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In the Linux environment, we are having multiple file system protocols. The NFS is one of the file system protocols. The NFS stands for the Network File System. It is a very popular protocol in the Linux / CentOS environment. It is having multiple feathers like distributed file system protocol, cross-platform, etc. In the NFS, we are exporting the local file system over the network. Hence, the client will able to share the directories or files over the network and able to interact with it. As per the CentOS version, the NFS version will also be changed. When we are installing or working with the NFS protocol, we need to make sure that we are using the compatible version as per the CentOS version, application, or job perspective.
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Web development, programming languages, Software testing & othersSyntax of CentOS NFS How CentOS NFS Works?
Below is the list of options that are supported by all NFS versions
1. nfsvers=n: It will help to print the NFS protocol version information used to contact the NFS server. If the server will not able to support the necessary version then the mount request will fail. If we haven’t provided the version information then it will consider the NFS version 4.1.
2. vers=n: We are using this option as an alternative to the nfsvers option. It will help for compatibility with other operating systems.
3. soft/hard: After an NFS request time out, this option will help to determine the recovery behavior of the NFS client. If neither option is specified as the hard option, the NFS requests are retried indefinitely. If we are providing the soft option then the NFS client fails an NFS request after retransaction can be sent. It will cause the NFS client to give an error for the calling application.
4. timeo=n: It is pointing to the time value. The time is in deciseconds. It means the tenths of a second. Before retries the NFS Client, the NFS client will wait for a response. If we using the NFS over TCP then the default time value is 600 deciseconds i.e. the 60 seconds. In the linear back-off, the retransmission of the NFS client timeout will increase by time up to the maximum of 600 seconds.
5. retrans=n: This option will help to define the number of retry times for the NFS client retries. If we haven’t provided the retrans option then the NFS client tries each request three times. If still there is no response then the NFS client generates a “server not responding” message after retrans retries.
6. rsize=n: It will help to define the maximum number of bytes in each network READ request that the NFS client can receive. The reading data from a file on an NFS server. The default data payload size of each NFS READ request depends on the smaller or equal size setting. The 1,048,576 bytes is the largest read payload supported by the Linux NFS client
7. acregmin=n: In the network file system protocol, the “acregmin=n” option will help to define the lower time value in the second format. If we will not configure or provide the option then it will network file system client instance will use the 3-second min.
8. acregmax=n: In the network file system protocol, the “acregmin=n” option will help to define the higher time value in the second format. If we will not configure or provide the option then it will network file system client instance will use the 60-second min.
9. acdirmin=n: In the network file system protocol, the “acregmin=n” option will help to define the maximum time value in the second format. If we will not configure or provide the option then it will network file system client instance will use the 30-second min.
10. acdirmax=n: In the network file system protocol, the “acregmin=n” option will help to define the higher time value in the second format. If we will not configure or provide the option then it will network file system client instance will use the 60-second min.
11. actimeo=n: In the action option, we are able to set multiple values like acdirmin, acregmax, acdirmax, acregmin, etc. From the client end, if we will configure the specific option then the network file system client will use the default values.Examples to understand CentOS NFS
Below are mentioned the examples :Example #1: Install NFS Packages
Command:yum install nfs-utils -y
As per the above command, we are installing the NFS packages.
Output:Example #2: Export the NFS Share Directory
In NFS, we need to export the directory. The same directory will use to share the data.
Command:showmount -e 192.168.56.210
As per the above command, we are getting the status of the export directory.Example #3: Mount NFS Directory
In the CentOS environment, we need to mount the NFS directory.
Command:mkdir /nfs_server_share_data mount -t nfs 192.168.56.210:/nfssharedata /nfs_server_share_data
As per the above command, we are mounting the NFS directory and getting the NFS mount status.
We have seen the uncut concept of the “CentOS NFS” with the proper example, explanation, and command with different outputs. With the help of NFS, we can access the files or directory over the network. There is no platform dependency.Recommended Articles
This is a guide to CentOS NFS. Here we discuss Introduction, syntax and working along with different examples to understand CentOS NFS. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –
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In this article we will learn and configure NFS (Network File System) which is basically used to share the files and folders between Linux systems. This was developed by Sun Microsystems in 1980 which allows us to mount the file system in the network and remote users can interact and the share just like local file and folders.Features of NFS
NFS can be configured as a centralized storage solution.
No need of running the same OS on both machines.
Can be secured with Firewalls.
It can be shared along with all the flavors of *nix.
The NFS share folder can be mounted as a local file system.Setup NFS
NFS mount needed at least two machines. The machine hosting the shared folders is called as server and which connects is called as clients.IP address Details of Server & Client
Client: 192.168.87.158Configuring NFS Server
We needed to install the packages for NFS# yum install nfs-utils nfs-utils-lib Output: Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, security Setting up Install Process Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile * epel: mirrors.ustc.edu.cn Resolving Dependencies Dependencies Resolved ================================================================================================ Package Arch Version Repository Size ================================================================================================ Installing: nfs-utils x86_64 1:1.2.3-64.el6 base 331 k nfs-utils-lib x86_64 chúng tôi base 68 k Transaction Summary ================================================================================================ Install 2 Package(s) Total download size: 399 k Installed size: 1.1 M Is this ok [y/N]: y Downloading Packages: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Running rpm_check_debug Running Transaction Test Transaction Test Succeeded Running Transaction Installing : nfs-utils-lib-1.1.5-11.el6.x86_64 1/2 Installing : 1:nfs-utils-1.2.3-64.el6.x86_64 2/2 Verifying : 1:nfs-utils-1.2.3-64.el6.x86_64 1/2 Verifying : nfs-utils-lib-1.1.5-11.el6.x86_64 2/2 Installed: nfs-utils.x86_64 1:1.2.3-64.el6 nfs-utils-lib.x86_64 0:1.1.5-11.el6 Complete!
After this run the below commands to start the NFS servers and make sure it start at boot time.# chkconfig nfs on # service rpcbind start # service nfs start Output: Starting NFS services: [ OK ] Starting NFS quotas: [ OK ] Starting NFS mountd: [ OK ] Starting NFS daemon: [ OK ] Starting RPC idmapd: [ OK ] Exporting the Share Directory
We need to decide a directory which we want to share with the client. The directory should be added to /etc/exports# vi /etc/exports
All the below lines to the file./share 192.168.87.158(rw,sync,no_root_squash,no_subtree_check) Explanation
/share – is the share folder which server wants to share
192.168.87.158 – is the IP address of the client to whom want to share
rw – This will all the clients to read and write the files to the share directory.
sync – which will confirm the shared directory once the changes are committed.
no_subtree_check – Will prevents the scanning the shared directory, as nfs performs the scans of every share directory, Disabling the subtree check will increase the reliability, but reduces the security.
no_root_squash – This will all the root user to connect to the designated directory.
Once, we enter the details of the share in config file, run the below command to export them# exportfs -a Configure Client
Install the required packages to connect to NFS# yum install nfs-utils nfs-utils-lib -y Creating Mount Point for Share Directory
Once the packages are installed on the client, create the directory to mount point the shared folder# mkdir -p /mnt/share Mounting the Share Directory # mount 192.168.87.156:/share /mnt/share/
To confirm if the share is mounted or not run the command ‘df -h’, this will show the list of mounted folders.# df -h Output: Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root 50G 5.2G 42G 12% / tmpfs 427M 80K 427M 1% /dev/shm /dev/sda1 477M 42M 410M 10% /boot /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_home 95G 60M 90G 1% /home 192.168.87.156:/share 18G 2.0G 15G 13% /mnt/share
To see the list of all the mounted file systems.# mount Output: /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root on / type ext4 (rw) proc on /proc type proc (rw) sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw) devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620) tmpfs on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw) /dev/sda1 on /boot type ext4 (rw) /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_home on /home type ext4 (rw) none on /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc type binfmt_misc (rw) sunrpc on /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs type rpc_pipefs (rw) 192.168.87.156:/share on /mnt/share type nfs (rw,vers=4,addr=192.168.87.156,clientaddr=192.168.87.158) To Check the NFS Mount
Create a file and folders in the server share directory# touch test1 # mkdir test
Then goto the client side machine and check the /mnt/share folders# ls /mnt/share/ -lh total 4.0K drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4.0K Apr 20 2023 test -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Apr 20 2023 test1
To automatically mount the share folder permanently while boot in the client machine, add the entries in the /etc/fstab file# vi /etc/fstab # # /etc/fstab # Created by anaconda on Sat Apr 2 00:11:04 2023 # # Accessible filesystems, by reference, are maintained under '/dev/disk' # See man pages fstab(5), findfs(8), mount(8) and/or blkid(8) for more info # /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root / ext4 defaults 1 1 UUID=1adb2ad5-d0c7-48a5-9b10-f846a3f9258c /boot ext4 defaults 1 2 /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_home /home ext4 defaults 1 2 /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_swap swap swap defaults 0 0 tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 devpts /dev/pts devpts gid=5,mode=620 0 0 sysfs /sys sysfs defaults 0 0 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0 192.168.87.156:/share /mnt/share nfs auto,noatime,nolock,bg,nfsvers=3,intr,tcp,actimeo=1800 0 0
Some options and important command of NFS# showmount -e Export list for localhost.localdomain: /share 192.168.87.158
This will show the available share on the local machine, so needed to run on the server side.# showmount -e 192.168.87.156 Export list for 192.168.87.156: /share 192.168.87.158
This will show the remote server shared folders needed to run on the client side –# exportfs -v /share 192.168.87.158(rw,wdelay,no_root_squash,no_subtree_check,sec=sys,rw,no_root_squash,no_all_squash)
List all the share files and folders with options on the server# exportfs -u /share 192.168.87.158
This will un-export the shared folders or files which are in /etc/exports# exports -r
This will refresh the servers list and check for the changes if any.
After this configuration and setup, you should be able to use NFS to share the files between *inx machines without any problem, then we should be able share the folders to only the client to whom we want to share the folder, this will improve the security.
Recalbox is an operating system for retro gaming enthusiasts. Best known for its compatibility with single-board computers like the Raspberry Pi and ODroid, it also supports PCs. This is perfect for testing Recalbox without buying any additional hardware. Additionally, Recalbox for PC will enable you to run your favorite emulators on more powerful hardware for better system and game compatibility.Why Run Recalbox on a PC?
First, the number one reason you’ll want to run Recalbox on your PC is more powerful hardware. While single board computers are pretty powerful for their size, they can’t compete with a traditional PC. More powerful CPUs, faster clock speeds, more RAM and the ability to use a graphics card means your PC is an emulation powerhouse that can run virtually any game from any system.What You’ll Need
If running Recalbox on your PC sounds like something you want to try out, there are a couple of things you’re going to need before you get started:
A PC. This can be a relatively new machine with impressive specs or an old machine sitting in your closet. Be aware, however, that the more powerful the PC, the greater system and game compatibility you will have.
Two USB flash drives. One USB will be used for the Recalbox OS; the other will be used to store all of your games. The USB for Recalbox needs to be at least 8GB. What size USB you need for your games will largely depend on your collection, especially if you are planning on playing newer console games. That being said, 32GB should be sufficient for most people.
A keyboard. You’re going to need a keyboard to boot into the Recalbox. A keyboard is also handy when configuring Recalbox once it’s up and running.
A USB controller. While it is possible to play games with a keyboard, you’re going to want a controller.How to Make a Bootable Recalbox USB
The first thing you’ll need to do is download the Recalbox image that is appropriate for your system. You’ll need to determine whether your machine is 32- or 64-bit and grab the corresponding image. Once the image has downloaded, you’ll need to flash the image to the USB you’re going to use for Recalbox.How to Run Recalbox on Your Windows 7 (or Earlier) PC
Now that you have your Recalbox USB, insert it into a free USB port on your computer. Next, you’ll want to boot your system from the USB instead of the internal hard drive. To do this on a Windows 7 (or earlier) PC, you’ll need to enter the BIOS and change the boot order. How to access the BIOS of your computer will vary depending on the manufacturer. However, most of the time you can access the BIOS by repeatedly pressing ESC, F2, F10 or F12 immediately after you power on the PC. (Note: these are commonly used keys; however, your computer may use an entirely different key. Consult your PC’s documentation for more information)
Once you have accessed your PC’s BIOS, use the arrow keys on your keyboard to find the BOOT menu. Here you can change the order of the available boot devices. Finally, simply move the USB to be first in the boot order. (Note: not all BIOS screens will look the same, so make your selections carefully). Finally, save your changes and exit the BIOS. Your PC should now boot from the Recalbox USB.How to Run Recalbox on your Windows 10 PC
Unfortunately, accessing the BIOS on a Windows 10 machine requires a few more steps. Thankfully, it’s a straightforward process. To access the BIOS in Windows 10, fire up your PC and let it boot normally. Once you are presented with the Windows 10 desktop environment, follow the steps outlined below:
3. On the next screen select “Recovery” from the left column.
The PC will restart and boot into the BIOS. Simply follow the steps outlined above to boot from the Recalbox USB. Once you’ve booted into Recalbox, you will be prompted to configure your controller. Simply map your buttons, and you’re ready to start playing games.How to Add Games
As you explore the Recalbox UI, you’ll notice that there are some preloaded freeware titles available to play. However, you’re probably going to want to add your own ROMs ASAP. This can be done a few different ways, including adding the ROMs to the installation USB. However, we are going to use a second USB flash drive (or hard drive), as it’s faster and easier to add more games as your ROM collection grows.
Once the PC has powered down, remove the second USB and plug it into another computer. You’ll notice that the USB has various folders for all of the different systems Recalbox can emulate. Simply drag and drop your ROMs to the corresponding folder. Once all of your games have transferred over, plug the USB back into your PC and turn it on. Allow Recalbox to boot up, and press Start to bring up the menu. Scroll down to “Game Settings,” and select “Update Games List.” Recalbox will then move the games you added into the UI. Once your games appear in the list, they’re ready to play. Simply select one, launch it and get your thumbs ready!How to Scrape for Metadata
Recalbox has a great user interface that looks fantastic, but there is a way to make it look even better. Recalbox has a built-in feature that allows you to scrape your games from metadata and box art. To do so, your PC has to be connected to the Internet. This can be done either by Ethernet or Wi-Fi. To set up your connection within Recalbox, hit Start to bring up the Main Menu, and scroll down to “Network Settings.” Here you can check your connection, and if need be, manually input your SSID and password. Once you’re connected, you’re ready to start scraping your games.
If you add more games intermittently, go for Manual. This will allow you to select which systems you’ve added new games to, which will significantly shorten the time it takes to scrape your games, as Recalbox doesn’t need to scan every single title. Regardless of which option you choose, be patient. Scraping your games can take a long time, depending on how large your game collection is.
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How to Set Up Call-Only Campaigns
You are now asked to choose a campaign type. Keep “Search Network only” and choose “Call-only”.
After hitting “Next” at the bottom of the page, you will then be able to write a text ad, insert your business name, and (of course) your phone number. Alternatively, you can set up a Google forwarding number and get call metrics such as how long each phone call was, whether someone picked up or not, what the caller area code was, and more.How to Make the Most Out of Call-Only Ads Advantages of Call-Only Campaigns vs. Regular Text Ads Call-Only Campaigns vs. Phone Number Extensions
Here is an ad with a phone number extension:
Here is a call-only ad:
Some businesses prefer phone number extensions because it gives the customer a choice whether to go to the website or call as the first action. If you want customers to call and the vast majority of clients are closed on the phone while they are on their own mobile, call-only campaigns are likely to be the better choice.Conclusion
Featured Image: Created by author for Search Engine Journal
First things first: you need to set up a family group. Only one person in the family should be set up as the family organizer, and this can be done via your iOS device (iPhone or iPad) as well as on a Mac. It’s important to note that whomever is setting themselves up as the family organizer does so with a credit card that can be used by everyone.iPhone or iPad
2. Tap on “Family Sharing” and then tap again to “Add Member” and follow the rest of the on-screen instructions to add and invite anyone in your family you wish to include.Mac
2. Locate the “+” button toward the bottom middle of the screen and follow the on-screen instructions.Inviting People to Join Your Family
Before you can add anyone to Family Sharing, it’s important to make sure that everyone (including children) have a valid Apple ID. Pending that, adding them to your Family Sharing plan is incredibly easy. You can start by adding one family member or adding everyone in your family all at once (up to six people).iPhone or iPad
2. Tap on “Add Member,” type in the person’s name or email address, then follow the on-screen instructions.Mac
1. Head back to the Apple menu (Apple logo) and select System Preferences again.Finding Shared Purchases iPhone and iPad
Apps: Open the App Store application and tap on your profile image at the top right. Choose “Purchased,” then tap on “Family Purchases.” From there you can see a list of available apps to download and use on your iOS device.
iTunes: On an iPhone, open the iTunes Store app on your iOS device and tap on “More” at the bottom. Next, tap on “Purchased,” then “Family Purchases.” You can now select Music, Movies or TV shows. On an iPad, open the iTunes Store app, tap on “Purchased,” then “My Purchases.” Choose a family member to download an app from.
Books: Start by opening the Apple Books app and tapping on your profile at the top right. Choose the family member you want to download from, then choose if you want to select a Book or Audiobook.Mac Wrapping Up
Sharing is definitely caring. Having the opportunity to share your purchases with family members is an excellent way to not only cut down on costs but also share incredible apps, music, books, etc. If, however, your family members are using Windows PC, you can still share files with them over the network.
David is a freelance tech writer with over 15 years of experience in the tech industry. He loves all things Nintendo.
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In a world where everything is connected and more accessories are gaining “smart” integrations, it’s really transformed the way we interact with our devices. Leading the way is Google Assistant, which is available everywhere, and can handle everything from asking it basic questions to controlling your smart home devices.How to Set Up Google Assistant on Pixel Watch
So when Google announced and subsequently released, the Pixel Watch, providing quick and easy access to Google Assistant was a no-brainer. However, unlike the Galaxy Watch 4 and Galaxy Watch 5, you don’t have to jump through a bunch of hoops to get rid of Bixby or anything. Instead, you’ll just need to go through a few basic steps in order to set up Google Assistant on Pixel Watch.
Press and hold the side button next to the crown on your Pixel Watch.
When prompted, tap the Get Started button.
Tap Open on phone to activate.
From your paired Android phone, open the Google Pixel Watch app.
Tap the Set up button.
When prompted, tap the Activate button.
Follow the on-screen steps to finish the setup process.
If prompted, set up your Hey Google or Ok Google “hotword”.
In some instances, when going through the process to set up Google Assistant on Pixel Watch, you’ll also be prompted to add “Voice Match”. If you are already using Google Assistant on other devices, this is likely already set up. But it essentially makes it so your device will recognize when you are making the request, helping to cut down on the potential for others to accidentally active Assistant when saying the “hotword”.How to Use Google Assistant on Pixel Watch
Now that you have finished setting everything up, it’s now just a matter of knowing how to use Google Assistant on Pixel Watch. Perhaps surprisingly, there are actually three different methods for doing so:
Press and hold the side button next to the crown on your Pixel Watch.
Tap the screen on your Pixel Watch or push any button, then say Hey Google or Ok Google.
If using a watch face with complications, add Assistant to the visible complications. Once completed, tap the Assistant complication.
With the second option, Google points out that you can’t use the hotword to activate Assistant if your Watch’s screen is not on. This was likely done in an effort to improve battery life and cut down on the potential battery drain when microphones are constantly listening for the prompt.How To Turn Off Always-listening Google Assistant
Speaking of cutting down on potential battery drain, you might find yourself only using the Pixel Watch’s side button or an Assistant complication. With these options, you can still use Google Assistant on Pixel Watch, removing the need to have your smartwatch “always listening” for the correct hotword. Here’s how you can turn off the always-listening Google Assistant on Pixel Watch:
From your Pixel Watch, swipe down on the watch face to reveal the Quick Settings panel.
Tap the Settings (cog icon) button.
Scroll down and tap Google.
Tap the toggle next to Hey Google to turn off the hotword functionality.
Moving forward, you’ll now “only” have the two aforementioned options. If you want to use Google Assistant, just press the side button or tap the Assistant complication.
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