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There are many reasons you may need to share the same PC with multiple users. Windows 10 is a powerful and customizable operating system and takes care of all file permissions at system level. This will help you to work safely and protect your files from other users on the same computer. However, you could face different file permission errors in Windows 10 due to various reasons. In most cases, you will see an access denied message or permission error when trying to open the files belong to other users.
You need to have an account with administrative privileges to change the ownership or permission and access these files. In this article, we will explain step-by-step process of how to change file permissions in Windows 10 to access the files and folders.
Related: View or hide files in Windows 10.Common File Permission Errors
Here are some scenarios you may encounter the file permission error in Windows 10.
When you have shared computers and other users setup permission for certain files which you can’t access.
You want to access system files. We don’t recommend to edit system files as it may cause unexpected failures.
The copied files from USB or external hard drive is protected and you want to modify on your computer.
You want to modify files copied from other operating systems like macOS.
You want to remove the permission of other user to prevent accessing certain shared files.
There are two ways to handle all of the above situations. When you are the owner of the file, simply change the file permission to grant or prevent access of other users. When you want to access other’s files, first you need to take the ownership and then change the file permission. Let us explain both the scenarios in further sections. Remember in both situations you need to have admin access to carry out the required steps.
1. You are Not the Owner 1.1. Take Ownership of Files or Folders
First step to access the file is to get the permission of the specific file by taking its ownership. When you have taken over the ownership of that specific file, you can easily tweak the permissions and get access. Follow the below instructions to take over the ownership of any file or folder in Windows 10.
Now, you will get the ownership of the selected file or folder to the new user. You can see the owner is showing as “Administrator” as shown below as we have changed the ownership from “WebNots” to another administrator account on the PC.
Related: How to block websites in Google Chrome?1.2. Take Permissions of Files or Folders
After you get the ownership of the file, the next step is to get the required permissions to get full access of that file. Follow the similar process as explained above to open “Advanced Security Settings” dialog of the file.
Now, you have got the required permissions for the file or folder and have necessary access control.2. You are the Owner
If you are the owner of the file then you can change the permissions easily.
Change Permissions as File OwnerWrapping Up
Some of us setup “Read-only” or “Hidden” attributes under “General” tab of the file or folder’s “Properties”. However, any user can easily disable these attributes. So, setting up permissions is necessary to protect inappropriate access of your content. In addition, as an administrator you can take the ownership of the files and check the content if required.
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While maintaining a WordPress site, you need to upload images, themes and plugins through admin dashboard. However, uploading large file size will put pressure on your hosting server in terms of using resources. Due to this fact, many hosting companies, especially shared hosting plans, fix the maximum file upload size in a WordPress installation. If you are stuck and not able to upload the file, here is how to change file upload size in WordPress site.
Note: Uploading files through FTP is controlled by the quota you allocate while creating the account. Likewise uploading through File Manager generally does not have any limitation. In this article, we will discuss the file upload size from admin dashboard which has no impact for uploading files through FTP or File Manager.Checking Default File Upload Size
Check Default File Upload Size in WordPress
Any file you try to upload more than the specified size here will result in file upload error. If you want to check the limit from the Gutenberg editor, add an image block and go to “Media Library” from the block options. Now, go to “Upload files” tab and there you can see the limit mentioned below the “Select Files” box.
Server Status in Site Health Section
Similarly, plugins like WooCommerce will show you the system status where you can find all server details.Why to Increase File Upload Size in WordPress?
There are many reasons you may be interested in increasing the file upload size limit.
Some themes come with bundled plugins and the size can easily exceed the limit set on your size.
You want to run a photography or stock image website and need to upload the original photos from your digital camera or smartphone.
You do not have access to FTP and primarily rely on uploading files through media library or post editor in admin panel.
Selling large files through online store.How to Change File Upload Size in WordPress?
Here we will explain various methods to change the file upload size. However, the first thing you need is to consult with your hosting company whether you are allowed to increase the limit. If you have cloud, VPS, managed or dedicated hosting plans, most probably you can modify the limit yourself. For shared hosting, make sure to check allow the limit from the documentation or from the hosting support.Parameters to Consider
Since large file upload needs the script to run for longer time, simply increasing the allowed size may not work in most situations. There are multiple PHP parameters you need to increase in the server configuration to get the desired result.
upload_max_filesize – maximum file size you try to upload.
post_max_size – this is the maximum size of the allowed POST data and should be greater than the upload_max_filesize.
memory_limit – maximum allowed memory limit should be greater than post_max_size.
max_execution_time – this is the time limit allowed by the server for a script to run. It is defined in seconds and the server will terminate any PHP scripts that try to run beyond the set value.
max_input_time – maximum allowed time for a script to parse input data. Generally, max_execution_time is used for this value.
As you can see, the parameters need to be defined with proper values so that the file upload will work. For example, if you want to increase the file upload size to 64MB, below are the parameters you should change.upload_max_filesize 64M post_max_size 128M memory_limit 256M max_execution_time 300 max_input_time 300
M indicates MB in size and you do not need to mention the seconds (300 indicates 300 seconds by default). You can check the official PHP documentation to learn more about these parameters.1. Changing from cPanel or Custom Hosting Panel
First, we will explain with cPanel hosting with HostGator. You can use the same process in Bluehost and all other cPanel hosting providers.
Login to your hosting account and navigate to cPanel section.
Use the search box and type “php” to find MultiPHP INI Editor app.
This is the easy way, though you can go to “Editor Mode” and edit or add the required directive. If you are using custom hosting panel like SiteGround Site Tool, then the process is similar with the change in interface.
2. Change chúng tôi File
In case if you are not able to use the hosting account, next option is to manually add the directives in your chúng tôi file. This is a server configuration file where you can add the details to increase the file upload size. Go to the root of your WordPress installation using FTP or File Manager and check whether you can find chúng tôi file. If you do not find the file, simply create a new empty file with the name as chúng tôi After that add the following code in the file and save your changes.upload_max_filesize = 64M post_max_size = 128M memory_limit = 256M max_execution_time = 300 max_input_time = 300 3. Add Directive in .htaccess File
The next option is to add the following codes in your .htaccess file. You can use plugins like Yoast SEO, Rank Math or similar plugins to edit the file. Alternatively, login to FTP and locate .htaccess file in the root of your WordPress installation.php_value upload_max_filesize 64M php_value post_max_size 128M php_value memory_limit 256M php_value max_execution_time 300 php_value max_input_time 300
It should look something like below in your file:
Add Directives in htaccess File
Save your file and check that now you can upload 64 MB file size from dashboard.4. Using a Plugin
See the current size limit set by your hosting provider.
Enter the new file upload size to increase or decrease the original value.
Enter New File Upload Size with Plugin
Change the limit as per user role to have different limits for admin, editor, author and other users on your site. This is ideal if you want to restrict small size for subscribers and allow large size for administrators and editors.
Change Limit Per User Role
View the estimated maximum available space on your server.
Do the analyze of your storage and view the statistics.Checking the Size Back
New File Upload Limit Set
Mac shows the username, profile pictures and prompt a password whenever you login to your computer. This username is shown in most of the places and Mac will also create home directory from the admin username. Besides this username your Mac will have a computer name which will be used for many purposes. In this article let us explain how to change the computer name of your Mac.
Where My Computer Name is Shown?
Your computer name will be shown to anyone try to find on you on the network. This is a local hostname for identifying your computer on your network. For example, if you have enabled device tracking with Find iPhone app on your iPhone then it will show the computer name of your Mac.
Find My iPhone Shows Mac Computer Name
Here are some places you can Mac displays the computer name:
All places on the network like Find iPhone.
Apple’s Bonjour networking apps.
During all types of sharing like screen / file / internet / Bluetooth / printer sharing.
Remote login and remote management of Mac.
On the default screen saver.
Command line of the Terminal app.
Where to Find the Computer Name?
Open Sharing Preferences
Here you will find the computer name of your Mac. In our example, the computer name is ‘MacBook-Pro’.
View Computer Name in Mac
How to Change Computer Name of Mac?
Now, you will be prompted to enter the administrator password. So remember to login with your administrator account before trying to edit the computer name. You can’t change the computer name from the standard or parental control account. Enter your administrator password.
Edit Computer Name of Mac
You will see the computer name is showing against ‘Local Hostname’.
Change Computer Name of Mac
Change the name to any name you prefer, for example, change to ‘My-MackBook-Pro’.
The computer name will include .local extension to indicate the name is a local network name.
Any in-between space will be converted to hyphen.
Computer name is NOT case sensitive, so you can use both capital and small letters.
In case if there is a computer on your network already has the same name then Mac will automatically add number suffix to the name to differentiate.
Dynamic Global Hostname
As mentioned above, the purpose of computer name is to identify your Mac within the local network like house or office network. But you can also assign a global hostname so that anyone can locate your Mac outside your network. This needs the support from your internet service provider to assign a DNS hostname.
Change Computer Name from Terminal
well, it is very simple to change the name from Sharing preferences as explained above. Alternatively you can also try changing the name from Terminal command prompt.
Press ‘command + spacebar’ and open Spotlight Search
Search for ‘terminal’ and open Terminal app.
Enter the below command and hit enter key.sudo scutil --set HostName NEW-MAC-NAME sudo scutil --set LocalHostName NEW-MAC-NAME sudo scutil --set ComputerName NEW-MAC-NAME
All these three parameters hostname, localhostname and computer name are used in similar context.
Hostname is the normal hostname for your computer.
Computer name is the user friendly name of your computer.
Local hostname is the Bonjour hostname used in Apple’s Bonjour network.
Remember to copy and paste this command on a TextEdit document and change the NEW-MAC-NAME to your new computer name. Then copy that code with the correct computer name and paste on Terminal app.
You will be prompted to enter admin password. Enter your admin password and hit enter.
Quit terminal app and reopen to see the computer name is changed. You can also verify the new name in Sharing preferences.
If you see the new name is not effective then try entering the below command to flush your DNS entries.dscacheutil -flushcache
Closed Caption is a feature in Windows 11/10 that lets you read words spoken in the audio portion of a video, TV show, or movie. The Closed Caption in windows is excellent for people that are deaf, so instead of hearing, they can read the words on the screen. In Windows 11/10, you can change the font, size, and color of the Closed Caption.How to use Closed Captions in Windows 11/10? How to change Closed Caption settings in Windows 11
Windows 11 is quite a change from Windows 10, especially with the Accessibility settings, earlier known as Ease of Access settings. A lot of options were added for the convenience of the differently-abled. Other than that, the positions of the existing options were shifted too. If you wish to change Closed Caption settings in Windows 11, then the procedure is as follows:
In the Settings Window, go the Accessibility tab on the list on the left-hand side.
In the right-pane, scroll down a little and you would find Captions under the Hearing section.
In the window that opens, you would find an option for the Theme preview and another to change the Caption style.How to change Closed Caption settings in Windows 10
To change Closed Caption settings in Windows 10, follow these methods below.
On the left pane, select Closed Captions
Change the Caption Font Color, Caption transparency, Caption Style, Caption size, and Caption effect
Preview and exit.
Now we are on the Closed Captions page.
Caption Font Color,
Caption size, and
Once the Closed Caption font is customized, the preview of the results will be displayed in the Preview box above.
You can change the background of the Closed Caption in windows by scrolling down to the section Change caption background.
You can also change the Window color and Window transparency.
Under the section Dim window content, you will see the settings for Window color and Window transparency.
If you want to restore the Closed Captioning settings to the default or some settings to default, there is a way to do so.What is the use of closed captions?
Most people use closed captions for understanding videos in which audio is in a foreign language. As effective as that is, it isn’t quite a reason to justify the presence of the option in the Accessibility section of Windows. The reason for that is that it allows people with hearing difficulties to read text mostly in the same language as the audio.What is the best color for closed caption?
The white color is often used for subtitles on your video, but they are difficult to read when there is a lighter background; one of the best colors to use with lighter background is yellow.Are closed captions through Windows as accurate as those on online streaming platform?
No! But here’s the thing. While the closed captions in Microsoft are not written by a person sitting at a desk and listening to the audio, they are smarter than a mere transliteration when the language is different. However, people with hearing difficulties would be reading closed captions of audio in the same language as the audio. That is fairly accurate!
We hope this tutorial helps you understand how to change Closed Caption settings in Windows 11/10.
One of the many features that users of the Windows operating system might come across but not fully understand is the “Print to File” function. This option, often found in the printer dialogue box, may seem puzzling. If you’ve ever wondered about this function, how to use it, or why it’s even there, this article is for you. We’ll explore what “Print to File” is and how to use it effectively in Windows 11 and Windows 10.
Also see: How to Check Print History in Windows 11
When you create a document in a program, such as Microsoft Word, Adobe Reader, or even web browsers like Google Chrome, and you choose to print it, a print dialogue box materializes. This box contains a list of available printers and a range of settings for your print job. An option within this list labeled “Print to File” might catch your attention.
This feature, contrary to its name, does not result in the physical printing of your document. Instead, it generates a .prn file (print file). This file essentially captures the entire dataset required to print the document just as you’ve designed it, including the precise layout, fonts, images, and more.
Why might this be useful? Consider a scenario where you’re working on a computer that does not have the necessary printer available. “Print to File” allows you to create a .prn file that can be transferred to another computer that has the appropriate printer. You can then print your document from that machine, maintaining all its original formatting and features.
Useful tip: How to AirPrint From iOS to Windows 11/10 Shared Printer
Using the “Print to File” function in Windows 10 and 11 is a straightforward process, though it can be slightly different based on the application you’re working with. Here are the general steps:
From the dropdown list, select “Print”. This action will prompt the print dialogue box to appear.
Within the print dialogue box, you’ll find an option for “Print to File”. Select this option.
Upon selecting “Print” again, the system will ask you to designate a location to save your newly created .prn file.
Choose your desired location and save the .prn file.
Recommended guide: How to Clean Print Head in Windows 11
A .prn file isn’t meant to be opened and viewed like a standard document file. Instead, it’s used for printing purposes. To print a .prn file on a Windows computer, follow these steps:
Transfer the .prn file to the computer that has a connection to the appropriate printer.
In the Command Prompt, you need to change the CMD’s directory to the location of your .prn file. You can do this using the cd command. For example, if your file resides on your C: drive, you would type the following and hit Enter. cd C:
Once you’re in the correct directory, use the following command to print the .prn file: copy /b chúng tôi \computernameprintername
Alternatively, you can specify the local printer port instead of the network path:copy /b chúng tôi LPT1:
Press Enter to execute the command. The .prn file will be sent to the printer, and it should start printing.
Note: Make sure the printer is turned on, connected to the computer, and properly installed with the necessary drivers. Also, ensure that you have the appropriate permissions to access the printer.
Remember to adjust the commands according to your specific file name, printer, and setup.
This process allows you to leverage the .prn file to print your document on another system with the correct printer. However, remember that the same printer driver must be installed on both computers, as a .prn file generated for one printer type might not be compatible with a different printer.
Related resource: Using a PowerShell Script to Add a Printer Driver by IP
Problems with printing a .prn file can often be traced back to the role of the printer driver in the “Print to File” process. A common question that arises when discussing the feature and .prn files is whether the printer driver plays a role in the process. The answer is a definitive yes.
When you opt to “Print to File”, the resultant .prn file is formatted explicitly for the printer selected during the creation of the file. This is because the .prn file contains comprehensive data about the document, inclusive of particular printing instructions such as details about layout, color settings, paper size, and more.
The translation and execution of these instructions rest on the printer driver, the software that forms the communication bridge between your computer and the printer. Given that different printer models have varying capabilities and features, their corresponding drivers interpret and handle the printing instructions differently.
Consequently, if you generate a .prn file using one printer driver and then attempt to print that .prn file on a different printer with another driver, the document may not print correctly. This discrepancy occurs because the second printer may fail to understand certain instructions in the .prn file, or it might interpret them differently. This miscommunication could lead to formatting changes, color reproduction issues, and in some instances, the document may not print at all.
Therefore, when using the “Print to File” function with the intention of printing the document on a different computer, it’s crucial to have the same printer driver installed on both systems.
If aligning printer drivers on different systems is not feasible, an alternative solution can be adopted. Using a universal printer driver or a universally recognized file format like PDF (Print to PDF instead) can help maintain consistent formatting across different devices and printers, bypassing the need for matching printer drivers. These options are designed to be versatile and can provide consistent results, regardless of the printer model or brand.
The “Print to File” function is a convenient, albeit somewhat antiquated, feature that can be useful in specific circumstances. While not often used due to the rise of cloud-based printing and email, it can be a handy tool to have in your tech arsenal when faced with certain printing challenges. As Windows continues to evolve with new versions like Windows 11 and 10, this feature may eventually be phased out.
The primary benefit of using “Print to File” is the flexibility it offers for printing documents from any computer to any printer, regardless of their physical locations. For instance, you might generate a .prn file at home, take it to the office, and print it from a computer that’s connected to the office printer. This function also lets you ensure that the formatting of a document remains intact when moving it from one computer to another for printing.
The hosts file is a text-based file located in the same place in all modern Windows versions. Most people don’t ever need to get into it, but if you do, you’ll need to know how to open and edit the hosts file.
However, in some versions of Windows, editing the hosts file directly isn’t allowed. In fact, you’ll get an error if you try to save the changes. Fortunately, there’s a simple tip you can use to edit the hosts file in Windows 10, 8, 7, Vista, or XP.
Table of ContentsWhat Does The Hosts File Do?
The purpose of the hosts file was originally to be what DNS servers do now – map friendly domain names to unfriendly IP addresses.
It’s much easier to remember a domain name like chúng tôi than an IP address like 188.8.131.52. Instead of having to type the IP address into the address bar each time you want to watch YouTube videos, you can just enter the domain name, and the DNS server your device is using will map the name to the right address so you can get to the webpage a lot easier.
The hosts file, since it serves as a sort of DNS server, works the same way. You can enter an IP address that a domain name should be resolved to. In other words, you could order your computer to load a different IP address than the DNS server would, essentially letting you do a few cool things.Why Edit The Hosts File?
Another use for the hosts file is to speed up your web browsing. If the DNS server you’re using is down or not working quickly enough, manually entering the IP address and domain name mappings in your hosts file lets your computer find those addresses nearly instantly instead of relying on the DNS server.
Tip: Learn how to use alternate DNS servers to get faster internet access.Windows Hosts File Location
You need to know where to go to find the hosts file before you can open it for editing. This is the hosts file location in Windows 10 through Windows XP:
C:Windowssystem32driversetcHow To Edit The Hosts File
The hosts file is a text file, meaning that you need a text editor to make changes to it. However, since the hosts file is super basic and doesn’t need to deal with hyperlinks, images, etc., you can use a basic text editor (i.e., there’s no need to use a full-fledged editor like Microsoft Word).Opening The Hosts File
Let’s start with simply opening the hosts file. We’ll use Notepad, which is built into Windows 10 down through Windows XP.
Open the Run dialog box by holding down the Windows key and then pressing R once.
Type notepad and then press Enter to open the program.
paste) the hosts file location shown above and then press Enter.
Select the menu to the right of the text box to change Text Documents (*.txt) to All Files (*).
the hosts file for editing in Notepad.Editing The Hosts File
There are a few examples in the hosts file to show you how to format your entries. You have to put the IP address first followed by the domain name, and the two have to be separated by at least one space (a tab is a good way to format them).
Here are some examples:
Related: Edit Hosts File to Add Local DNS Lookup
If you want to block websites with the hosts file, such as YouTube, Amazon, Google, chúng tôi etc., you can enter a false IP address like 0.0.0.0.
Note: When you enter the URL of the site you want to associate with a specific IP address, be sure to exclude the beginning part and only type the subdomain, such as www or whatever it happens to be for the site you’re adding.Saving The Hosts File
Here’s how we’ll save the hosts file to make sure it works no matter which operating system you use, which text editor you picked, or how your Windows settings are configured:
type option to All Files (*).
Rename the file to hosts.backupfile, and then save it to your desktop.
Close Notepad and then find the hosts file you just created on the desktop. You want to delete the .backupfile part of the name and leave only hosts (with no period or text after the word).
on the desktop, and confirm the name change when asked.
Copy the hosts file.
Open the hosts file location you had open before (the etc folder).
Paste the hosts file you copied from the desktop, and confirm any overwrite prompts if you see them.
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