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What is a Balance Sheet?

The Balance Sheet attempts to show how much the business is worth. It does this by illustrating the value of the business’s net assets.

In order to do this, our balance sheet displays the difference between a business’s assets and liabilities. This difference is known as the business’s net assets and is considered to be the “value” of the business. Obviously, every successful business owner wants to amass the highest amount of net assets as possible!

How to Prepare a Balance Sheet from Trial Balance

Steps to Create a Balance Sheet

Here are steps to make a balance sheet from trial balance

Step 1) Source Documents

Step 2) Journals

Step 3) Ledgers

Step 4) Balance Day Adjustments

Step 5) Trial Balance

Step 6) Profit and Loss statement

Step 7) Balance Sheet

Trial Balance Example

To create our balance sheet, we’re going to need the remaining sections of our Trial Balance – Assets, Liabilities, Owners Equity, and Drawings. Take a quick look at those.

TRIAL BALANCE FOR (NAME)’S BAKERY AS AT (TODAY’S DATE)

DEBIT SIDE CREDIT SIDE

Assets Liabilities

Bank $21,650 Loan $9,000

Computer $1,500 John’s Car Shop $3,000

Car $3,000 Accumulated depreciation $400

iPhone $500 Taxation Payable $675

Oven $500

Expenses Revenue

Cake mix $3,000 Sales $7,000

Interest expense $1,000

Telephone expense $300

Repairs expense $50

Depreciation $400

Tax Expense $675

Drawings Owners’ Equity

Drawings $1,000 Owner’s Equity $15,000

Balance $34,400 Balance $34,400

Let’s take a look at these numbers:

Assets

Bank $24,150

Computer $1,500

Car $3,000

Liabilities

Loan $9,000

Johns Car Shop $3,000

Taxation Payable $675

Accumulated Depreciation $400

Owners’ Equity

Owners Equity $15,000

Drawings $1,000

We’ll also need to know our net profit for the year, which we know from our Profit and Loss statement, which is $1,575. Alright, that’s all the information we need. Let’s get started. The basic format of a Balance Sheet is:

Assets – Liabilities = Owners Equity (Net Assets)

Using the figures from our Trial Balance, simply fill in the blanks on the Balance Sheet below. Note that there are two formats, a “T” format and a list format. Both formats are commonly used, and are simply different methods of displaying the same information.

BALANCE SHEET FOR (NAME)’S BAKERY AS AT (TODAYS DATE)

Assets

Liabilities

Bank $21,650

Loan $9,000

Computer $1,500

John’s Car Shop $3,000

Oven $2,000

Taxation Payable $675

iPhone $500

Car less accumulated depreciation $2,600

Total Assets

$28,250 Total Liabilities

$12,675

Owner’s Equity

Owner’s Equity at start of year $15,000

Minus: Drawings $1,000

Plus: Net Profit After Tax $1,575

Owner’s Equity at year end

$15,575

Total

$28,250 Total

$28,250

BALANCE SHEET FOR (NAME)’S BAKERY AS AT (TODAYS DATE)

Owner’s Equity

Owner’s Equity at start of year $15,000

Minus: Drawings $1,000

Plus: Net Profit After Tax $1,575

Owner’s Equity at year end

$15,575

Represented by:

Assets

Bank $21,650

Computer $1,500

Oven $2,000

iPhone $500

Car less accumulated depreciation $2,600

Total Assets

$28,250

Less: Liabilities

Loan $9,000

John’s Car Shop $3,000

Taxation Payable $675

Total Liabilities

$12,675

NET ASSETS (Total Assets minus Total Liabilities)

$15,575

GREAT! We’ve just completed our Balance Sheet.

How to Read a Balance Sheet

Let me point out a few interesting things about it.

1. Notice how the Owner’s Equity at the top of the statement balances with the Net Assets at the bottom of the statement. They’re both $15,575. This is where the term Balance Sheet comes from. If your Balance Sheet doesn’t balance, you’ve got a problem!

2. Notice how your Owner’s Equity changed. It’s now $15,575, even though you’ve only put $15,000 into the business, which was the original amount. This is because you made a profit. As the owner, this profit is yours! Each year, any profit you make will carry over to the Owner’s Equity section of the Balance Sheet. If you’ve been in business for ten years, then ten years of profit will have been accumulated in your Owner’s Equity. Think of Owner’s Equity as the amount the business owes to you, so whenever you make a profit, it’s yours! Oh, the joys of being a business owner!

3. Your Owner’s Equity only increased by $575, even though you made $1,575 in profit. Why is that? It’s because you took $1,000 of drawings during the year. That means although the $2,250 profit is yours, you already took $1,000 of it. Owners need to be careful not to withdraw so much in drawings that their Owner’s Equity falls below zero.

That’s it friends! We’ve started our business, recorded all our transactions, prepared a list of journal entries, entered them into our ledgers, taken our ledger balances into a trial balance, and finally produced a Profit and Loss Statement and a Balance Sheet!

This is the accounting process in action, and we now have two key reports that provide valuable information and will allow us to make good financial decisions.

We’ll talk a bit about that in a later tutorial.

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2024 Bmw 540I Xdrive Review: Benchmark In Balance

2024 BMW 540i xDrive Review: Benchmark in Balance

It feels strange saying it about a $72,000 luxury car, but it’s oddly easy to overlook this 2023 BMW 540i xDrive. On the one hand, it’s not an M5, or even an almost-M5 like the M550i; at the same time, neither is it a clever plug-in hybrid like the 545e. Instead it’s about as close to a “standard” BMW 5 Series as you can get these days.

Even then, this is “standard” by degrees. A sprinkling of M-badged parts from BMW’s tuning division suggest whoever spec’d out this particular car couldn’t quite resist the lure of some customization, though the Alpine White result is still on the sober side.

It’s a handsome sedan, and fairly restrained by BMW standards. No vast grille, or exaggerated creases; it’s about as understated as the automaker’s line-up gets. Park it next to some of the luxury upstarts aiming to take a bite out of BMW’s market share and you’d be forgiven for having your head turned by the Genesis G80 or Cadillac CT5.

The 540i is, in contrast, quietly confident in its own prestige, and you can’t really begrudge it that. BMW’s recipe here is straightforward, though like the best cooking it relies on premium ingredients for a pleasing end-result. A 3.0-liter turbocharged inline-6 gas engine taps a little 48v mild-hybrid action for some sparkle, with 335 hp and 332 lb-ft of torque proving to be ample if not eyebrow-razing.

An eight-speed transmission is standard too, and BMW says you’ll see 0-60 mph in 4.6 seconds. That’s properly quick, and really it’s only the even-quicker existence of the M550i and raucous M5 that make the 540i seem a little more mainstream.

The same goes for driving dynamics. In Comfort or Adaptive mode, the 540i wafts and glides like German royalty. The standard AWD car starts at $61,750 (plus destination) but $3,200 gets you adaptive dampers and active roll bars, and the result is a supple ride that luxe newbies could still learn from. There’s no wallow or marshmallow squishiness to it, just a compliance that reminds you how adept the 5 Series always has been as a long-distance cruiser.

Where Sport mode on an M5 then threatens to immolate your underwear, though, on the 540i it’s a little more tempered. What sensibly dialed-in roll remained in the corners is squashed; the suspension stiffens, though still not to teeth-shaking levels. Focused but not frenetic, even if you notch the shifter over to S mode and have the gearbox hold its ratios a little longer.

It all suits the 5 Series nicely, even if we all know that the sedan can handle plenty more if your wallet is so accommodating. The mild hybrid system lends its 11 horses to fill in any lingering gaps during gearshifts or while the turbo is spooling up, and then allows the 540i to shut off the gas engine preemptively as you slow. Usually I’m no fan of start/stop systems, but then usually they’re jerky, agricultural things; BMW’s, in contrast, is beautifully surreptitious.

The same could be said for the cabin. Saved, by price and positioning, from the typical lashings of carbon fiber and spangles, the 540i plays it safe with more mainstream luxury. The leather seats are fulsome thrones, you get a 12.3-inch digital cluster and a matching 12.3-inch center touchscreen, and BMW doesn’t stint on buttons for whose who prefer to reach out and toggle their settings that way.

The infotainment system is crisp, swift, and generally pleasing; it’s only when you need to dip into the deeper menus for things like mobile device setup that it starts to get a little confusing. Apple CarPlay and Android Auto are standard, along with a 4G LTE modem with WiFi hotspot. The $1,850 Premium Package adds a head-up display and wireless phone charging.

Somewhere the 540i doesn’t deviate from every other BMW is in the array of options – and the way they help inflate your sticker price. With nicer Nappa leather, the M Sport design package, and all the various other extras, my review car was sliding past $72k.

For safety, forward collision warnings, blind spot alerts, automatic emergency braking, and auto high-beams are standard. Throw in the $1,700 Driving Assistance Plus package, meanwhile, and you get adaptive cruise control with lane-keeping assistance along with Extended Traffic Jam Assist. That lets the 540i handle low-speed congestion without your hands on the wheel, using a driver-attention monitor built into the gauges to make sure you’re still watching the road. It’s neat, but since it only works when you’re crawling along in traffic it’s not as useful as, say, GM’s Super Cruise.

As for those in the back, there’s decent space there for adults, while the 14 cu-ft trunk is also practical. The EPA says you’ll see 23 mpg in the city, 31 mpg on the highway, and 26 mpg combined, and they’re easily achieved.

Realme C35 Review: Balance And Bling On A Budget

Pros

Crisp, colourful display

Bold design

Competent camera

Cons

Basic performance

Screen only 60Hz

Battery life below rivals

Our Verdict

Realme has made some thoughtful, meaningful decisions with its latest budget phone, most notably design and an LCD display that lacks in refresh rate but punches well above its weight in picture quality.

Best Prices Today: Realme C35

Retailer

Price

$189.99

View Deal

While the likes of OnePlus and Xiaomi have been grabbing a lot of attention in 2023, rival Chinese brand Realme has quietly been having a bit of a stormer.

The Realme 9 Pro+ is one of the best mid-range phones on the market, while the Realme GT 2 Pro has made quite a splash further up the market. Now the Realme C35 is here to try and disrupt the budget phone sector in a similar fashion along with the even cheaper Realme C31.

While it’s entering a perilously low-margin sector, I reckon it’s in with a strong shout of standing out from the crowd. If you only have £150 to spend on a phone, you’ll struggle to do better.

Design & Build

Attractive design

8.1mm

189g

Like a lot of 2023 budget phones, the Realme C35 design broadly emulates the latest iPhones. The influence is right there in the phone’s flat rim, sharp corners, shiny glass-effect (though decidedly plastic) rear, and clear stepped camera module.

The model I’ve been using comes in a particularly dazzling tone of Glowing Green, which I half expected to glow in the dark. It doesn’t, but it certainly makes itself known in regular lighting. For those looking for something a little more sober and professional-looking, there’s a confusingly named Glowing Black option.

It’s quite a large device in the hand, with a size of 164 x 75 x 8.1mm and a weight of 189g. Combined with those sharp corners, it’s not the most comfortable phone to hold over a protracted period.

Realme has separated the power and volume buttons to the right and left side of the phone respectively. This allows it to place the power button in the perfect position for its secondary function as a fingerprint sensor. While this sensor took a beat to unlock, I didn’t have any issues with reliability.

You also get a 3.5mm headphone jack on the bottom edge of the phone, which isn’t unusual at all in a budget phone. There’s just a single speaker mounted alongside this port. You’ll need to up your spending and acquire a Poco M4 Pro or a Redmi Note 11 if you want stereo sound.

Not that, at this price, you don’t get any kind of official IP waterproof rating but the phone should survive small splashes in the rain.

Screen

6.6in LCD IPS

Full HD+

60Hz

The Realme C35’s display is a pleasant surprise. On paper, it doesn’t seem like much at all. It’s quite big at 6.6in, but it’s only an IPS LCD rather than a colour-rich OLED.

Crucially, however, it appears to be a good quality IPS LCD. All LCDs are not created equal, and the difference between this and the Moto G22 and Nokia G21 screens is night and day.

It has a 1080 x 2408 (Full HD+) resolution for starters, which benefits all forms of content. The gap from 720p to 1080p is way more meaningful than the gap from 1080p to 2K, in my experience.

Colour accuracy is on point too. With the screen mode set to Gentle mode rather than the richer, less natural Vivid, I recorded a very strong sRGB gamut coverage of 97.4% and a gamut volume of 101.2%. An average Delta E of 1.48 is impressive too.

I recorded a strong maximum brightness of 491 nits with auto-brightness turned off. Realme claims that it can get to 600 nits in high brightness mode (HBM).

The main negative point here is that the Realme C35 screen has a bog standard refresh rate of 60Hz rather than the 90Hz of the Moto and Nokia rivals. But with the limited performance of all these budget phones, you don’t really get the full benefit of that more fluid refresh rate.

Specs & Performance

Unisoc Tiger T616 processor

4/6GB RAM

64/128GB storage

The Realme C35 runs on a Unisoc Tiger T616 processor. This is far from the most impressive chip, made using a dated 12 nm production process. It’s backed by either 4- or 6GB of RAM, although in the UK you can only get the lower amount.

For storage, the cheaper model gets you 64GB but you can double that by paying £20 extra which may well be a good investment, although there’s a microSD card slot which you can use to add up to 1TB cards.

In performance terms, however, it’s far better than the Moto G22 with its MediaTek Helio G37, and also has the edge on the Nokia G21 with its Unisoc Tiger T606.

In the CPU-focused Geekbench 5 benchmark test, the Realme C35 scores roughly twice as well as the Moto G22 in single core and around 30% better in multi-core. Those scores are much closer when it came to GPU performance.

Below you can see all the results compared to rivals as well as the cheaper Realme C31, which has the same processor but outputs better GFX results due to its lower 720p screen resolution.

Let’s be straight here though: none of the phones I’m comparing here are strong performers in any sense of the word. If you’re a keen gamer, or you wish to enjoy a completely stutter-free navigation experience, you really need to be spending at least £30 to £50 more for something a little meatier.

That extra might also get you 5G connectivity, which is not something you get here.

Cameras

50Mp main camera

2Mp macro

0.3Mp depth sensor

8Mp selfie camera

If there’s one area where you can guarantee a high level of compromise with cheaper phones it’s photography. However, Realme has equipped the C35 with something respectable.

You don’t get an ultra-wide or (predictably) a telephoto camera here. What you do get is a better-than-expected 50Mp wide camera with an impressive f/1.8 aperture, as well as a 2Mp macro and a 0.3Mp sensor, the latter two of which can be ignored.

That wide sensor appears to be the same one that you’ll find in phones such as the Poco M4 Pro. Hardly a photographic titan, but still a phone that costs considerably more money than the Realme C35.

Shots here look detailed and natural, at least in good lighting. It does tend to struggle with those tricky HDR situations, with the odd overexposed background, while Night mode produces shots that are full of noise. It’s more than adequate as cheap phones go, however.

One thing I will note is that I shot the odd duff shot with the Realme C35 where it completely failed to focus on anything. The very next shot tended to be fine, but you may just miss out on documenting the odd rare or fleeting moment if you’re not attentive.

The 8Mp selfie camera isn’t much cop, blowing out highlights and generally failing to capture natural skin tones. It’ll do a job, but you might not want to rely on it to capture those special family moments.

Battery Life & Charging

5000mAh

18W charging

Adapter included

The Realme C35’s battery performance is solid, but it doesn’t quite stand up to its rivals. You get a 5000mAh cell, which is a decent size, and it’ll get you through a full day of moderate usage with relative ease.

But in a couple of intensive battery tests, it came up short of its rivals. In our standard PCMark Work 3.0 battery test, the Realme C35 score 10 hours and 40 minutes, which is almost two hours short of the Nokia G21. In another test, running a constant looping video, the Realme C35 ran out of juice hours before both the Moto G22 and the Nokia G21.

You get a decent 18W charger bundled in, which gets the phone from 0 to 33% in 30 minutes. A full charge will take you just over 2 hours.

Software

Android 11

Realme UI R Edition

Realme’s UI R Edition is a fairly bog-standard custom Android UI sat on top of Android 11. Its notifications and custom apps aren’t too obtrusive, but it’s not as lightweight or clean as the near-stock UIs of the Moto G22 and Nokia G21.

I have few complaints about the UI in day to day running. There are preinstalled apps covering such things as Compass, Sound Recorder, Weather, and Calculator, but such provisions make sense, and they’re stashed away in a discrete Tools folder anyway.

It’s a relatively light customisation effort in all, with Google Feed positioned to the left of the main Home screen, and relatively tasteful menus. The drag-up app tray hasn’t been needlessly tinkered with, either.

Although more expensive Realme phones like the GT 2 Pro now get three years of OS updates and four years of security updates, that doesn’t apply to budget phones like the C35. You’re unlikely to get further than Android 13 here.

Price & Availability

Prices start from £149 for a model with 64GB of storage. You can double that storage for a small bump up to £169. You can buy it from the Realme store as well as retailers such as Amazon, Ebuyer and Laptops Direct.

It’s not officially available in the US but you can find a GSM model on Amazon for around the $200 mark.

This means that even the likes of the Redmi Note 11 and the Poco M4 Pro lie in a sub-category above it, with both retailing closer to the £200 mark. Spending the extra money will open up features like AMOLED displays and improved performance.

That doesn’t sound like much of a step up, but at this end of the market it represents a not-inconsiderable 20-30% premium.

Rather, the Realme C35’s direct rivals are the Motorola Moto G22 and the Nokia G21, neither of which are particularly impressive, especially when it comes to the all-important matter of display quality.

In short, there’s an opening for Realme in what is a surprisingly uncompetitive field. Check out more options in our best budget phone chart.

Verdict

The Realme C35 might be an extremely cheap phone, but it still attempts to make a statement with its bold and angular design. Realme has largely hit the mark on the photographic front too, courtesy a competent 50Mp main camera.

On paper, a 6.6in IPS LCD doesn’t sound too impressive, but it turns out to be a sharp and accurate component. It was a smart decision going with a 60Hz refresh rate too, given that there’s a relatively humble Unisoc Tiger T616 processor driving things along.

A large 5000mAh battery and speedy (for the price) 18W charging complete what proves to be a well-balanced budget package, though as ever at this end of the market, a little more money will go a long way.

If you can’t stretch that little bit further, this is one of the best phones you can buy for under £150.

Specs Realme C35: Specs

Android 11

6.6in, FHD+, IPS LCD, 60Hz, flat display

Side-mounted fingerprint sensor

Unisoc Tiger T616

4/6GB LPDDR4 RAM

64/128GB storage

50Mp, f/1.8 main camera

2Mp, f/2.4 macro camera

0.3Mp, f/2.8 depth sensor

Up to 1080p @ 30fps rear video

8Mp front-facing camera

Dual-SIM

Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac

Bluetooth 5.0

5000mAh battery

18W charging

164.4 x 75.6 x 8.1mm

189g

Launch colours: Glowing Black, Glowing Green

How Does Mysql Datetime Works With Example

Introduction to MySQL Datetime

The following article provides an outline for MySQL Datetime. Suppose we want to store a value of date that contains both date and time in it. Then we use the Datetime format. Datetime stores the data in year, month, date, hour, minutes, and seconds. The Datetime uses 5 bytes for storage. We can also store the fraction, but holding the fraction would increase the storage. Considering precision and wanting to keep the precision fraction(0) takes 0 storage bytes. Suppose fraction (1, 2) takes 1 byte. Fraction (3,4) takes 2 bytes, and a fraction (5, 6) takes 3 bytes of storage. A total of 3 bytes would need extra for the storage of fractions.

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Syntax:

How does MySQL Datetime work?

Now let us create a table with a column data type as datetime and get the result.

Code:

CREATE TABLE TEST_DATETIME1 ( ORDER_ID VARCHAR(10), ORDER_DATE DATETIME );

Let us insert the data into the table:

INSERT INTO TEST_DATETIME1 VALUES ('O1','2024-01-01 12:00:00'); INSERT INTO TEST_DATETIME1 VALUES ('O2','2024-02-02 12:00:00'); INSERT INTO TEST_DATETIME1 VALUES ('O3','2024-03-03 12:00:00'); INSERT INTO TEST_DATETIME1 VALUES ('O4','2024-04-04 12:00:00'); INSERT INTO TEST_DATETIME1 VALUES ('O5','2024-05-05 12:00:00'); INSERT INTO TEST_DATETIME1 VALUES ('O6','2024-06-06 12:00:00'); INSERT INTO TEST_DATETIME1 VALUES ('O7','2024-07-07 12:00:00'); INSERT INTO TEST_DATETIME1 VALUES ('O8','2024-08-08 12:00:00'); INSERT INTO TEST_DATETIME1 VALUES ('O9','2024-09-09 12:00:00'); INSERT INTO TEST_DATETIME1 VALUES ('O10','2024-10-10 12:00:00'); select * from test_datetime1;

Output:

Here we check the data for the “order_date.” We could see that the storage taken for the column is 7 bytes as it saves the precision fraction of (3, 4).

If we see the value of “ Date_time “ value:

2024-01-01 12:00.00.000

Given below is the format of the above data:

yyyy-mm-ddhh:mm:ss:ff

YYYY: Is the year – 2023

MM: Is month – 01

DD: Is Date -01

HH: Hour – 12

MM: Month – 00

SS: Second – 00

FF: Fraction seconds – 000

As per the above example:

‘2024-01-01 12:00.00.000’

Code:

CREATE TABLE TEST_DT ( SERIAL_NUMBER INT, DATE_TIME DATETIME );

Now let us insert into the table with the current date:

INSERT INTO TEST_DT VALUES (1,'2024-01-01 09:22:08:123'); INSERT INTO TEST_DT VALUES (2,'2024-01-02 10:22:08:123'); INSERT INTO TEST_DT VALUES (3,'2024-01-03 11:22:08:123'); INSERT INTO TEST_DT VALUES (4,'2024-01-04 12:22:08:123'); INSERT INTO TEST_DT VALUES (5,'2024-01-05 13:22:08:123'); INSERT INTO TEST_DT VALUES (6,'2024-01-06 14:22:08:123'); INSERT INTO TEST_DT VALUES (7,'2024-01-07 15:22:08:123'); INSERT INTO TEST_DT VALUES (8,'2024-01-08 16:22:08:123'); INSERT INTO TEST_DT VALUES (9,'2024-01-09 17:22:08:123'); INSERT INTO TEST_DT VALUES (10,'2024-01-10 18:22:08:123'); INSERT INTO TEST_DT VALUES (11,'2024-01-11 19:22:08:123'); INSERT INTO TEST_DT VALUES (12,'2024-01-12 20:22:08:123'); select * from TEST_DT

Here we check the data for the “order_date”. We could see that the storage taken for the column is 7 bytes as it saves the precision fraction of (3,4).

If we see the value of “ Date_time “ value:

2024-01-01 09:22.08.123

Given below is the format of the above data:

yyyy-mm-ddhh:mm:ss:ff

YYYY: Is the year – 2023

MM: Is month – 01

DD: Is Date – 01

HH: Hour – 09

MM: Month – 22

SS: Second – 08

FF: fraction seconds -123

Output:

Example of MySQL Datetime

Given below is the example mentioned:

CREATE TABLE TEST_DT1 ( SERIAL_NUMBER INT, DATE_TIME DATETIME );

Now let us insert into the table with the current date:

INSERT INTO TEST_DT1 VALUES (11,'2024-01-11 09:22:08:123'); INSERT INTO TEST_DT1 VALUES (22,'2024-01-12 10:22:08:123'); INSERT INTO TEST_DT1 VALUES (33,'2024-01-13 11:22:08:123'); INSERT INTO TEST_DT1 VALUES (44,'2024-01-14 12:22:08:123'); INSERT INTO TEST_DT1 VALUES (55,'2024-01-15 13:22:08:123'); INSERT INTO TEST_DT1 VALUES (66,'2024-01-16 14:22:08:123'); INSERT INTO TEST_DT1 VALUES (77,'2024-01-17 15:22:08:123'); INSERT INTO TEST_DT1 VALUES (88,'2024-01-18 16:22:08:123'); INSERT INTO TEST_DT1 VALUES (99,'2024-01-19 17:22:08:123'); INSERT INTO TEST_DT1 VALUES (110,'2024-01-21 18:22:08:123'); INSERT INTO TEST_DT1 VALUES (111,'2024-01-22 19:22:08:123'); INSERT INTO TEST_DT1 VALUES (122,'2024-01-23 20:22:08:123'); Select * from TEST_DT1;

Output:

If we check the data for the “Date_time,” we can see that the storage taken for the column is 7 bytes as it saves the precision fraction of (3, 4).

If we see the value of “ Date_time “ value:

2024-01-11 09:22.08.123

Given below is the format of the above data:

yyyy-mm-ddhh:mm:ss:ff

YYYY: Is the year – 2023

MM: Is month – 01

DD: Is Date – 11

HH: Hour – 09

MM: Month – 22

SS: Second – 08

FF: Fraction seconds – 123

Conclusion

If we want to store a value of date that contains both date and time, then we use the Datetime format. Datetime stores the data in year, month, date, hour, minutes, and seconds. The Datetime uses 5 bytes for storage. We can also store the fraction, but holding the fraction would increase the storage. Considering precision and wanting to keep the precision fraction (0) takes 0 storage bytes. Suppose fraction (1, 2) takes 1 byte. Fraction (3, 4) takes 2 bytes, and fraction (5, 6) takes 3 bytes of storage. A total of 3 bytes would need extra for the storage of fractions.

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How To Prepare For Macos Catalina

Are you ready to install MacOS Catalina on your Mac? Now that MacOS Catalina 10.15 is now available to download, you may be wondering whether or not you’re ready to update to the latest system software release, and perhaps you’re looking for some guidance on how to get ready for the MacOS 10.15 update.

This article will walk through some important steps to prepare a Mac for updating to MacOS Catalina. We’ll also discuss some other options, like dual booting, or holding off on installing the update for a while.

How to Get Ready for MacOS Catalina in 5 Easy Steps

We’ll run through checking system compatibility, looking for incompatible apps, updating apps, backing up the Mac, and installing MacOS Catalina 10.15.

1: Check System Compatibility

You’ll want to be sure your Mac supports MacOS Catalina, as not all hardware does.

From the list of MacOS Catalina supported Macs here, you can see that for the most part any Mac built after 2012 supports MacOS Catalina.

You’ll also want to be sure you have at least 15GB of free storage space available on the drive to be able to download and install the MacOS Catalina update.

2: Check for 32-bit Apps

MacOS Catalina will only run 64-bit applications, meaning any 32-bit apps on the Mac will no longer run.

If you have a critical 32-bit app, either find out if a new 64-bit version is available, or consider delaying the update to Catalina. This can include many important major apps that some users rely on, like Adobe Photoshop CS6, and some older versions of Microsoft Office and other older significant apps.

You can easily find all 32-bit apps on a Mac with the System Information tool if you aren’t sure.

You can also use a free third party app called Go64 to check for Mac apps that are not entirely 64-bit.

Be aware that some apps may report they are 64-bit yet they still have 32-bit components and thus won’t work in Catalina (like Adobe Photoshop CS6).

3: Update Your Apps

You’ll want to make sure you update your apps before (and after) installing MacOS Catalina. This is always a good idea in general, but it’s particularly true since 32-bit applications are no longer supported by MacOS Catalina.

You can update apps from the Mac App Store by opening the App Store application and going to the “Updates” tab.

Updating apps obtained elsewhere often require updating through the app itself, or through the developer or manufacturers website.

4: Backup the Mac

Backing up your Mac is essential before installing any system software update, but having sufficient backups is particularly important if you’re planning on installing a new major version of macOS. Backups make sure you can roll back if something goes wrong, and help to prevent permanent data loss.

You can learn how to setup Time Machine for Mac backups here.

Time Machine requires an external hard drive to be connected to the Mac to backup on a regular schedule, so if you don’t have one yet then you might want to go

5: All Ready? Install MacOS Catalina!

Time Machine requires an external hard drive to be connected to the Mac to backup on a regular schedule, so if you don’t have one yet then you might want to go shopping for an external hard drive on Amazon or your favorite retailer.

Have you checked compatibility of your Mac and critical apps? Backed up your Mac? Updated your apps? Then you’re ready to update to MacOS Catalina!

MacOS Catalina is available as a free download, you can find it in the Software Update control panel and from the Mac App Store.

Note that some features in MacOS Catalina like Sidecar rely on an iPad running iPadOS 13 or later, and some older iPad and Mac models don’t support that feature at all.

Also… Consider Downloading a Spare Copy of MacOS Mojave Installer

Related

How Did Requests Work In Jsp With Example?

Introduction to JSP request

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

Parameter passing.

To retrieve the server name, server address, server port, and other server related information.

To retrieve remote addresses of web pages over the network.

To get, set, or delete multiple attributes during the website run.

To pass information from one page to another via jsp pages using variables.

So JSP requests are one of the major sources of data exchange over the web. We will understand more about this topic with the help of syntax and examples provided below.

Syntax

The syntax used for JSP requests to function is given here. It uses the keyword “request” along with the attribute “getParameter”. The string which is to be stored under the variable “StringName” is passed as a parameter to it in the format below.

String StringName=request.getParameter("Name"); How did requests work in JSP?

JSP requests use some of the core implicit attributes from the HttpServletRequest object to pass the data further as the user progresses in a web search or website exploration. One of the easiest examples to understand is when we log in to any webpage, and we see “welcome userName” on the page as soon as we login. The “userName” is replaced dynamically as per the user who logged in.

IT is different and unique for all users. So here, “JSP request” is used to fetch the user name as per the login details entered by the user. The “Request” object by JSP keeps track of recorded information and responses as per the entered information. This is essential to make the page dynamic and responsive as per the user query.

Example of JSP request

Let’s look into one example, which is followed by an explanation for a better understanding of the concept.

JSPRequest2.jsp :

<% String Username=request.getParameter(“name”); int letter_count=obj.countcalculate(Username); out.print(“The number of letters containing in the string is “);

<%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=UTF-8"

CountCalculator.java :

package test1JSP; public class CountCalculator { public int countcalculate(String name) { String str = name; int count = 0; for (int i = 0; i < str.length(); i++) { if (Character.isLetter(str.charAt(i))) count++; } return count; } }

Output:

Explanation: This is an example; three files are used to explain how the request parameter is used in the file coming from the remote file. Three files used in this sequence:

3. java: This is an intermediary page with the business logic. In this example, we wanted to calculate the number of letters passed in the string on the landing page. The logic to calculate the number of letters in the string is written here. The if the loop is used to iterate and check each letter of the string. “Character.isLetter(str.charAt(i))” is used to check if the letter at particular iteration is a character or not. If it is a character, then the count is added with 1 each time. Suppose northern count is not added with 1 and remains as it is. This loop is terminated once it reaches the end of the string passed. Finally, an integer count is returned from this java program enabled by function countcalculate to be printed over the screen.

The JAVA file string which is passed from the landing page should again be declared as “name” so that there is no discrepancy in understanding how data flowed from the landing page to the final page. The data flow is:

Conclusion

The JSP requests are used as an important tool for passing data values and other important information from one page to another. This enables easy transition of data flow on the web. Many attributes can be used along with request objects to fully use this functionality incorporated under JSP pages.

Recommended Articles

This is a guide to the JSP request. Here we discuss How did requests work in JSP and Example, which is followed by an explanation for a better understanding of the concept. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

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