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This article was co-authored by David Jia . David Jia is an Academic Tutor and the Founder of LA Math Tutoring, a private tutoring company based in Los Angeles, California. With over 10 years of teaching experience, David works with students of all ages and grades in various subjects, as well as college admissions counseling and test preparation for the SAT, ACT, ISEE, and more. After attaining a perfect 800 math score and a 690 English score on the SAT, David was awarded the Dickinson Scholarship from the University of Miami, where he graduated with a Bachelor’s degree in Business Administration. Additionally, David has worked as an instructor for online videos for textbook companies such as Larson Texts, Big Ideas Learning, and Big Ideas Math. This article has been viewed 301,141 times.
Finding the area and perimeter of a shape can be extremely useful not only in math, but for household projects, construction, and DIY projects. The perimeter is the length of the entire outside boundary of a polygon, and the area is the measure of the space that fills the boundaries of a polygon.
To measure the perimeter of a rectangle, you will want to measure each side of the rectangle. We can use a rectangle on a piece of paper as an example. Find the length of one side of your rectangle. You can do this with a ruler, measuring tape, or by making up your own example. Write down this number by the side it represents so you don’t forget its length. In this example, we found the length of the rectangle to be 3 feet or 92 centimeters. Then, find the width of one side of your rectangle. Write down the value for your width next to the horizontal side of your rectangle it represents. In this example, we found the length of the rectangle to be 5 feet or 152 centimeters. Write down the correct measurements on the opposing sides of your rectangle. Rectangles have four sides, but the length of opposite sides will be the same.
Add all your sides together. One a piece of scratch paper, or on the paper you have written the guided example, write: length + length + width + width. So, for the guided example, you would add 3 + 3 + 5 + 5 to get a perimeter of 16 feet (4.9 m). Here are the formulas for other common shapes: Square: length of any side x 4 Triangle: side 1 + side 2 + side 3 Irregular polygon: add all sides Circle: 2 x π x radius OR π x diameter
To find the area of a rectangle, you will start by finding the dimensions of your shape. We will use the rectangle from the previous example. This rectangle is 3 feet (92 cm) by 5 feet (152 cm). Multiply the length of your rectangle by the width to get the area. The final answer will be written in square units. You will want to change your formula according to shape. Unfortunately, different geometric shapes will require you to take a different approach to solve for area. You can use the following formulas for finding the area of some common shapes: Parallelogram: base x height Square: side 1 x side 2 Triangle: ½ x base x height. Circle: π x radius²
That is how you can find the area and perimeter of common shapes. Keep reading to learn the formulas for finding the area of different shapes!
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Write down a list of your personal values and beliefs.
Keep an open mind. First of all, you should get away from things you’ve heard about and start with a clean slate. This is one way to learn Truth. Your first task is to learn about religions, not necessarily to pick one for yourself right off the bat. Go to the library and find books on some religions. After you get the preliminary information on each religion, go to their original texts if you wish. Keep reading and learning. Do not accept or reject anything at this point, just keep learning.
Meet the religious leaders, preachers and teachers in your neighborhood and online. Ask them about their views on life, God(s), relationships, ethical conduct, and their daily practice of their religion. Use online forums to talk with people all over the world, do not confine yourself to just talking with friends and neighbors. Religion is not just facts but accepting a tradition, culture, and potentially important set of beliefs. Choosing a religion is similar to choosing who to marry. Follow your heart not peer pressure, it is a personal individual choice.
Ask yourself, “Why do I need or want to follow a religion?” Remember that religion can be an escape, much like a drug. Cults can especially provide a drug-like escape. What is the real reason that you want to follow a religion?
Beware of cults. Cults are social or religious groups that often control their members mentally, physically, maritally or sexually. Beware of their leaders that claim to have all the answers to life’s questions. Beware of tight groups that ask people to strictly conform to certain behaviors, abandon their friends and family, ask for mandatory donations, etc.
It may help if good friends or family members share what their beliefs are and why they believe in them; learn about the their religions if you find them desirable. Do not confine yourself to just following the beliefs of what happens to be in your area though. With the internet, you can connect with beliefs all over the world.
Find a particular religion to follow if you can. These include Buddhism and Buddha, Christian and Jesus Christ (the Messiah), Islam and the prophet Muhammad, Judaism and the Torah, or others.
Avoid assuming that “one religion is just as good as the other” for yourself. That very well may be far from true. Shopping for religious communities is like shopping for cars. Each model has pros and cons, some will fit your needs better than others, no model is perfect, most of them have common features that will all get you from point A to point B.
Learn about the good and the bad aspects of certain religions. It is important to know about negative and positive actions done by people who claim a particular religion. Decide for yourself if these people were properly following the religion or if they were simply abusing their power.
Think about what you believe about God or gods: If you believe there is only one God, then your choice of religions is narrowed down to monotheistic religions. If you believe in Gods (more than one deity), then your choice of religions is narrowed down to polytheistic religions. If you believe that God is all, and all is God, then your choice of religions is narrowed down to pantheistic religions.
Check to see which religions fit your beliefs when discussing the physical presence of God(s). Some religions believe that God(s) is/are not a physical entity, while some religions do believe that God(s) is/are physical entities that have bodies of their own. Some believe that God(s) has/have been found in human form on Earth, while others believe that this has not happened.
Remember that religion is not for everyone. Don’t limit yourself to theistic options. Study philosophy as alternative or as augment.
Configure the computers for networking. To do this you will need to go to the internet options on each computer. This is different depending on if you are using Host Address assigned to the router between your private network and the internet as both the DNS server and the Default Gateway. If configuring a home network with a relatively new router, This section can be ignored as long as the network is connected correctly, The router will assign network addresses to everything on the network going into your network, until it hits another router.
If your network is divided using one or more internal routers, each router will require an address for each network connected to it. This address will need to be a host address (just like a computer’s) from the host range of the network. Typically, the first available host address (that’s the second address in the address range ex. 192.168.1.1) will be used. However any address in the host range is fine as long as you know what it is. Do not use the network address (ex. 192.168.1.0), or the broadcast address (ex 192.168.1.255).
For networks containing one or more user devices (ex. printers, computers, storage devices), the address the router uses for that network will become “Default Gateway” for the other devices. The DNS server, if present, should remain the address used by the router between your networks and the internet. For networks interconnecting routers, no default gateway is needed. For networks containing both user devices and routers, any router on that network will do.
A network is a network, no matter how big or small. When two routers are connected by one cable, all will belong to the cable. The network address will be .0, the broadcast will be .255. Two of the hosts will be used (one for each interface the cable connects), and the other 252 will simply go to waste because they cannot be used anywhere else. Generally, the small home routers are not used for this purpose. When they are, understand the ethernet interfaces on the “private network” side usually belong to a “switch” which is built into the router. The router itself connects to this internally using only one interface. When this is the case, only one host IP will be used by all of them, and they will all be on the same network.
When a router has multiple interfaces with multiple IP’s, each interface and IP will create a different network.
To do this you will need to go to the internet options on each computer. This is different depending on if you are using Windows Mac , or Linux . Go to the dialog box that lets you change the TCP/IP protocol. Change the radio buttons from “Obtain from DHCP server automatically” to “Use the following IP address:”. Type in your IP address for that computer, and the appropriate subnet mask (255.255.255.0). If you have no routers, leave the “Default Gateway” and “DNS server” fields blank. If connecting to the internet using NAT, use theassigned to the router between your private network and the internet as both the DNS server and the Default Gateway. If configuring a home network with a relatively new router, This section can be ignored as long as the network is connected correctly, The router will assign network addresses to everything on the network going into your network, until it hits another router.
Find a smooth, flat surface. A hardwood floor works best when you’re gliding for the first time. You can also use the tiled or linoleum floor in your kitchen. Once you get more comfortable with it, you can use carpet if you have to, but for best results, start with the smoothest surface, which will allow you to glide with the greatest ease. If you have no luck indoors, you can start outside, on a concrete surface such as a basketball court. If you’re indoors, though, you should try to practice in front of a mirror, if you can, so you can watch your own footwork.
Wear comfortable shoes with smooth soles. If you have old shoes with worn soles, don’t throw them out — they’ll be perfect for gliding. You don’t want a shoe with ridges on the soles or a strong grip, because you want to be able to slide along the floor as easily as you can; shoes with a strong grip will keep you from making fluid movements. If you have shoes with smooth soles and a smooth floor, you’re halfway there already. Once you’ve got those things, stand with your feet hip-width apart.
The most important thing to note when you begin to learn to glide is that one of your feet should always be flat while the other foot should always be on its toes or the balls of the feet. You should always be prepared to transition from one to the other.
You should aim for the balls of your feet. If you become a true expert, you can even go for your toes, but for now, this should be just enough. The less of your foot you use, the more impressive your gliding will look. However, this will also make it more difficult to maintain your balance.
Slide your left foot out to the side and turn it out, just as you did with your right foot. Think of it as pushing your right foot up, and then pulling your left foot to the left.
Bring your left heel up as you move your right heel down. Always remember the rule about keeping one heel up and one heel down at all times. Make sure your body weight switches to the new toe each time you change feet, as it will allow you to slide your feet in and out more easily. At first, this transition may feel a little clunky, but you’ll get the hang of it and will be able to make it look like one fluid motion, like a wave traveling through you.
Bring your right heel down and turn the toe inwards. Slide it toward your left foot. Just do exactly what you did with your left foot with your right foot.
Switch your toe and heel, bringing your right toes up and out and your left heel down and in. Your feet should be very close to each other, with your right heel hovering over your left toes.
Slide your left foot out to get into the starting position. Return to the place where you started — standing with your feet hip distance apart.
Repeat these steps again until you get comfortable with them and can move fluidly. Reverse the feet so you travel back in the opposite direction. You can just start by moving all the way to the left and then all the way to the right, and then practice moving back and forth, up and down, or diagonally as you become more comfortable with gliding.
Keep practicing. If you want your glide movements to look really fluid and natural, then you’ve gotta keep practicing. Spend at least fifteen minutes a day gliding to your favorite hip hop beat and you’ll be amazed at how quickly you improve. Once you get the footwork down, you’ll be able to use your arms more, instead of just keeping them at your sides. You can put your whole body into it, and find a way to move around that is completely unique.
Your tray will usually consist of a piece of meat, a piece or two of bread, a piece of fruit, and a vegetable. Now that you know what you’re working with, you see why it’s important to learn to cook your own food in jail.
Make spicy beef ramen: make the noodles, drain off the water, add the seasoning pack. Then cut up a beef stick, a cheese stick, crumble a handful of spicy chips in it, and season with hot sauce to taste. It’s really pretty good.
A lot of times, several inmates will all bring a ramen soup and one extra item, combine them in one large goulash and then divide it up evenly. It’s as much a social event as it is a way to eat.
Use hot water to cook with. Since most often you won’t have access to microwaves or other forms to cook, hot water is the best option for jail or prison cooking. If this is not available, then warm water is at least hopefully available. Usually, you can purchase a plastic bowl with a lid from the canteen as well. You put your noodles in this, add hot water, put the lid on, and then take it to your bunk and cover it with bedding and a pillow to hold in the heat. This method is usually pretty effective, and after 10 minutes or so you have your ramen.
Try other things. For example, save your boiled egg from your breakfast tray, combine mayonnaise packets from the canteen and chop up a pickle from the canteen, and maybe a mustard pack. Save your bread from your lunch or dinner trays, and then you have an egg salad. You can do the same thing with tuna packs that are sometimes available from the canteen.
For example, one person might give you their lunch tray for a ramen noodle pack. But if it’s Sunday, the day you might get, say two pieces of coffee cake and grits and eggs and toast, or biscuit and gravy day, you might be able to get a ramen soup and a bag of chips.
Some of the more popular items from the canteen to trade with are candy, spicy chips, and the king of all jailhouse items, instant coffee. A smart inmate might order a lot of these more popular items, then around the middle of the week when others run out, make loans, for example, give someone a cup of coffee, on canteen day that person owes you two cups.
Use packaging. Another way to cook your goulash is to use a large chip bag, or a clean trash bag, full of hot water, or if not available, put the bag under the warm water in your sink and let it run over the bag for ten minutes or so. If you’re lucky enough to get cornbread, you can collect pieces of this up, mix with a little water, and make a dough up. Use whatever you can find, like a toilet paper tube stuffed tight with toilet paper and wrapped in saran wrap from another food item as a rolling pin to roll out the dough, then wrap your filling (usually a goulash) and let dry, or place in the warmest place possible, to dry it faster. Then you have a large “burrito”.
Volunteer to work in the kitchen, where you have the opportunity to get leftover food.
If you don’t have money on your books, you can do services for other inmates such as laundry, drawing cards for them to send to loved ones, helping out with legal research for their legal cases, tattoo work, haircutting, cleaning someone else’s cell and just about anything else you can imagine.
The exposure is controlled by the camera’s light meter. The light meter determines what the proper exposure is; it all sets the f-stop and shutter speed. The f-stop is a fraction; the f represents the focal length. The f-stop is determined by dividing the focal length by the aperture. f/2.8 would be 1/2.8 versus f/16 which would be 1/16. If you look at it like slices of a pie, you would get a lot more pie with 1/2.8 than you would with 1/16.
This can be very unnerving, but f-stops and shutter speeds on every picture to get the light right or the lightness and darkness and exposure.
A good way to understand it is to “think of a bucket of water with a hole in the bottom. If you have a large hole in the bottom of the bucket (large aperture), water will drain out quickly (fast shutter speed). Conversely, for the same amount of water, if you have a small hole in the bottom of the bucket (small aperture), the water will drain out slowly (slow shutter speed).”
Exposure or lightness and darkness in the picture is a combination of the f-stop, which is the size of the hole in the lens, and the shutter speed, which is the length of time that the shutter is open. So, if you leave the shutter open longer, you’re getting more light to the film or more light to the digital sensor, and the picture gets brighter, or lighter. If you shorten the exposure (give less light to the film or to the digital sensor), the exposure gets darker. Longer shutter speed: more exposure, more light; shorter shutter speed: less exposure, less light.
Learn about the “f-stop”. “F-stop” (also called “f-number”) means fraction and the f-number is the fraction of the actual opening in the lens compared to the focal length of the lens. The aperture is the opening light passes through.
Try this example. Suppose that you have a lens with a focal length of 50mm and the f-number is f/1.8. The f-number is determined by focal length/aperture. So 50/x=1.8 or x~=28. The actual diameter where the light comes through the lens is 28mm across. If that lens had an f-stop of 1, for example, the aperture would be 50mm, because 50/1=50. That’s what the f-stop actually means.
Set the aperture to control both the light and the amount that is in focus, in other words, the depth of field.
Set a wide opening, like f/2 or 2.8, to blur the background and have your subject razor sharp. Also, you’ll probably want to use the largest aperture when shooting in low-light, in order to prevent blur.
Shoot a medium aperture, 5.6 or 8 so the subject is sharp and background is slightly out of focus but still recognizable.
Shoot at smaller apertures, like f/11 and possibly smaller, for a landscape picture when you want the flowers in the foreground, the river, and the mountains all in focus. Depending on your format, tiny apertures like f/16 and smaller will cause you to lose sharpness due to diffraction effects.
For many photographers, the aperture is far more important to achieving great pictures than the shutter speed, because it controls the depth of field of the picture, whereas it’s more difficult to tell if a picture was shot at 1/250 or 1/1000 of a second.
How do you set it? On some cameras there’s a button right on the top of the camera that says ISO. You press the button, turn the dial, and change it.
Stop action by changing the shutter speed on your camera. Change the shutter speed on your camera to affect the action-stopping ability. If you’re shooting a picture with your camera hand-held, you will need a shutter speed that as fast as or faster than the reciprocal of your focal length. In other words, if you were shooting on a 100mm lens, a shutter speed of 1/100 of a second would be optimal. Camera blur can be eliminated at these speeds.
Medium shutter speed: 125 or 250 for most pictures.
Fast shutter speed: 500 or 1000 for action.
Thirtieth or a fifteenth of a second to blur action or under low light.
Learn how to change the shutter speed on your digital camera. You might have the option of a dial, a button on your camera, or you may have to do it in-camera.
Always err on the side of underexposure. Of course, it goes without saying that you want fantastic exposure, but if you can’t get it quite right, err on the side of underexposure (let your scene be a little dark). When a picture is over-exposed, all of the information is lost and cannot be recovered. With underexposed pictures, you have a greater chance of recovering the picture through post-processing. You can set your camera to underexpose by using EV compensation (exposure value compensation).
In shutter priority mode, pick the shutter speed and the camera sets the f-stop.
When in shutter priority, the camera will take the picture at the selected shutter speed regardless of whether or not the picture will be exposed correctly.
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