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The internet has many websites that claim they have the correct file. Most of the time, you have to open the file to confirm the file is safe. And by that time, it may be too late to protect your PC from malware and virus programs.

This type of scenario is common on many websites. The pop-up may take you to a shady website where downloading files puts your PC at risk. If a pop-up appears, it is best to close it right away and try again.

Torrents is a highly popular P2P file-sharing website. Typically files found in torrent sites are copyrighted or commercial material. Most of them are provided by anonymous sources and there is no telling if the file is tampered with.

Applications downloaded from torrents may or may not be the applications you want. There is no incentive to provide the right file for downloading as a torrent. You may be downloading a malware program or a virus on your PC.

Apart from the legal aspect, torrents are highly unsafe for downloading files. You should avoid downloading torrents from unknown users. To confirm a file is safe, you have to download it from a known, trusted source.

HyperText Transfer Protocol is the backbone of the internet. Internet browsing and downloading works in a stream of HTTP requests and responses. Simply put, HTTPS is encrypted HTTP. Secure encryption ensures that the website you are visiting is trusted.

To protect yourself from download threats, always perform a safety check before downloading. Continue reading below to know some of the regular safety approaches to download a file.

Depending on the type of Antivirus you have, you can do a file check before or after performing a download.

Know your file formats. Whether a new or old Windows user, always make sure to enable file extensions in Explorer by default. It’s a security hazard that they turn it off by default. Turn it on from the explorer File options .

Many websites such as Fileinfo lets you search from their large database of file extensions. File extensions are three or four characters long. They are the last characters after the period (.) shown in the file name.

Note that these two factors are not complete indications of the validity of a file. They only tell you whether a file is trusted and downloaded by other users.

Md5 sum file hash is a popular means of verifying any file. Md5 algorithm takes a file and generates a 128 character unique hash. This way, if the download file is tampered with, the resulting hash would be different. 

Many download websites offer md5 hash along with the download link. With it, you can verify if the file you get is the same as the one they provide. This is a good approach if you trust the file provider to let you download your file safely.

Note that you would still have to download the file first before you can start checking it. You should open the file only after you’re sure it’s safe to do so.

Note down the file hash next to the download link.

Go to any online md5 hash checker tool.

Upload the file and let the tool generate hash for you.

Compare the file hashes together to make sure they are the same.

Windows Sandbox is a special feature provided by Microsoft as a testing ground. Even if you manage to break your sandboxed Windows, it won’t have any impact on your base Windows at all. So, it is a good idea to test all your suspicious download links in a sandbox environment.

Note that the feature is available in Pro and Enterprise versions only. Other Windows users can use a virtual box or VMware image instead.

Forums are the place to confirm the validity of any file. Most of the download websites provide a discussion forum for site visitors. Anyone can register for an account in the discussion forum and post their questions. Other experienced users can write answers and even upvote questions and answers.

Some users even make time to point you to the correct file that you’d need to download. Since anyone can post on the forums, you still need to be careful in believing what you read. I always recommend taking the file forums with a large pinch of salt.

Virustotal is a reliable site to perform safety checks. It has two modes, the first file mode and the second is link mode. File mode allows you to upload a file and verify if it’s safe. Link mode allows you to run a safety check even before downloading the file.

Virustotal runs virus scans against a database of multiple vendors. It then reports if the file passed all safety checks. For now, we will stick to using link mode.

To disable the automatic downloading of files, follow these steps.

Chrome Firefox Safari

Go to the Safari menu and select Preferences.

Under the General tab, select a File download location.

Select Ask for each download.

Under the General tab, select a File download location.

Select Ask for each download.

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How To Check If A File Exists In Python (In 2 Ways)

Check if a file exists using Python. Image design by Elias Ervast

To check if a file exists using Python, use the exists() function from the os.path module:

from chúng tôi import exists if exists(path_to_file): # Do something

Here is a short illustration of checking if a file exists in the same folder:

Alternatively, you can use the is_file() function from the Path class from the pathlib module:

from pathlib import Path path = Path(path_to_file) if path.is_file(): # Do something

Where path_to_file is relative to the Python file that checks the existence of the file.

For example, if there’s a file called chúng tôi in the same folder as this Python program, the path_to_file is the name of the file.

Check If a File Exists—A Step-by-Step Guide

Before you start working with a file, you may want to check if one exists. To do this you can use the exists() function from os.path module.

Step 1. Include the chúng tôi Module

The os.path module is is useful when processing files from different places in the file system of your program.

Make sure you import the os.path module before trying to use it:

import os.path Step 2. Call os.path.exists() Function

After including the chúng tôi module, call the exists() function. Remember to pass it the name or path of the file as an argument:

os.path.exists(path_to_file)

Where path_to_file is the path to the file you are seeking (relative to the Python file’s path). If the file is in the same folder as your Python program, the path is just the name of the file.

If the file exists, the exists() function returns True. Otherwise, it returns False.

The following example program uses the exists() function to check if the hello.txt file exists:

import os.path file_found = os.path.exists('hello.txt') print(file_found)

If the hello.txt file exists, you’ll see the following output:

True Step 3. (Optional) Make the Call Shorter

To make the call to the exists() function shorter, import the function from the module:

from chúng tôi import exists exists('hello.txt')

And here is an example where the file is in another folder called some_files:

Here you need to provide the path to the file to find out if it exists. Because the folder where the file is, is in the same folder as the Python program, its path is:

some_files/hello.txt

Now, this is how you can use the os module to check if a file exists in Python. But there’s an alternative approach by using the relatively new pathlib module.

Check If a File Exists Using ‘Pathlib’

The pathlib module lets you manipulate files and folders.

To use it, import the Path class from the pathlib module:

from pathlib import Path

Then, create a Path object by initializing it with the file path whose existence is the point of interest:

path = Path(path_to_file)

Now, check if the file exists using the is_file() method. This essentially tests if the object you created is a valid file.

path.is_file()

For instance, let’s use this approach to see if the hello.txt file exists:

from pathlib import Path path_to_file = 'hello.txt' path = Path(path_to_file) if path.is_file(): print(f'{path_to_file} exists') else: print(f'{path_to_file} does not exist')

If the hello.txt file exists, you’ll see the following output:

hello.txt exists Conclusion

Today you learned how to check if a file exists in Python.

To take home, you can use the exists() method from the os.path library. To use this method, all you need to do is import the exists() method from os.path module and call the method by passing a file path as an argument.

Thanks for reading!

Further Reading

Is Vpn Safe For Online Banking?

Is VPN safe for online banking? [Complete guide]

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If you use online banking, you might be wondering if a VPN can make the entire experience feel safer. Find out why you should use a VPN for Internet banking anywhere in the world.

Discover 6 simple ways to correctly use a VPN for safe banking on the web by understanding what a virtual private network solution can and can’t do.

To learn more about this topic, check out our Online Banking section.

Join our Security Hub to see what else you can do with a VPN.

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Online banking is a risky business because you have to enter your login credentials and credit card info on the web. If you’re directly connected to the Internet, you might accidentally leak them and compromise your data. But you can use a VPN to stay safe.

A virtual private network creates a secure tunnel and uses it to isolate your data traffic from the public web, all thanks to encryption. In case of a man-in-the-middle attack, a hacker might obtain your data but can’t unscramble it.

Should you use a VPN for online banking?

Yes, you should definitely use a VPN for online banking since it makes you safer on the Internet.

Although most banks are doing the best they can to make you feel as safe as possible when making online transactions, sometimes they fail.

Internet banking is particularly dangerous during the COVID-19 pandemic when most people stay home and pay taxes or shop exclusively online. But a VPN helps a lot.

Here are some legit reasons why you need a VPN for online banking:

Keeps you safe from cybercriminals when using public Wi-Fi hotspots.

Amps up your security level when traveling and connecting to the airport, hotel, or restaurant Wi-Fi.

Shields your mobile apps since they’re most vulnerable to hacker attacks.

Adds an extra layer of security to your home network and protects your router.

Excellent in combination with HTTPS websites.

How to use a VPN for safe Internet banking 1. Say no to free VPN

A VPN is only as good as its privacy policy. If you stumble upon a legit service with a strict, no-logging policy, that’s great! But you can’t trust a free VPN with your data. In fact, it’s safer to use online banking without a free VPN.

Even if the VPN provider won’t collect your data, there are still dangers since free mobile apps are usually ad-supported. Any ad or banner to a third-party website is a door left open for malware injections. But a premium VPN is worth it.

2. Don’t use VPN servers from other countries

If your bank is actually doing a good job and monitoring your account for any suspicious activity, it will flag and freeze it if you try to connect from another country. Plus, it will probably call you soon to let you know.

Clearing this issue with the bank BEFORE won’t do you any good if you keep connecting to various countries through the VPN. And it’s never a wise idea to ask your bank to stop doing this, in case an authorized user actually attempts this.

Instead, limit your VPN server options inside your own country. It doesn’t matter which one you use, anyway, since all bring the same level of security.

3. Set the VPN’s security settings to the max

VPNs have numerous benefits, like circumventing geoblocks and unlocking streaming services like Netflix. But, when it comes to online banking, what you’re looking for is the highest level of security.

Set your VPN service to use a highly secure protocol, like OpenVPN with 256-bit military-grade encryption, WireGuard, or SSTP. Keep in mind that more encryption means a slower connection.

If you have trouble maintaining your Internet connection stable over VPN, dial it down a notch until you find the balance between encryption and speed. Whatever you do, never use a VPN over PPTP or L2TP because they provide low security.

Besides encryption, enable the app’s kill switch, activate its built-in ad and malware blocker, and switch to its private DNS servers, depending on what features are supported by the VPN service (unlike encryption, they won’t slow you down).

4. Don’t use weak passwords or turn off 2FA

A VPN can’t keep your online banking account safe from illegal logins, so don’t compromise when it comes to passwords and two-factor authentication. Set a strong lengthy password made out of a random combination of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, and symbols (or use a password generator).

If you have trouble keeping up with your passwords, use a reliable password manager to keep track of them, especially since it’s recommended to change them often. Furthermore, check if you have two-factor authentication enabled.

5. Use a secure browser

Unless you use a mobile app to access your banking account, consider switching to a secure web browser for online banking. You don’t have to get rid of the current browser if you’re fond of it since you can install a new one to use for banking purposes, such as Tor Browser, Brave, or Firefox.

6. Use security-focused browser addons

If you want to continue using your current web browser, even if it’s unsafe, you can amp up its security level by turning to security-focused extensions like DuckDuckGo Privacy Essentials, Ghostery, Privacy Badger or HTTPS Everywhere.

What’s the best VPN for safe online banking?

Made by Kape Technologies, Private Internet Access (PIA) is the top-ranked VPN for Internet banking, thanks to its excellent security features. It uses OpenVPN with up to 256-bit military-grade encryption to redirect your entire network traffic through VPN.

This VPN app has its own ad and malware blocker for web browsers called PIA MACE, which keeps you safe from phishing and other scams. It runs private DNS servers and cuts off your Internet access in case the VPN connection drops to ensure your data isn’t compromised.

What else you must know about PIA:

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A lot of people believe that HTTPS is enough to stay safe when making online banking transactions. Although it’s designed to provide end-to-end encryption, HTTPS is not foolproof. But you can throw into the mix a trustworthy VPN like Private Internet Access to change that.

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How To Check If Cell Begins Or Ends With A Specific Character In Excel?

When we have a list of entries in excel file and need to identify if there are some entities starting with a specific letter of special character, then looking at each value and counting will be a tedious task to do. This article will help you to find those entities using a formula without looking at each value of the list.

Searching Cells containing Specific Character using Formula Searching the cells starting with a specific character

Let’s take an example of the following data −

Now, if you want to check the cells begin with the character “$” then follow the below steps −

Step 1 − Create a column where you want to the output to be displayed against each cell.

Step 2 − Enter the following formula by selecting the required cell whose value to be scanned and press enter.

=IF(LEFT(TRIM(B2),1)=”$”,”True”, “False”)

Step 3 − Now drag the cell to copy the formula in other cells also to view the output against all cells.

Formula Syntax Description

Argument Description

IF(logical_test, {value_if_true},{value_if_false}

Logical_test specifies the condition basis which the data needs to be rendered.

Value_if_true specifies the value that shall be returned if the condition satisfies.

Value_if_false specifies the value that shall be returned if the condition does not satisfy.

LEFT(text, [num_chars])

Text specifies the cell address whose value to be returned or scanned from left.

num_chars specifies the number of characters from left that need to be returned/scanned.

TRIM(

Removes all extra spaces from the string of selected cell except for single spaces between words.

Searching the cells ending with a specific character

Now, if you want to check the cells ends with the character “n” then follow the below steps −

Step 1 − Create a column where you want to the output to be displayed against each cell.

Step 2 − Enter the following formula by selecting the required cell whose value to be scanned and press enter.

=IF(RIGHT(TRIM(B2),1)=”n”,”True”, “False”)

Step 3 − Now drag the cell to copy the formula in other cells also to view the output against all cells.

Formula Syntax Description

Argument Description

RIGHT(text, [num_chars])

Text specifies the cell address whose value to be returned or scanned from right

num_chars specifies the number of characters from left that need to be returned/scanned.

Searching the cells starting and ending with a specific character

Now, if you want to check the cells starting and ending with the character “s” and “n” respectively,then follow the below steps −

Step 1 − Create a column where you want to the output to be displayed against each cell.

Step 2 − Enter the following formula by selecting the required cell whose value to be scanned and press enter.

=IF(AND(LEFT(TRIM(B3),1)=”s”,RIGHT(TRIM(B3),1)=”n”),TRUE,FALSE)

Step 3 − Now drag the cell to copy the formula in other cells also to view the output against all cells.

Formula Syntax Description

Argument Description

AND

This operator is used in IF statement when two conditions simultaneously need to be verified. Similarly OR (either) and NOT (not satisfied) conditions can be used.

Conclusion

Hence, using the above-mentioned formulas any number of data can be verified for specific values. These formulas will reduce the processing time of a dataset and enhance the user experience and data visualization. Keep learning, keep exploring Excel.

How Safe Is Two Factor Authentication?

How Safe Is Two Factor Authentication? How Can A Hacker Bypass Two-Factor Authentication? SIM Swapping

SIM Swapping is an attack in which a hacker can impersonate you and then he convinces an employee at a carrier to switch the phone service that you have to that of a carrier. Once that happens, the hacker has access to all your messages. Do have a look at two of these instances –

The phone number associated with the account was compromised due to a security oversight by the mobile provider. This allowed an unauthorized person to compose and send tweets via text message from the phone number. That issue is now resolved.

In another instance, a hacker was able to hack into a user’s text for just a matter of USD 16. Here the case was different from regular SIM swapping. Instead, the hacker utilized a service that is intended to help businesses do mass messaging and SMS marketing. These are the whereabouts of the case.

Social Engineering

In a second way, the hacker might send you a phishing mail or rope you in a legit-looking website. Once you log-in on this website, the hacker gets access to your credentials which he then uses on a real website, after which the real website sends you a code. Once you enter the code on the fake website, the hacker can bypass the two-factor authentication.

Now, that we have stated the problem, let’s have a look at some of the probable ways to prevent ourselves. Read on!

Is Two Factor Authentication Safe? Add An Extra Layer Of Protection Too

Kudos if you have enabled two-factor authentication, but consider arming yourself with options the likes of which are mentioned below –

VPN

You should invest in a quality VPN that can encrypt data traffic and even helps in securing browsing sessions. It is even able to evade session hijacking and phishing attacks as well. Here are some of the best VPNs available. In any case, if the 2-factor authentication has been invaded because of some social engineering attack, a VPN will for sure act as a guard against it.

Looking for a VPN for your PC, you can consider investing in Systweak VPN. Here are some of the features –

4500+ servers across 200+ locations spread in 53+ countries

AES-256 military-grade security

Kill switch that drops the connection as soon as VPN drops

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IKev2 and Open VPN protocols

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Here’s our comprehensive review of Systweak VPN

Price: US$ 71.40 yearly or US$ 9.95 per month

Operating System: Windows 10/8.1/8/7

Recommended By VPN Mentor

Physical Security Keys

If you can get your hands on physical security keys, there’s nothing like it. These prove to be a more secure second step. Hardware-based keys have several passwords stored in them and as one of their features are also able to easily discern between real and fake websites. They are positively more secure and stronger than software or SMS-based options.

Use A Password Manager

Consider this – your smartphone is lost or stolen and now it is in the hands of a probable hacker, who can easily look into the code being sent. Scary, right?

If you use a password manager like LastPass, each time it will generate a very strong password because of which the hacker will have a hard time bypassing, say, your authenticator app. Secondly, a password manager like LastPass eliminates the need to manually typing in the password.

Don’t Ever Give Into Phishing Mails Wrapping Up

Recommended Readings:

How to Set Two Factor Authentication for Facebook

Enable Two-Factor Authentication For Apple ID

How To Enable Two-Factor Authentication On Microsoft Account

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Sarang Bhargava

How To Check If Two Vectors Are Exactly Same In R?

To check if two vectors are exactly same, we can use identical function.

For example, if we have two vectors say x and y then we can find whether both of them are exactly same or not by using the command given below −

identical(x,y)

Check out the below examples to understand the result of identical function for two vectors.

Example 1

To check if two vectors are exactly same, use the command given below −

x1<-rpois(100,5) x1

If you execute the above given command, it generates the following output −

[1] 6 6 3 3 0 5 3 6 6 4 5 7 4 9 10 1 5 2 8 4 9 2 9 6 4 [26] 8 3 4 5 5 8 7 2 4 7 4 3 3 6 6 3 5 5 9 6 6 3 6 4 5 [51] 3 4 9 3 3 7 8 3 9 5 6 6 3 7 8 3 3 8 5 5 4 3 5 6 4 [76] 1 4 5 6 4 1 8 3 7 5 1 1 6 3 3 3 5 5 3 4 7 2 7 6 7

To check if two vectors are exactly same, add the following to the above command −

y1<-rpois(100,5) y1

If you execute all the above given commands as a single program, it generates the following output −

[1] 6 3 5 5 3 3 7 6 6 3 5 10 5 10 6 3 5 6 2 6 6 6 3 3 5 [26] 3 6 11 5 8 2 6 3 3 5 4 5 5 6 7 8 6 1 5 4 5 6 5 3 3 [51] 7 11 4 3 5 3 1 4 3 6 6 3 4 5 4 7 4 3 4 2 4 3 4 5 1 [76] 4 3 5 3 1 6 3 6 5 8 7 2 2 8 4 7 3 6 4 3 10 5 4 2 4

To check if two vectors are exactly same, add the following to the above command −

x1<-rpois(100,5) y1<-rpois(100,5) identical(x1,y1) Output

If you execute all the above given commands as a single program, it generates the following output −

[1] FALSE Example 2

To check if two vectors are exactly same, use the command given below −

x2<-sample(0:9,150,replace=TRUE) x2

If you execute the above given command, it generates the following output −

[1] 7 5 1 1 9 3 7 2 7 8 2 7 3 3 1 9 6 4 7 9 3 1 4 2 1 5 5 8 0 8 9 0 7 3 1 9 5 [38] 6 7 9 6 3 7 0 9 7 7 7 0 5 7 0 1 5 9 0 9 4 5 2 5 4 1 9 4 5 9 6 8 2 9 1 5 4 [75] 8 5 7 1 5 0 2 3 9 2 2 4 9 1 6 3 7 7 3 1 5 3 3 1 3 1 9 5 3 1 6 1 0 8 4 0 4 [112] 1 6 4 5 0 8 0 4 6 0 4 3 4 4 2 1 5 8 4 0 2 7 4 1 0 9 6 5 8 4 1 6 8 0 4 6 7 [149] 1 5

To check if two vectors are exactly same, add the following to the above command −

y2<-sample(0:9,150,replace=TRUE) y2

If you execute all the above given commands as a single program, it generates the following output −

[1] 8 3 3 4 3 2 1 5 5 4 6 2 5 4 5 7 6 2 8 7 2 2 8 1 7 5 1 9 4 8 2 9 3 1 6 3 5 [38] 5 7 6 3 0 0 5 0 7 7 7 2 2 0 2 2 2 1 5 3 0 8 0 7 5 9 8 5 1 0 9 4 7 8 6 5 7 [75] 8 9 0 5 8 3 6 8 3 1 0 4 3 8 6 7 6 5 1 4 0 3 8 6 8 8 6 4 3 0 6 8 4 3 1 5 1 [112] 7 0 1 7 4 7 1 6 3 5 7 1 6 0 9 9 3 3 1 5 5 6 6 4 7 6 2 4 5 0 9 5 8 9 5 9 4 [149] 7 7

To check if two vectors are exactly same, add the following to the above command −

x2<-sample(0:9,150,replace=TRUE) y2<-sample(0:9,150,replace=TRUE) identical(x2,y2) Output

If you execute all the above given commands as a single program, it generates the following output −

[1] FALSE Example 3

To check if two vectors are exactly same, use the command given below −

x3<-1:150 x3

If you execute the above given command, it generates the following output −

[1] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 [19] 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 [37] 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 [55] 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 [73] 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 [91] 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 [109] 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 [127] 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 [145] 145 146 147 148 149 150

To check if two vectors are exactly same, add the following to the above command −

y3<-1:150 y3

If you execute all the above given commands as a single program, it generates the following output −

[1] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 [19] 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 [37] 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 [55] 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 [73] 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 [91] 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 [109] 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 [127] 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 [145] 145 146 147 148 149 150

To check if two vectors are exactly same, add the following to the above command −

x3<-1:150 y3<-1:150 identical(x3,y3) Output

If you execute all the above given commands as a single program, it generates the following output −

[1] TRUE Example 4

To check if two vectors are exactly same, use the command given below −

x4<-150:1 x4

If you execute the above given command, it generates the following output −

[1] 150 149 148 147 146 145 144 143 142 141 140 139 138 137 136 135 134 133 [19] 132 131 130 129 128 127 126 125 124 123 122 121 120 119 118 117 116 115 [37] 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 104 103 102 101 100 99 98 97 [55] 96 95 94 93 92 91 90 89 88 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 79 [73] 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 [91] 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 [109] 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 [127] 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 [145] 6 5 4 3 2 1

To check if two vectors are exactly same, add the following to the above command −

y4<-1:150 y4

If you execute all the above given commands as a single program, it generates the following output −

[1] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 [19] 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 [37] 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 [55] 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 [73] 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 [91] 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 [109] 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 [127] 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 [145] 145 146 147 148 149 150

To check if two vectors are exactly same, add the following to the above command −

x4<-150:1 y4<-1:150 identical(x4,y4) Output

If you execute all the above given commands as a single program, it generates the following output −

[1] FALSE Example 5

To check if two vectors are exactly same, use the command given below −

x5<-round(rnorm(150),0) x5

If you execute the above given command, it generates the following output −

[1] 0 0 -1 -1 0 -1 -1 0 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 -1 0 1 0 0 0 -1 [26] 0 0 0 1 0 -1 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 1 0 -1 2 1 -1 1 -1 0 0 1 0 [51] 1 0 1 1 1 0 -3 0 0 -1 1 1 0 -1 0 -1 1 1 0 -1 0 -1 0 0 0 [76] 2 0 -1 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 0 -1 -1 2 1 -1 1 -1 0 -1 0 0 0 2 [101] 0 0 1 1 0 -1 -2 1 -1 -1 1 0 1 2 1 0 -1 0 1 2 0 0 0 2 0 [126] -2 -1 0 1 2 1 -1 0 1 0 -1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 0 -1 0 -1 -1 1 1 1 0

To check if two vectors are exactly same, add the following to the above command −

y5<-round(rnorm(150),0) y5

If you execute all the above given commands as a single program, it generates the following output −

[1] -2 0 -2 0 -1 0 -1 -1 -1 -1 0 0 -1 -2 -1 1 -2 -1 -1 0 0 0 -1 1 0 [26] 1 0 1 -1 0 0 -2 -1 1 0 -1 0 1 1 -2 1 0 -1 0 -2 1 1 -1 1 -2 [51] 1 0 2 0 -1 1 -1 0 0 -1 0 -3 -1 1 -1 1 0 -2 0 -1 1 0 -1 -1 -1 [76] 1 0 1 1 0 -1 0 0 -1 1 -1 1 1 0 0 -1 -1 0 0 -1 0 0 -2 -2 0 [101] -1 1 -1 -1 0 0 1 -1 -2 -1 1 0 -3 -1 0 -1 1 0 2 -3 0 1 -1 0 0 [126] 1 1 -1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 -2 -1 1 0 1 -1 -1 0 -1 0 -1 -1 -1 0 0

To check if two vectors are exactly same, add the following to the above command −

x5<-round(rnorm(150),0) y5<-round(rnorm(150),0) identical(x5,y5) Output

If you execute all the above given commands as a single program, it generates the following output −

[1] FALSE

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