such as Knox Configure, you can move quickly and economically from business vision to technical implementation.

Browse Samsung’s range of business tablets to find the perfect size and capabilities for your kiosk. Need help choosing? Take this short, free assessment to find the best tablet for your organization.

How To Write A Research Proposal

A research proposal describes what you will investigate, why it’s important, and how you will conduct your research.

The format of a research proposal varies between fields, but most proposals will contain at least these elements:

Title page


Literature review

Research design

Reference list

While the sections may vary, the overall objective is always the same. A research proposal serves as a blueprint and guide for your research plan, helping you get organized and feel confident in the path forward you choose to take.

Research proposal purpose

Academics often have to write research proposals to get funding for their projects. As a student, you might have to write a research proposal as part of a grad school application, or prior to starting your thesis or dissertation.

In addition to helping you figure out what your research can look like, a proposal can also serve to demonstrate why your project is worth pursuing to a funder, educational institution, or supervisor.

Research proposal aims

Relevance Show your reader why your project is interesting, original, and important.

Context Show that you understand the current state of research on your topic.

Approach Demonstrate that you have carefully thought about the data, tools, and procedures necessary to conduct your research.

Achievability Confirm that your project is feasible within the timeline of your program or funding deadline.

Research proposal length

The length of a research proposal can vary quite a bit. A bachelor’s or master’s thesis proposal can be just a few pages, while proposals for PhD dissertations or research funding are usually much longer and more detailed. Your supervisor can help you determine the best length for your work.

One trick to get started is to think of your proposal’s structure as a shorter version of your thesis or dissertation, only without the results, conclusion and discussion sections.

Download our research proposal template

Research proposal examples

Writing a research proposal can be quite challenging, but a good starting point could be to look at some examples. We’ve included a few for you below.

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Title page

Like your dissertation or thesis, the proposal will usually have a title page that includes:

The proposed title of your project

Your name

Your supervisor’s name

Your institution and department

TipIf your proposal is very long, you may also want to include an abstract and a table of contents to help your reader navigate your work.


The first part of your proposal is the initial pitch for your project. Make sure it succinctly explains what you want to do and why.

Your introduction should:

Introduce your topic

Give necessary background and context

Outline your problem statement and research questions

To guide your introduction, include information about:

Who could have an interest in the topic (e.g., scientists, policymakers)

How much is already known about the topic

What is missing from this current knowledge

What new insights your research will contribute

Why you believe this research is worth doing

Literature review

As you get started, it’s important to demonstrate that you’re familiar with the most important research on your topic. A strong literature review shows your reader that your project has a solid foundation in existing knowledge or theory. It also shows that you’re not simply repeating what other people have already done or said, but rather using existing research as a jumping-off point for your own.

In this section, share exactly how your project will contribute to ongoing conversations in the field by:

Comparing and contrasting the main theories, methods, and debates

Examining the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches

Explaining how will you build on, challenge, or synthesize prior scholarship

TipIf you’re not sure where to begin, read our guide on how to write a literature review.

Research design and methods

Following the literature review, restate your main objectives. This brings the focus back to your own project. Next, your research design or methodology section will describe your overall approach, and the practical steps you will take to answer your research questions.

Contribution to knowledge

To finish your proposal on a strong note, explore the potential implications of your research for your field. Emphasize again what you aim to contribute and why it matters.

For example, your results might have implications for:

Improving best practices

Informing policymaking decisions

Strengthening a theory or model

Challenging popular or scientific beliefs

Creating a basis for future research

Reference list

Last but not least, your research proposal must include correct citations for every source you have used, compiled in a reference list. To create citations quickly and easily, you can use our free APA citation generator.

Research schedule

Some institutions or funders require a detailed timeline of the project, asking you to forecast what you will do at each stage and how long it may take. While not always required, be sure to check the requirements of your project.

Here’s an example schedule to help you get started. You can also download a template at the button below.

Download our research schedule template

Example research schedule

Research phase Objectives Deadline

1. Background research and literature review

Meet with supervisor for initial discussion

Read and analyze relevant literature

Use new knowledge to refine research questions

Develop theoretical framework

20th January

2. Research design planning

Design questionnaires

Identify channels for recruiting participants

Finalize sampling methods and data analysis methods

13th February

3. Data collection and preparation

Recruit participants and send out questionnaires

Conduct semi-structured interviews with selected participants

Transcribe and code interviews

Clean data

24th March

4. Data analysis

Statistically analyze survey data

Conduct thematic analysis of interview transcripts

Draft results and discussion chapters

22nd April

5. Writing

Complete a full thesis draft

Meet with supervisor to discuss feedback and revisions

17th June

6. Revision

Complete 2nd draft based on feedback

Get supervisor approval for final draft


Print and bind final work


28th July


If you are applying for research funding, chances are you will have to include a detailed budget. This shows your estimates of how much each part of your project will cost.

Make sure to check what type of costs the funding body will agree to cover. For each item, include:

Cost: exactly how much money do you need?

Justification: why is this cost necessary to complete the research?

Source: how did you calculate the amount?

To determine your budget, think about:

Travel costs: do you need to go somewhere to collect your data? How will you get there, and how much time will you need? What will you do there (e.g., interviews, archival research)?

Materials: do you need access to any tools or technologies?

Help: do you need to hire any research assistants for the project? What will they do, and how much will you pay them?

Other interesting articles

If you want to know more about the research process, methodology, research bias, or statistics, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

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McCombes, S. & George, T. Retrieved July 17, 2023,

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