You are reading the article How Many People Use Skype? updated in February 2024 on the website Tai-facebook.edu.vn. We hope that the information we have shared is helpful to you. If you find the content interesting and meaningful, please share it with your friends and continue to follow and support us for the latest updates. Suggested March 2024 How Many People Use Skype?How Many People Use Skype? [Worldwide Statistics] Skype is still used by various business around the world
Skype has been losing popularity over the past few years, but it doesn’t mean that nobody uses it.
Although home users might’ve left Skype, it’s still a popular choice among many business.
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Skype was one of the most influential messaging apps in the last decade, but many are wondering how many people use Skype today.
It’s safe to assume that the popularity of Skype has waned over the past few users, and Windows 11 replaced Skype with Microsoft Teams. However, that doesn’t mean that Skype is forgotten.
Join us while we take a closer look at Skype’s user statistics in the current year and see how well the messaging giant holds up after all these years.Which country has the most Skype users?
United States – 32 million active users (12.23%)
India – 3.1 million active users (7.25%)
Russian Federation – (6.71%)
Brazil – 1.2 million active users (5.29%)
The United Kingdom – 6.7 million active users (3.84%)
This is because many companies, especially in the United States, still use Skype.
Country:Number of companies:
The same goes for personal users. Many have friends and other contacts on Skype, so moving them all to a new platform isn’t easy.
The following countries have at least 1 million Skype users:
GermanyHow many people use Skype? Skype numbers expected to rise
Although Skype isn’t popular as it used to be, the numbers say otherwise.
Experts estimate that the number of Skype users will rise in the future, and according to Statista, it’s estimated that in 2024, Skype will have 2.27 billion registered users.
According to data, Skype has 300 million active users every month in 2023, and every day 40 million users worldwide use it.
Monthly usersDaily users
300 million40 millionWhat age group uses Skype the most?
According to data from SimilarWeb, Skype has 40.53% female and 59.47% users. Regarding the age distribution, Skype is mostly used by people in the 25-34 age bracket.
18 – 2421.38
Here’s a visual representation of the data:What industries use Skype the most?
Skype is widely used in various industries, and the vast majority of users are in computer software and information technology.
Industry:Number of users in millions:
Computer Software Industry8.6
Information Technology and Services Industry6
Education Management Industry3
Hospital and Healthcare Industry3
Higher Education Industry2
Marketing and Advertising Industry2
Financial Services Industry1.67
NGO Management Industry1.5
However, Skype is used in various other industries, and you can see its stats in the graph below:Does anyone still use Skype?
Yes, Skype is still used, mostly by business users, but personal users are moving away from the platform and are switching to alternatives.
We’ll briefly cover some of the alternatives and see how Skype compares to them:Skype vs Teams
Probably the biggest reason why Skype is losing popularity is Microsoft Teams. It’s intended as a Skype replacement, and it shares many similarities with it. To learn more, we suggest reading our Skype vs Microsoft Teams guide.
Here’s a quick overview of the differences between the two:
Max number of participants1,000100
60 minutes in free plan24h
Record meetingsOnly on paid planYes
Group and individual messages during callsYesYes
Live meeting transcription Only on paid plansYes
Joining restrictions YesYes
Cloud storageStarting from 5GB per userStarting from 5GB per user
IntegrationsOver 700Not supported
Support24/7 support on paid plansLimited support
As you can see, Skype is more useful for smaller teams and home users, while Teams offers more collaboration features, and it’s better for larger teams.Skype vs Zoom
During the pandemic, Zoom emerged as a popular alternative for collaboration and video conferencing, and it took the market by storm.
If you haven’t tried this software, we have a great guide on how to download and install Zoom, so be sure to check it out.
Here’s a quick comparison between Skype and Zoom:
Price$0-19.99 monthly/per licenceFree
Maximum participantsUp to 1,000Up to 100
Max call durationUp to 30h, 40-minute limit on meetings with free planUp to 24h
OS compatibilityMac OS, Windows, iOS, Android, LinuxWindows, Linux, Android, iOS, Mac OS, Xbox, Amazon Alexa devices
Video qualityUp to 1080pUp to 1080p
Join meetings via phone or videoYesYes
Meeting transcriptsOnly on Business and Enterprise plansNo
Audience pollingOn paid plansNo
Streaming on social mediaOn paid plansNo
Customer supportVaries by planOnline help
Account required to attend meetingsNoNo
Expert tip:Skype vs Discord
Discord is a popular messaging app, but how does it compare to Skype? It’s not easy to compare the two since they have different purposes besides instant messaging.
To learn more, we strongly suggest reading out Skype vs Discord guide for in-depth information.
Here’s a quick overview of the two services:
Audio quality64 kbps100 kbps
Ability to call phone numbersNoYes
Max size for file sharingUp to 8MB for free users, up to 50MB for Nitro users300MB
Ability to connect other servicesFacebook, Skype, Twitter, Steam, and moreFacebook, Docs, Excel, Powerpoint
Live captions NoYes
As previously mentioned, these two services are quite different, and Discord is designed to create a community and share content, while Skype is made primarily for video calls and instant messaging.
In that regard, Skype is a better option since it’s free, it offers recording features, better sound quality, and support for more participants.
However, if you want to organize and chat with fellow gamers, Discord is no doubt a better option.Skype vs WhatsApp
When comparing Skype to WhatsApp, it’s important to mention that WhatsApp is primarily a messaging app for your phone, so it will lack many features that Skype has.
Of course, you can get WhatsApp for Windows 11, but it offers the same features as the web app.
Let’s quickly compare the two:
Number of users1.5+ billion since 20231.33+ million users since 2023
Requires a phone numberYesNo
Uses contacts from the phone’s contact listYesNo
Audio qualityDecentRefined HD quality
Maximum participants in a call4100
End-to-end encryptionEnabled by defaultNot enabled by default
Cloud storage syncNoYes
Both services are similar, but if you want to collaborate with others, then Skype might be a better option.
On the other hand, if you just want to chat with friends, WhatsApp is one of the most popular instant messaging apps, which makes it a better choice.Skype vs Google Meet
Another great Skype alternative is Google Meet. In case you’re not familiar with it, we have a great guide on how to use Google Meet on Windows 11, so be sure to check it out.
Requires an accountYesNo
Maximum meeting length1h for Free users, up to 24h with Workspace account24h
Maximum number of participantsUp to 100 on Free plan, up to 500 on Business Plan100
Ability to call dial-in numbersYesYes
Available on all major platformsYesYes, including Xbox
Synchronization with calendarYesNo
Meeting recordingOnly on Enterprise planYes
YouTube broadcastingOnly in Enterprise or Education planNo
Google Meet offers simplicity and ease of use, and it’s a great option for free users, as long as you don’t mind the 1h meeting length for free users.
On the other hand, with a built-in recording feature, Skype is a better choice for some businesses.Skype vs Slack
Slack is one of the most popular collaboration platforms in the world. To learn more about it, we have a great Slack vs Skype guide that you should check out if you want to learn more.
Here’s a quick comparison:
PricingFree with 3 different premium plansFree
Max participants in a call2 for free, 50 for paid100
SearchAdvanced filtered searchBasic text search
File sharingFree: 90 days of message history, Premium plans start at 10GB per memberStarting from 5GB per user
IntegrationsOver 2,400 integrationsVery limited
Skype’s popularity is slowly fading when it comes to home users, but the service is still incredibly popular with many businesses, especially in the United States.
However, we expect this to change in the upcoming years slowly. If you’re not a fan of Skype, then you might want to try some of these Skype alternatives.
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As games continue to become more and more graphically demanding, and other intensely taxing software applications are developed, users require a top-of-the-line graphics card to keep up.
For these special performance requirements, both NVIDIA and AMD offer solutions where users can integrate and utilize multiple GPUs at once in their systems, in order to match the high computational power requirements of demanding games or software apps.How Many GPUs Can Your PC Run at Once?
The answer is that the majority of PC Motherboards can support up to six GPUs at once, depending on your exact motherboard and GPU models. This will combine the performance of multiple GPUs into a single unit.
Note that having a bridge between the GPUs is not required to run them at once, as long as they are properly connected to the Motherboard and PSU power cables. When it comes to specialized purpose-built systems like for example crypto mining, a single rig can host up to 256 GPUs at once.When Should You Use Multiple GPUs?
The only scenario where you would use multiple GPUs is when you connect two of the highest performing GPUs in order to solve a very specific performance requirement – such as complex 3D rendering, running of engineering physics simulations engines, or gaming at extreme resolutions and or refresh rates.
Unless your specific scenario calls for having 2, 3, or even 4 GPUs, it’s best to just stick to a single high-end GPU.How to Use Multiple GPUs?
There are several ways to connect multiple GPUs. Some of the common ones are listed below.Scalable Link Interface (SLI)
It is NVIDIAs first released technology that allowed users to combine multiple GPUs in a single system. Running a multi-GPU SLI setup can distribute the workload to multiple GPUs – in many scenarios boosting performance. It’s crucial to note that SLI only works when all of your GPUs have the exact amount of VRAM. Please note that SLI is not the latest technology available from NVIDIA as of 2023. You can read more about this in the section below.
SLI in particular works by scaling specialized computational elements such as geometry and texture fill rates by increasing the bandwidth of information flow between your hardware components. SLI links between GPUs offer significantly faster bandwidth than regular PCI express interfaces, in some cases by up to sixty times.Crossfire
Crossfire is AMD’s proprietary multi-GPU technology. Much like the SLI technology, both AMD and NVIDIA are pushing away currently as support for the newest and future GPUs is speculated to be dropped. Crossfire will let you use either 2, 3, or four GPUs at once.NVLink
NVLink is tremendously faster than any past iterations of SLI, and it completely changes the ways that multiple GPUs interact with one another. This translates into up to 150 times better data transfer compared to the older SLI technology.
Most notably with NVLink there is little to no performance or latency penalty when multiple GPUs try to coordinate which GPU should process information. With SLI, the GPU in the first slot becomes the primary card, while the rest are just supporting.Independent GPU Cards
The first and most common way for PCs to be set up is to have just a single GPU. When a single GPU is installed, it will run independently on its own and will compute all of the data itself. Whilst being the most predictable and power-friendly option for PC builds, it will never reach the full power of a multi-GPU setup.
Many GPUs can run independently in tandem, without the need for a bridge. Performance and stability might not be up to par, however. This setup depends exclusively on your exact hardware – motherboard and GPU compatibility and features. So in theory you don’t need SLI, NVlink, or Crossfire, but you will incur many downsides.Why Single GPUs Are the Trend Right Now?
When it comes to building a brand-new PC, you should always look at the most powerful single GPU you can afford instead of looking at combining two cheaper ones with matching high-end GPU performance. This is due to the increased power consumption, lack of compatibility for some games and applications, and increased heat production.
Additionally, as newer games and applications are developed, the support for SLI and Crossfire will dwindle down significantly.What Are Pros and Cons of Having Multiple GPUs?
Here is a better breakdown of the pros and cons so you can get a gauge on whether it’s worth it for your specific use case:
Near double the performance of just a single GPU in many cases
Incredibly efficient for rendering and heavy 3D application use, great for AI simulations
Offer better multi-monitor gaming capabilities
Two mid-range GPUs together can almost match a high-end GPU
Improved PC visuals
Increased Electricity cost due to more power draw
Heat increases within the case
Lack of proper compatibility for some applications
In rare cases can worsen stability and performance
Requires a higher wattage PSUDo Multiple GPUs Require an SLI/Crossfire Bridge?
Most of the newer GPUs can run in SLI or Crossfire without a bridge, but they would take a significant performance hit. These bridges refer to high bandwidth connector cables on each side of both GPUs to ensure smooth synchronization. We recommend that you always use an SLI/Crossfire bridge since the downsides of not having one don’t justify the small price savings.How Does SLI VRAM Work?
You would think that if you use two NVIDIA 1650 GPUs in SLI, both having 4GB of GDDR6 memory, you would have a total of 8GB of effective VRAM, right? Wrong. VRAM does not work additively. The amount of VRAM is shared between the two GPUs, so if you have 4GB on one card, only 4GB of VRAM is available from both cards combined.
Don’t be discouraged though, if your games and applications only use a certain amount of VRAM, you will still get a significant FPS and performance increase in your game.Can You Mix Different GPUs Together?
The only things that you can mix when it comes to SLI and Crossfire GPU configurations are using the same base GPU but from different manufacturers. For example, a GTX 1080 can only be run in tandem with another GTX 1080.
The only variable could be if suppose one of these cards is from EVGA while the other is from MSI. But be careful, as it’s always best to use the exact same model and type of GPU when running multiple ones.
Home » Tutorials » How Many Layers Can You Have in Procreate
The amount of layers you can have in Procreate is all dependent on the size and DPI of your canvas combined with the amount of RAM available to you on your iPad. The bigger your canvas and the less RAM you have, the fewer layers your canvas will have.
I’m Carolyn and I’ve been using Procreate to run my digital illustration business for over three years. I face daily challenges when it comes to being limited to a certain amount of layers especially when I’m creating elaborate and detailed artwork for my clients.
Today, I’m going to explain to you how this very technical aspect of the Procreate program can have an effect on your canvas and thus have an effect on all of the digital artwork that you produce on the app. And some personal tips on how to navigate your way around it.
The lesser quality of your canvas, the more layers you will have.
The model of the iPad you have will also determine how many layers you can have.
You can increase the number of layers you have by changing the canvas dimensions.
3 Factors That Determine Your Layer Limit
There are three contributing factors that will determine the number of layers that each of your canvases on Procreate can offer you. Below I have briefly explained each one and how it has an effect on your layer allowance.
Size and Dimensions of Your Canvas
When you first open a new canvas from your Procreate Gallery, you are presented with a drop-down list that comprises a series of different canvas sizes. Your options include screen size, square, 4K, A4, 4×6 photo, comic, and many more.
Each one of these sizes will have its dimensions listed to the right of the list alongside the color space of each option. These dimensions play a huge factor in how many layers you will have available to you once you have chosen your canvas.
For example, the popular preloaded canvas size Square has the dimensions 2048 x 2048 px. This dimension is calculated by pixels and if used with the average DPi of 132, you will have access to create 60 layers, depending on which model iPad you are using.
DPI of Your Canvas
DPI stands for Dots Per Inch. This is a unit of measurement that calculates the resolution quality of your image. The DPI of your canvas combined with the dimensions you choose may have an effect on how many layers you will have access to.
The higher you have your DPI set, the more dots of color per inch you get. This is why you can use different amounts of DPI for different reasons. For example, if you want to print a clear image, you should have your DPI set to 300.
RAM Availability of Your Device
RAM stands for random access memory. This determines the amount of memory capacity your device has. Procreate has access to a certain amount of RAM on your iPad and this is all dependent on which model iPad you have and how much RAM it comes with.
For example, if you have a 7th-generation iPad, your device will have 3GB of RAM. If you have a 5th-generation iPad Air, your device will have 8GB of RAM. It’s all device specific so there’s really no way to guarantee your maximum layer allowance based on your device.
Fun Fact: if the RAM was available to you, you could have as many as 999 layers per canvas. One can dream!
How to Check How Many Layers You Have in Procreate
This is the simple part. It only takes a matter of seconds to check how many layers your canvas comes with, how many you have used, and how many you have left. This is a great thing to know so you can keep on top of things without running out of layers. Here’s how:
Step 1: On your canvas, tap on the Actions tool (wrench icon) and select the Canvas menu. Scroll down and tap on where it says Canvas information.
Step 2: Canvas Info menu will now appear. Tap on the Layers option. Here you can view your maximum layers, the layers used, and how many layers are still available to use. Once you have gotten the information you’re looking for, tap on Done to close the menu.
How to Change the Dimensions of Your Canvas
If you need to create more layers and want to reduce the size of your canvas, you can do this before or after you have started creating your artwork. Here’s how:
Step 1: On your canvas, tap on the Actions tool (wrench icon) and select the Canvas menu. Tap on the first option where it says Crop & Resize. Your Crop & Resize menu will appear.
Step 2: Under the Settings tab, you will have the option to change the pixel dimensions and DPI of your canvas. Once you have made your changes you can select Done to confirm or Reset to return the canvas to its original settings.
How to Compromise with Limited Layers
If you have to keep your canvas at a higher resolution with bigger dimensions for any reason, there are some tricks to working around it. Here are some of my favorite ways to work around running out of layers:
Delete Duplicate Layers
You should regularly be filtering through your Layers menu to ensure you don’t have any duplicate or blank layers that you created by mistake. You’ll be surprised how many of these you might actually find once you start looking for them.
There may be layers that may not necessarily need to be separated. If you have two layers with small shapes or details on them, try combining them to free up some layer space within your canvas.
Duplicate Entire Project
This can be risky if it’s not thought through well enough so take extra care when trying it. You can duplicate the entire project and then combine all layers together to give you almost double the layer capacity you had to begin with.
Be careful with this method as this means you will not be able to make any edits or changes to the combined project. However, duplicating the canvas before doing so, keeps your original safe and sound.
Below I have briefly answered some of your frequently asked questions about this topic.
Is there a Procreate layer limit calculator?
Such a thing does not exist. However, the Procreate Folio website shows you a breakdown of maximum layer capacities based on each Apple iPad model.
How to change the maximum amount of layers in Procreate?
I recommend changing the dimensions of your canvas and/or lowering the DPI depending on what you need the image for. You can go lower with your DPI with no disturbances if your image will only be used online rather than it being printed.
Is there a limit on layers in Procreate?
Technically yes. The layer limit in Procreate is 999. However, it’s rare that you will have a device with enough RAM to support this amount of layers.
How many layers can you have in Procreate Pocket?
This is the same as listed above. It all depends on the size of your canvas however, I do find that the layer maximum is usually much higher on the Procreate Pocket app compared to the original.
Are you having problems using Skype on your Mac? Maybe it’s conflicting with another app, or it shows the ‘quit unexpectedly’ error when you launch it?
Maybe you want to delete Skype for a good reason. Perhaps your friends have moved to Oovoo and Discord and you simply want to get rid of Skype from your Mac completely to free up a bit extra storage.
Whatever your intent is, you have come to the right place. We’ll show you how to uninstall Skype in different ways, with step-by-step tutorials.
The first method shows you how to manually remove Skype from your Mac and reinstall it. The other two methods are more efficient but come with the trade-off of installing another app.
Anyway, just choose which method best fits your situation. Let’s get started.
Using a PC? Also read: How to Uninstall Skype on Windows
1. Uninstalling Skype with the Traditional Way (Manually)
Note: This method is best suited if you have extra time on your hands and do not mind taking extra steps to do it manually.
Step 2: Delete Skype by dragging it from your Applications folder to the Trash.
Step 3: Remove Skype from Application Support. Go to Spotlight Search at the top-right corner of your screen. Type “~/Library/Application Support” and hit Enter.
You will be directed to the place where all application files are stored. Locate the “Skype” folder and drag it to the trash.
Note: This will delete all your Skype chat and call history. If you want to keep them, skip this step.
Step 4: Remove the remaining associated files. Go back to Spotlight Search at the top-right corner again, then type “~/Library/Preference”‘ and hit Enter.
Now type ‘Skype’ in the search box. This will show you the folders associated with the app. Ensure that your filter is set to Preferences and not This Mac. Proceed to drag the associated folders into the trash.
Step 5: Open Finder and enter “Skype” in the search bar to do a final check on the remaining items related to Skype. Move all of the results to the trash. Then empty your trash to delete all the files.
That’s it! If you do not have the extra time to remove Skype manually, or Skype can’t be uninstalled using this method, try the following methods instead.
2. Uninstalling Skype with AppCleaner (Free)
Best For: If your Mac is not in desperate need of clearing massive storage space and you just need a one-time uninstallation of an app.
AppCleaner, as its name says, is a free third-party uninstaller app that allows you to thoroughly remove unwanted apps in a drag-and-drop manner. You will see that on the right-hand side of the webpage, there are different versions to download.
Once you download and install AppCleaner, you will see the main window.
Next, open a Finder window and go to Applications. Proceed to drag your Skype application into the AppCleaner window.
Not happy with AppCleaner? No problem! We’ve got another great option for you.
3. Uninstalling Skype with CleanMyMac (Paid)
Best For: Those of you who need to free up more storage space on your Mac — i.e. not only do you want to remove Skype, you also want a list of other apps to uninstall and you want to do this in a batch.
CleanMyMac is one of our favorite solutions. We run the app regularly to clean up our Macs and the app never fails to deliver its promise. In addition, it actually includes a dozen features that allow you to do many things, including uninstalling third-party apps in bulk.
To uninstall Skype (and other apps you don’t need anymore), start by downloading CleanMyMac and installing it on your Mac. Then follow the four steps as indicated in the screenshot here.
Note that CleanMymac isn’t free; however, it has a free trial that allows you to test drive. If you like the app, you can purchase it later on. You can then use it to clean unnecessary files on your Mac on top of deleting applications.
How to Reinstall Skype on Mac?
So now you have successfully removed Skype from your Mac machine, and you want to reinstall the app. Here’s how to do it:
Note: Skype is not available on the Mac App Store. You need to go to the official Skype website to download the app.
Wait until the download is complete, then follow the instructions to get Skype re-installed on your Mac. The installation process should be very straightforward; we won’t elaborate here.
After more than six months of field testing and a succession of beta versions based on user feedback, Skype 4.0 for Windows has been officially released and is available for free download. Version 4 of Skype’s VoIP software has been given a significant overhaul from its 3.8 predecessor, with a revamped and easier-to-use interface and changes under the hood designed to improve audio and video call quality.
As before, Skype’s software offers free instant messaging, audio and video calls, and file transfers between Skype users. Pay a per-minute or monthly subscription fee and you can also use Skype to place calls or send texts to phones (domestic or international, landline or mobile), or purchase a phone number for your Skype account to receive calls (and voice mails) from phones. Detailed information on Skype’s myriad pricing options is available here.
Skype 4’s interface makeover ditches the familiar columnar window its predecessor used in favor of one that’s spacious, quasi-rectangular, and dual-paned. The left pane shows the contact list while the right displays detail information and all the communications history for the selected contact. Skype calls this the “conversation,” and it encompasses any form communication with a contact might take, be it audio, video, text, or a file transfer.
This conversation metaphor helps simplify the task of keeping on top of ongoing communications you’re engaged in with different people during the course of a day. Adjacent to the Contacts list tab is one that displays all recent conversations and makes it easy to find and resume a specific one, as opposed to having to hunt for a name in a lengthy contact list.
If you want to participate in multiple simultaneous conversations, a button in the upper-right corner of the program window (next to the standard minimize, maximize, and close controls) will detach the Conversations window, letting you have a separate one for each.
Skype’s Windows tray icon has been made more informative. Previously, a red flag would simply indicate missed “events” and require you to open up Skype to see how many and what kind they were.
Lots of Skype users rely on the software for videoconferencing, so 4.0’s video features have gotten some needed attention. Skype’s new user interface is much more video friendly, allowing both the ncoming video and monitoring windows to be larger by default as well as more easily resized and repositioned.
Also, whereas you used to have to initiate an audio call before you could start transmitting video, with 4.0 you can have video from the start. A Video Call button appears alongside the Call button for each contact. Similarly, you have the option to answer incoming calls with or without video.
Skype 4.0 uses a bandwidth manager to keep the audio/visual quality as high as possible in situations where connection bandwidth is limited or suddenly degrades. We tested the software on a reasonably powerful desktop PC with a speedy cable modem connection (about 6 Mbps download/1 Mpbs upload), so we didn’t see a marked improvement in overall quality.
Even the best connections are susceptible to the occasional hiccup, however. In these cases, we noticed that 4.0 tended to degrade the visuals gracefully with a lower resolution or frame rate while keeping the audio intact. By comparison, 3.8 seemed more apt to freeze or garble the video or cause audio dropouts. Skype said 4.0 uses a new audio codec that consumes only half the bandwidth of the old one.
In addition to letting you search for users in Skype’s directory, you can now search your Outlook, Outlook Express, or Yahoo e-mail address book for Skype users to add to your Contacts list. Although you still can’t prevent unknown Skype users from requesting your contact details, Skype 4.0 will let you report those accounts for abuse as well as block them.
Skype 4.0 also makes it easier to dial phone numbers with an on-screen keypad that’s much larger and easier to find when you want it. Plus, anyone who frequently makes international calls will appreciate the ability to check the per-minute rates for a particular country right from the software instead of having to look them up on Skype’s web site.
Although the new version doesn’t add any radical new features — and actually removes a few of the lesser-used ones — Skype 4.0 is a major improvement over its predecessor. It is a must-have upgrade for any Skype user. If you’re new to Skype, 4.0’s improved interface will make getting started with the software much easier.
Article courtesy of Practically Networked.
How Many Profs Does It Take to Teach Trauma? CGS class led by three scholars from diverse fields
STH’s Shelly Rambo offers a theological perspective on trauma, while he colleagues’ tackle its clinical and literary aspects.Class by class, lecture by lecture, question asked by question answered, an education is built. This is one of a series of visits to one class, on one day, in search of those building blocks at BU.
Ellen DeVoe has some surprising news for her class on trauma: early studies of post-traumatic stress suggest that members of the National Guard and Reserves were at higher risk of the disorder than active-duty soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Sitting with a ring of students, Shelly Rambo asks, “Why is it National Guard and reservists?” Partly, says DeVoe, a School of Social Work associate professor of clinical practice, it’s because they receive less training than active-duty soldiers. She goes on to describe how trauma treaters should be aware of their “civilian privilege”—the freedoms we enjoy, not appreciating how soldiers secure those freedoms—prompting a question from Joshua Pederson: “Am I wrong to be hearing the Jack Nicholson speech from A Few Good Men?”
This typical classroom discussion has an atypical cast: Rambo and Pederson (GRS’08) are not undergraduates like the dozen others seated with them. She is a School of Theology associate professor of theology, he, a College of General Studies assistant professor of humanities.
A theologian, a social worker, and a literature prof walk into a class: it’s not the setup to a joke, but a weekly lesson in Trauma in History, Art and Religion, taught by all three. Rambo and Pederson also take turns lecturing on this day’s topic of trauma and war, bringing distinctive takes from their own specialties. Pederson reviews a book the class has read on burgeoning mental health problems in the military, posing a question you’d expect from a literature specialist: “Is his thesis persuasive?”
Rambo discusses how media coverage conditions us to grieve some war casualties and not others, and she wonders about the ethics of making such distinctions. She screens a TV news photograph of soldiers in Iraq, noting the absence of Iraqis in the shot. “Who’s in the frame?” she asks rhetorically. “That’s chosen for me, to see certain things and not to see other things.” While newscasters don’t explicitly say they’re unconcerned with Iraqi lives, decisions about what to photograph craft viewers responses, she posits: “We’re trained to view certain lives as grievable and certain lives that are not worth grieving.”
Covering the science, moral implications, and different triggers of trauma, and open to all undergraduates, the course was conceived by Pederson and designed with a grant from the Provost’s Office. “Though courses team-taught by faculty from different schools or colleges are currently rare, such courses do exist and speak to the faculty’s desire to collaborate across disciplines,” says Elizabeth Loizeaux, associate provost for undergraduate affairs.
Loizeaux says the BU Hub, the University-wide general education program that will launch with the incoming 2023 freshman class, encourages such courses. Carrie Preston, Kilachand Honors College director, says Kilachand sophomores take interdisciplinary courses, with this spring semester’s offering on Global Health being taught by faculty from the College of Engineering, the School of Public Health, and the College of Arts & Sciences.
Pederson says he hatched the idea for a three-pronged pedagogical probe of trauma because academic study of the topic has expanded beyond psychology in recent years.
“You can talk about sociological trauma or historical trauma or psychological trauma,” he says. “That’s the idea of the course, to bring together people in different fields who were working with trauma as a category, to get us all in the same room and in some ways just learn from each other.” Pederson notes that Yale sociologist Kai Erikson studied communal trauma, those disasters that shatter a sense of community.
Erikson distinguishes between the psychological trauma individuals suffer from the actual disaster and “the way in which the community itself is somehow traumatized,” says Pederson. “It’s a breakdown of trust, it’s increasing isolation, it’s decreased trust in institutions. An individually, psychologically traumatized person may or may not lose faith in institutions.”
Many taking the class, like Sara Noorouzi (Sargent’20), a premed student interested in public health, are from Sargent College of Health & Rehabilitation Sciences. “We talk a lot about natural disasters,” says Noorouzi, “about soldiers coming back from the wars, and those sorts of traumas. At Sargent, we learn a lot about physiology and what happens to the body, but not much about the mental part of it.”
She says having three teachers, is “super-interesting. You get viewpoints from every single perspective. It’s not something that I would normally think about from my major.”
In casting his net for co-teachers, Pederson says, he had Rambo in mind from the beginning because of her research into, and reinterpretation of, traditional Christian theology in light of modern trauma studies.
Pederson also wanted a psychologist or a social worker who practiced with traumatized patients as a clinician. He was excited about snaring DeVoe, who created SSW’s trauma certificate program.
“She’s on the ground. She works with traumatized people,” he says. “Professor Rambo and I will have debates about these types of theoretical questions, and then Professor DeVoe will always very kindly come back and say, ‘You know, I just approach this from a really different perspective…’ I think she probably cares less about the definition of trauma than she cares about helping people who are hurt.”
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