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In Swift, there are several ways to save local data in an app, depending on the type and size of data you want to save. You can use User Defaults, Property List Serialization, Core Data, etc. In this article, you will learn about User Defaults with some examples.

User Defaults

In iOS, macOS, and watchOS, a fundamental storage mechanism called UserDefaults enables an app to store relatively small amounts of data, including user preferences or settings. You assign a value to a particular key in a key-value pair system that is used. The value may then be obtained by using the key as a reference.

Simple data types, such as text, booleans, integers, and dates, are frequently stored in User Defaults. It is simple to use and doesn’t need other frameworks or libraries.

These are some of UserDefaults’ main characteristics

Data Persistence − Even if the app is closed or the device reboots, UserDefaults data remains accessible.

Simple API − Its ease of use makes it simple to set and get values by key.

Security − UserDefaults data is kept safely in the app’s sandbox, which means that only the program that produced it may access it.

Here are some more examples of UserDefaults use in Swift −

Example 1: Saving and Retrieving Booleans import Foundation let defaults = UserDefaults.standard defaults.set(true, forKey: "isDarkModeEnabled") let isDarkModeEnabled = defaults.bool(forKey: "isDarkModeEnabled") print(isDarkModeEnabled) Output true

This example shows how to save a boolean value to UserDefaults using the set method and the key “isDarkModeEnabled”. It then retrieves the boolean value using the bool method and the same key. Finally, it prints out the retrieved boolean value.

Example 2: Saving and Retrieving an Array of Strings import Foundation let defaults = UserDefaults.standard defaults.set(["Apple", "Banana", "Orange"], forKey: "myArray") let myArray = defaults.array(forKey: "myArray") as? [String] ?? [] print(myArray) Output ["Apple", "Banana", "Orange"]

This example shows how to save an array of strings to UserDefaults using the set method and the key “myArray”. It then retrieves the array using the array method and the same key, and casts it as an array of strings. If the casting fails for some reason, it will default to an empty array. Finally, it prints out the retrieved array.

Example 3: Saving and Retrieving an Integer import Foundation let defaults = UserDefaults.standard defaults.set(42, forKey: "myInt") let myInt = defaults.integer(forKey: "myInt") print(myInt) Output 42

This example shows how to save an integer value to UserDefaults using the set method and the key “myInt”. It then retrieves the integer value using the integer method and the same key. Finally, it prints out the retrieved integer value.

Example 4: Saving and Retrieving a Dictionary import Foundation let defaults = UserDefaults.standard defaults.set(["name": "John", "age": 30], forKey: "myDictionary") let myDictionary = defaults.dictionary(forKey: "myDictionary") as? [String: Any] ?? [:] print(myDictionary) Output ["name": John, "age": 30]

This example shows how to save a dictionary to UserDefaults using the set method and the key “myDictionary”. It then retrieves the dictionary using the dictionary method and the same key, and casts it as a dictionary with String keys and Any values. If the casting fails for some reason, it will default to an empty dictionary. Finally, it prints out the retrieved dictionary.


In conclusion, UserDefaults is a fundamental storage mechanism in iOS, macOS, and watchOS. It enables an app to store little bits of information, such as user preferences or settings. It makes use of a key-value pair system, in which a value is assigned to a particular key, and the key is subsequently used to obtain the value.

UserDefaults is an excellent tool for storing basic data types since it is straightforward to use and doesn’t require other libraries or frameworks. It’s not intended to handle big data sets or more sophisticated data kinds, thus in certain circumstances, you might need to utilize Core Data, SQLite databases, or Property Lists as an alternative storage method.

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Does Chatgpt Save Your Data? Here’S How To Delete Your Conversations

Edgar Cervantes / Android Authority

Time is money and chatbots like ChatGPT and Bing Chat have become valuable tools. They can write code, summarize long emails, and even find patterns in large volumes of data. However, as with any free-to-use technology, you may be wondering about the privacy implications of it all. More specifically, does ChatGPT save your data and can you trust it?

So in this article, let’s break down ChatGPT’s data storage practices and how it handles your sensitive data. We’ll also detail how to permanently delete your data from ChatGPT and OpenAI’s servers.

Does ChatGPT save conversations and user data?

Robert Triggs / Android Authority

Yes, OpenAI saves your ChatGPT conversations and prompts for future analysis. According to a FAQ page published by the company, its employees can selectively review chats for safety. In other words, you can’t assume anything you say to ChatGPT is kept private or confidential.

All of your conversations with ChatGPT are stored on OpenAI’s servers.

Besides prompts and chat conversations, OpenAI also saves other data when you use ChatGPT. This includes account details like your name and email as well as approximate location, IP address, payment details, and device information. Most websites collect this data for analytics purposes so it’s not unique to ChatGPT. However, it does mean that OpenAI can hand over your ChatGPT conversations and other data to courts or law enforcement.

How does ChatGPT use my data?

According to OpenAI, its in-house AI trainers may use your ChatGPT conversations for training purposes. Like any machine learning-based technology, OpenAI’s GPT-3.5 and GPT-4 language models were trained on billions of existing text samples. However, these can also be improved further through a process known as fine-tuning, which involves re-training the model on a small dataset (like user chats).

We already know that OpenAI has performed some fine-tuning on the models since it admitted to hiring humans to simulate ideal chat conversations. Now that the chatbot is widely available, it’s only logical that the company will continue collecting user data to train future models like GPT-5. You can opt-out if you don’t want your data to be used for training but this is a manual process that involves filling out a form.

Does OpenAI or ChatGPT sell user data?

Edgar Cervantes / Android Authority

OpenAI lets anyone use ChatGPT for free, even though generating responses likely costs the company a lot of money. So naturally, you might assume that OpenAI has found a way to sell or monetize your data. Luckily, that’s not the case. According to an OpenAI support page, your ChatGPT conversations aren’t shared for marketing purposes.

As for how OpenAI stores ChatGPT data, the company says that its systems are located in the US. The company also requires anyone accessing your data to sign confidentiality contracts and uphold other security obligations.

Should you trust ChatGPT with your data?

Calvin Wankhede / Android Authority

In the few months since ChatGPT first became available to the public, it has already fallen victim to a couple of data leaks.

In one instance, a software bug resulted in some users seeing others’ chat titles when logged in. Luckily, the bug didn’t expose full chat histories or other sensitive data. That wasn’t the only leak either — another one revealed the last four digits of some users’ saved credit cards. These incidents indicate a tangible risk if ChatGPT does indeed save all user data.

Do you trust ChatGPT with your data?

580 votes

How to delete your ChatGPT data

Calvin Wankhede / Android Authority

It’s possible you didn’t know that ChatGPT saves your conversations and prompts until now. So is there a way to clear all of your interactions with the chatbot? Well, clearing your history when logged into your ChatGPT account only removes the data from your view. It doesn’t actually delete anything from OpenAI’s servers.

For now, the only way to permanently delete your ChatGPT data is to close your OpenAI account. Here’s how to do that:

Open the OpenAI Platform page and log into the ChatGPT account you’d like to delete.


No, you need to delete your OpenAI account to permanently delete your ChatGPT chat history. If you simply clear your chats instead, your data will continue to live on OpenAI’s servers.

If you can’t see your past chats once logged into your ChatGPT account, you may have cleared your account history or the service may be experiencing heavy demand at the moment.

No, you cannot export conversations from ChatGPT at the moment.

How To Save Files To Webp In Gimp

Did you know that GIMP has the built-in capability to save WebP files? If you didn’t know this, and you’re unsure why you’d ever save a file as a WebP in the first place, read on to explore this filetype and how to use it.

How to Export Files to WebP in GIMP

Exporting files to WebP in GIMP is very easy. If you don’t have it already, go ahead and download GIMP for free. Despite its non-existent price tag, GIMP is a powerful tool that’s a good pick if you don’t feel like paying for Photoshop.

GIMP is a little odd, as if you try to save an image, GIMP will only let you save as an XCF file. If you want it saved as any other file type (like WebP, JPG, or PNG), you need to export it.

When the export window is open, select “.WebP” in the drop-down menu. You can also manually delete the image’s current filetype and replace it with “.webp,” and GIMP will understand what you want to do.

Before GIMP exports your image into a WebP format, you’ll see a window pop up asking how much quality you want to carry over to the new image. If you don’t want any quality to be lost, tick the “lossless” box; If this is not a concern for you, adjust the sliders to fit your needs.

According to CanIUse, Google Chrome, Firefox, Edge and Opera support the webp image format, which makes up a majority of the share of web browsers. This also means that it is a good time to consider switching your web images to the webp format. Another trick is to resize and optimize your images so they can load faster on your site.

Simon Batt

Simon Batt is a Computer Science graduate with a passion for cybersecurity.

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How Do You Save Indesign Files In A Lower Version?

It is to learn how do you save InDesign files in a lower version. Note that you cannot technically save an InDesign document to an older version, however, some steps can be taken to make newer versions open in older versions.

InDesign is Adobe’s answer to desktop publishing. InDesign is a versatile desktop publishing software that can be used for a lot of other things including interactive presentations. With InDesign being so widely used, there will be cases when there is the need to share with others. Many people still have older versions of InDesign, and you may still need to share them with them.

How do you save InDesign files in a lower version?

We show you three ways that you can save InDesign files so that they can be opened in lower versions.

Save as or Save a copy as IDML

Package the file

Move the content to an earlier version

1] Save as or Save a copy as IDML

InDesign does not have a straightforward way to save files in lower versions but there are ways to get around this. The first way to try is by using the Save as or Save a copy function. You would open the file or create the file.

You would then go to File then Save as or Save a copy.

At the bottom of the Save as or Save a copy window you will see a warning stating that Saving for “InDesign CS4 or later (IDML)” creates an .IDML file that you can open in InDesign CS4 or later. The active InDesign document will not be saved. This means that you need to save the current file the regular way to preserve it. if you do not do that you would lose it. Note that the older version of InDesign may not support some of the features in the newer version so you need to save the newer version to keep it safe.

2] Package the file

The option of packaging the file is another way to make the file accessible to lower versions of InDesign. While you can package InDesign files in multiple versions of InDesign, only CC versions of InDesign support the option to include the IDML option. So this packaging option will work when you package from InDesign CC to be used on lower versions.

The package publication window will appear, ensure that these options are checked: Copy font (except CJK and Typekit), Copy linked graphics, Update graphics link in package, Include IDML and Include PDF (Print). The Include IDML option will ensure that the InDesign file will open in lower versions of InDesign, specifically CS4 and higher.

If you are sending the package to a person with older versions of InDesign (CS4 or higher), you should tell them to open the IDML file.

3] Move the content to an earlier version

You can save your newer versions of InDesign to lower versions by moving the content from the newer version to an older version. This method can be useful if you do not have the option to save or export as IDML. This may be helpful in cases where the version of InDesign does not support saving the file as IDML. To do this you can do any of the following.

Export the document in InDesign as an INX file.

Export the document to an Adobe PDF file, and then place each page of the PDF file on a different page of a new document.

Export the text from the original document, place images and text in the new document, and then format as appropriate.

Export the document to XML, and then import the XML and structure into an InDesign 2.x document.

To export the InDesign file INX do the following.

In InDesign go to File then Export

If you need to open this saved file, open InDesign then go to File then Open. Find the INX file that you saved and open it.

Read: How to create custom shapes in InDesign

Is InDesign save backward compatible?

All versions of InDesign can open files of the same version or lower versions. However, they cant open later versions. This can be a problem when working with other persons who have different versions.

Read: How do I convert an Illustrator file to an older version?

Can I run two versions of InDesign on the same device?

Read: How to save Photoshop files in lower version?

Learn How To Declare And Initialize An Array In Swift?

Introduction to Swift array

Swift Array is the data structure that acts as the container for storing some values of the same type in an ordered list. Swift programming language does not allow much flexibility in terms of accessing the elements and manipulation rather follows quite a strict restriction in terms of Arrays declaration and manipulation. Various operations like adding, removing, or changing values are allowed in the Swift array, but invalid values may create some intrusion which needs to be handled carefully. Assigning a constant value in Swift array might create an immutable array, and contents cannot get changed.

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Various operations can be performed over a swift array, some of them with the syntax is described below:

The syntax for Creating an Empty array containing no value with the initializer is represented as,

var sm_arr  = [sm_data] ( )

sm_data represents the empty array initialization.

The syntax for Accessing the elements from the swift array is represented as follows:

var sm_vr = Sm_Array[index]

where Sm_Array is used for representing the array, and index is used for accessing the elements.

How to declare an array in Swift?

Declaring an array in Swift is quite easy, and it then allows all the elements and values to get accessed and manipulated easily. There are two ways to declare an array which are as follows:

One way is to initialize the variable with an empty array.

Another way is to use the automatic type inference.

# To initialize the variable with an empty array:

The syntax is like the representation in the syntax section and is used accordingly.

# To use the automatic type inference.

How to initialize an array in Swift?

Initialization of array in Swift is useful for performing operations and manipulations on the elements or items present in the Swift array concerning creating, accessing, and modifying. Also, it performs all the operations on top of it. Fetching of the index and returning the index required, while traversal in the index within the range, also plays an important role.

It is initialized in the following manner:

var arr_Title = [String]()

where arr_Title is the array variable, and [String] () is the array declaration where initialization with the string will be performed.

Note: Since a dynamic array is being used as part of initialization, it must append some value.

For Example:

var arr_Title = [String]() arr_Title.append("strng_text") print(arr_Title[1]);

A very important point to keep in mind is that Array initialization in the swift language is always performed after the array declaration. Since the declaration is the first step, otherwise initialization will be incomplete.


Here are the following examples mention below

Example #1

This program demonstrates the initialization of an empty array and printing an empty array as it is not assigned any value as shown in the output.

import Foundation import Glibc let emp_Int_Arr:[Int] = [] print(emp_Int_Arr)


Example #2

This program demonstrates the usage of string array by appending and adding some of the vegetables in the array and then performed a count on top of it as shown in the output.

import Foundation import Glibc var veggies = [String]() veggies.append("Onion") veggies.append("Potato") veggies.append("Radish") print(veggies.count) print(veggies)


Example #3

This program demonstrates the string array of fruits which demonstrates the accessibility of fruits concerning the first and the last element index as shown in the output where the first index element is kiwi, and the last one is orange.

import Foundation import Glibc let fruits: [String] = ["kiwi", "apple", "orange"] print(fruits[0]) print(fruits[fruits.count - 1])


Example #4

This program demonstrates the string array in swift, which is used for displaying the usage of enumerated function as shown in the output below.

import Foundation import Glibc var cars = ["bmw", "lamborgini", "jaguar"] for (indx, val) in cars.enumerated() { print("(indx) = (val)") }


Example #5

This program demonstrates the usage of array initializer, which is used for counting the number of elements in an array with respective sizes as shown in the output below.

import Foundation import Glibc var size_1: [Int] = [8, 6, 12,18,22] size_1.append(26) print("size_1: (size_1)")


Example #6

This program demonstrates the usage of the Int array by using a for-in loop to get the unique number that is being appended in the swift array, as shown in the output below.

import Foundation import Glibc var uniq_no = [Int]() uniq_no.append(15) uniq_no.append(13) uniq_no.append(20) for uniq_no in uniq_no { print(uniq_no) }


Example #7

This program demonstrates the usage of subscript syntax to check for the accessing of elements in Swift to make the index lie with the runtime check.

import Foundation import Glibc let int_arr_0 = [20, 18, 16, 23] print(int_arr_0 [-1])


Example #8

This program demonstrates the swift array to be present in the reverse order and makes the elements represented similarly as shown in the output below as per the indexing.

Note: Basically, the array returns elements of an array in reverse order.

import Foundation import Glibc var int_ar_2 = [20,15,2,18] let revrs_arr = Array(int_ar_2.reversed()) print(revrs_arr)



Swift Array plays a pivotal role in a swift programming language as it allows programmers to work according to the requirement to keep the elements in place and ordered. Many operations like creation, addition, deletion, removal, and many operations can be performed on top of it for manipulating the data structure array properly.

Recommended Articles

We hope that this EDUCBA information on “Swift array” was beneficial to you. You can view EDUCBA’s recommended articles for more information.

How To Save Wordle Stats

Wordle is the 5 letter word puzzle that took the world by storm in early 2023. Since then the game has developed a cult following with daily Wordlers competing with each other every day.

If you too are a fan of the game, then you will know that streaks and stats are of the utmost importance to prove your worth. Sadly, they can be easily lost or reset if you mess with your browser settings or use a different one altogether as they are stored locally on your device.

This is why many users are looking for a way to backup and save their stats. If you’re in the same boat, then here’s how you can save Wordle stats on your device. 

How to save your Wordle stats

Here are all the various ways in which you can save and restore your Wordle stats. Most of these methods are intended for desktop devices but some also work on mobile devices. Choose one of the methods below depending on your device to help you along with the process.

Method 1: Using a screenshot

This method is the simplest and will work on both desktop and mobile devices. 

You can start by taking screenshots of your latest scores and make a habit of the same. These can then be your visual backup for your latest stats and streak.

To take a screenshot, use the following shortcuts and keystrokes depending on your device. 

Windows PC: Windows + PrtSc

macOS device: Shift + CMD + 3

iOS and iPadOS devices: Lock + Volume Up

Android devices: Power + Volume Down

We don’t recommend texting yourselves the copied scores as they do not contain your streak or average guesses data. A screenshot will help capture and preserve the same.

When you need to restore your saved data in the future, you can use either of the methods below to restore the same using the data from your screenshots.

Method 2: Backup your save data manually

Wordle saves your scores locally within all browsers. While this is inaccessible on most mobile browsers, you can indeed access and edit the same on desktop devices.

We can use this ability to backup our Wordle scores regularly and then restore them whenever needed. Use the steps below to help you along with the process. 

Note: This guide is written with Chromium-based browsers in mind. If you’re using another browser, you might have to dig around the bit to find all the relevant options. 

Step 1: Backup your data

Open your desktop browser and visit Wordle. Now press F12 on your keyboard to open the Developer Tools. If this is your first time using them, you will be asked for a confirmation. Confirm the same to access the Dev Tools. 

Select Undock in a different window beside the Dock Side.

Press Ctrl + C on your keyboard to copy your stats to your clipboard.

Press Ctrl + Shift + S to save your stats. Choose a safe location and enter the desired name for your Stats backup.

And that’s it! You will now have manually backed up your Wordle stats. We recommend backing up your stats now and then to ensure that you have an updated and latest backup. 

Step 2: Restore your data

To restore your data, open the text file containing your stats back up and copy the same to your clipboard.

Now open your browser and visit Wordle. Press F12 to open the Developer Tools.

Select the NYT website under the same.

The value will be automatically selected. Press Del to delete the same.

Now use Ctrl + V to paste our copied value. Press Enter once pasted.

Close the dev tools and refresh the Wordle webpage and your score should now be reflected on the website.

And that’s how you can restore your Wordle data.

Method 3: Using built-in streak transfer for new users

When New York Times acquired Wordle, the company was well aware of the issues that users will have transferring their data and streak to the new website. The company thus built an in-built tool that allows you to transfer your statistics to the new website automatically.

This option can also help you backup and restore your data on the new website if you’re a returning user who would like to retain their streak. Use the steps below to help you along with the process.

Open your browser history and visit the last URL of the older website you used to play Wordle on your device.

While you’re being redirected, NYT Wordle will automatically detect the same and transfer your local data to its website.

And that’s it! You will now have persevered your streak and stats when transferring to the new website.

Method 4: Using a third-party website

There are a couple of third-party websites that can help you save your Wordle scores so that you can access them later. We recommend using Savemywordle for its ease and accessibility, but you can also opt for an alternative that better fits your needs.

Savemywordle is a website that allows you to paste and track your daily scores in Wordle. You can then access this data whenever you need it.

Savemywordle also offers a pro plan that allows you to compare your score against other users, view detailed graphs on your statistics, and more. Here’s how you can use Savemywordle on your device.

Note: Savemywordle requires you to create a free account so you can have complete control over your saved data. If this is something you wish to avoid, then we recommend you use one of the other methods mentioned in this post.


Email address


You will now be logged in with your new account. Open a new tab and visit Wordle.

The results will now be copied to your clipboard.

Paste your Wordle score in the empty text box.

The score will now be saved to your account. The same will be verified by a Saved message beside Save Score.

And that’s it! You will now have saved your Wordle stats. You can now continue doing so with each daily score.

Method 5: Using a Javascript

A friendly user has also created a Javascript that simplifies the process of backing up your local Wordle data and then restoring it to your device. This can also be done on different devices which also enables you to transfer your Wordle data from one device to another. Follow the steps below to help you along with the process. 

Note: While the script has been designed for Chromium-based browsers, in our testing it only worked within Chrome. We recommend you use Chrome to get the best results.

Step 1: Backup your data

Let’s start by backing up your data.

Open this link in your browser and copy all the RAW data displayed on your screen.

Paste the copied RAW data in the URL text field. 

A new tab will open up with additional data. Copy the same to your clipboard. This is your generated save data that can be used to restore your stats. 

Save the copied data in a basic text editor for good measure. We’re using the Notepad for this example.

Press Ctrl + Shift + S and choose an appropriate save location and name for your stats. 

And that’s it! You’ve now saved your Wordle stats. Use the guide below to restore them whenever needed.  

Step 2: Restore your data

Here’s how you can restore your saved stats using the javascript we used earlier. 

Open Chrome and open this link in a new tab. Copy the RAW data displayed on your screen.

Now paste the copied RAW data in the text field beside URL.

Now open the text file we created with your save data. Copy the same to your clipboard. 

Paste the same in the new tab on your screen in the Paste your save here text box. 

Your Wordle data will now be restored and the same should be instantly reflected within Wordle.

And that’s how you can restore your Wordle stats using the Javascript.

Can I use my saved stats to restore my streak on a different device?

Yes, you can easily restore your streak on a different device using your saved data.

However, your options will be limited to the manual method or the Javascript method for chances of maximum success.

Additionally, we recommend using Javascript on mobile devices as the Developer Tools are inaccessible on the same.


Here are a few commonly asked questions about saving your Wordle stats that should help you get up to speed with the latest information.

Why was my Wordle streak reset?

There are many reasons why your Wordle streak reset. Here are some of the most common ones for your reference. 

Using third-party cache and data cleaners

Clearing browser local data

Using incognito mode

Using a different browser

Using a different device

OS updates that do not retain browser data

And more! If any of these events occurred on your device then it is the reason why your Wordle streak reset itself.

Why doesn’t Wordle have an option to save stats?

Wordle is a daily word challenge and to keep things fair, there is no option to save or view your stats. This helps prevent users from tampering with their data and streak scores for more fair gameplay. 

Can I use the methods above to modify my save data?

Technically yes, but ethically it is not recommended. Using fake scores will only get you so far with the puzzles with no real practice or skills on your side. However, if you really want, you can easily edit your saved stats to fake your Wordle streak and score.


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