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Some PC gamers are reporting when they try to launch a game or while gaming on their Windows 11 or Windows 10 PC, the game crashes and throws the DirectX function GetDeviceRemovedReason failed with DXGI error message prompt. If you are experiencing a similar issue, then you have most certainly arrived at the right place! In this post, we provide the most suitable solutions to successfully fix this error.

When you encounter this issue, you’ll receive the full error message along the following similar lines;

DirectX Error

DirectX function “GetDeviceRemovedReason” failed with DXGl_ERROR_DEVlCE_HUNG. GPU: ‘NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1650’. Driver 43648. This error is usually caused by the graphics driver crashing: try installing the latest drivers.

The error indicates the graphics driver crashed on your system. Unfortunately, as reported by most affected PC gamers, restarting the game doesn’t always solve the problem.

What is a DXGI error?

A DXGI error is associated with your graphics card and occurs when your graphics card stops working properly or loses connection with your computer. There are many reasons for DXGI error, like overclocking of GPU, GPU overheating, corrupted GPU driver, etc. Some users found that faulty RAM can also cause this error.

DirectX function GetDeviceRemovedReason failed with DXGI error

If the DirectX function GetDeviceRemovedReason failed with DXGI error has occurred on your Windows 11/10 gaming device, you can try our recommended solutions below in no particular order and see if that helps to resolve the issue.

Restart display driver

Run DirectX Diagnostic Tool (DxDiag)

Install DirectX from within the Game’s root folder

Update graphics driver

Clean install NVIDIA graphics driver

Modify GstRender settings

Disable Variable Refresh Rate and Hardware-accelerated GPU Scheduling

Disable overclocking

Troubleshoot in Clean Boot state

Uninstall and Reinstall the game

Let’s take a look at the description of the process involved concerning each of the listed solutions.

Before you try the solutions below, check for updates and install any available bits on your Windows 11/10 device and see if the error reappears when you attempt installing the printer. On the other hand, if the error started after a recent Windows update, you can perform System Restore or uninstall the update – but if you prefer not to do neither, you can then go ahead with the solutions below.

1] Restart display driver

You can begin troubleshooting to fix the DirectX function GetDeviceRemovedReason failed with DXGI error that occurred on your Windows 11/10 gaming device by simply restarting the display driver.

If this action wasn’t helpful, you can restart your PC and see if that helps. If not, you can try the next solution.

2] Run DirectX Diagnostic Tool (DxDiag)

If you’re having problems getting a game or movie to play properly on your Windows 11/10 device, the DirectX Diagnostic Tool can help you pinpoint the likely culprits.

This solution requires you to troubleshoot the DirectX error using DirectX Diagnostic Tool (DxDiag).

3] Install DirectX from within the Game’s root folder

Most game works best when their own libraries are installed. So, to determine if this is the case here, you can Install the DirectX version from within the Game’s root folder and see if the issue in hand will be resolved.

Do the following:

Locate and explore the game’s installation folder.

In the game root folder, locate and open the directx folder.

In the open folder, locate and open the folder named redlist.

Follow the on-screen instructions to install DirectX.

Restart PC once done.

On boot, check if the issue is resolved. Otherwise, see if installing the latest version of Visual C++ redistributable package and the latest version of DirectX from Microsoft helps or try the next solution.

4] Update the graphics driver

This solution requires you to update the graphics driver on your system and see if that helps. You can manually update drivers via Device Manager if you have already downloaded the .inf or .sys file for the driver, or update the driver via Command Prompt. You can as well get the driver updates on the Optional Updates section under Windows Update or you may also download the latest version of the driver from the manufacturer’s website or automatically update your drivers using any of the free Driver Update Software for Windows 11/10 PC.

However, if the latest drivers are installed, you can roll back the driver or download and install an earlier version of the driver.

If both updating and/or rolling back the driver didn’t work, you can uninstall the graphics driver, and then restart your PC – on boot, Windows will scan for hardware changes and automatically reinstall the generic driver for the display/video device which in some cases is sufficient enough for the graphics to function without issues.

5] Clean install NVIDIA graphics driver

To clean install the NVIDIA graphics driver on your Windows 11/10 computer, you first need to uninstall the graphics driver via Device Manager or alternatively use the Display Driver Uninstaller tool. Once done, you can then proceed with the clean install of the NVIDIA graphics driver as follows:

Open the download page for NVIDIA drivers.

Enter the required information including the NVIDIA driver and operating system in the boxes.

Scroll down the list until you find the required driver.

Open the downloaded driver on your computer and follow the on-screen instructions to install.

Once you reach the Installation options screen, select the Custom (Advanced) option.

Check the option to Perform a clean installation.

Once the driver installation completes, check to see if the error still appears. If so, try the next solution.

6] Modify GstRender settings

Do the following:

Press Windows key + E to open File Explorer.

Navigate to Documents.

Explore your game folder.

Next, open the Settings folder.

Now, open the PROFSAVE_profile file with Notepad or any other Text Editor.

Locate the GstRender.Dx12Enabled command and change the value from 0 (zero) to 1.

Save the file.

Restart your game.

If this change causes additional issues, go back to PROFSAVE_profile and change the GstRender.Dx12Enabled command back to zero.

7] Disable Variable Refresh Rate and Hardware-accelerated GPU Scheduling

This solution requires you to disable Variable Refresh Rate for games and also disable Hardware-accelerated GPU Scheduling on your Windows 11/10 gaming PC.

Try the next solution if the issue persists.

8] Disable overclocking

This solution requires you to stop overclocking your CPU. So, if you have overclocked your PC, you can simply reverse the change depending on the overclocking software in use. Generally, launch the software and look for the option to stop the overclocking. Once done, restart your computer and see if the issue is resolved. Otherwise, proceed with the next solution.

9] Troubleshoot in Clean Boot state

Background programs can sometimes interfere with the games you’re playing causing them to crash and consequently throw errors. So, be sure to close all the background programs that you don’t need while gaming – do that prior to launching your game. Likewise, unnecessary system and cache files, processes, services present or running on your computer can trigger this error. In this case, you can troubleshoot in Clean Boot State and see if the issue at hand is resolved. Otherwise, try the next solution.

10] Uninstall and Reinstall the game

If nothing has worked so far for you, you can uninstall the game (preferably, use third-party software uninstaller), clear the game AppData folder contents, reboot the PC, and then download and reinstall the latest version of the game on your Windows 11/10 PC.

To clear/delete the game AppData folder contents, do the following:

Press Windows key + R to invoke the Run dialog.

In the Run dialog box, type the environment variable below and hit Enter.


At the location, find (you may need to show hidden files/folders) the problematic game folder.

Exit File Explorer when done.

Any of these solutions should work for you!


The DXGI_ERROR_DEVICE_HUNG error is a common problem that is typically associated with the DirectX configuration on your system. Generally, the error could be triggered due to Direct X problems, incorrect game settings, outdated drivers, RAM problems, overclocked CPU, and others.

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Fix Roblox Error Code 403, Authentication Failed

An error was encountered during authentication. Please try again.

Fortunately, you can follow some simple suggestions to fix the error.

What does Roblox error code 403 mean?

Error code 403 in Roblox typically indicates that the server denies access to the requested resource or action. The reasons can vary, including network connectivity problems, misconfigured settings, security restrictions, or other factors. Users are denied access to the game by the server.

Fix Roblox Authentication Failed Error Code 403

To fix the Authentication Failed, Error Code 403 in Roblox, restart the app, browser, and your device. Other than that, try following these suggestions:

Check the Network Connection

Check Roblox Server Status

Logout and re-login

Clear Roblox Cache Data

Temporarily Disable Firewall or Security Software

Modify DNS Settings

Disable Proxy or VPN

Reinstall Roblox.

Let’s now see these in detail.

1] Check the Network Connection

Start by checking if your internet connection is running fine. This is because a slow or unstable internet connection can be why the Roblox Error Code 403 occurs. Perform a speed test to check if your internet connection is running fine. Alternatively, try connecting to a different network to see if the error is fixed.

2] Check Roblox Server Status

Next, check the Roblox Server Status. It’s possible the servers are facing downtime or are under maintenance. You can also follow @Roblox on Twitter to stay updated on scheduled and ongoing maintenance. You can do this via a free server status detector. If the server is down, you can do nothing but wait.

3] Logout and re-login 4] Clear Roblox Cache Data.

The Roblox cache data can also be why the Roblox Error Code 403 occurs. Roblox stores cache data to allow faster access and enhance user experience. However, an unexpected system crash or malware attack can corrupt the cache folder. Here’s how to clear the Roblox cache Data:

Press the Windows + R key combination to open Run.

Type %localappdata% and hit Enter.

The File Manager will now open, here, search and open the Roblox folder.

Now, press Ctrl + A to select all the files, then Shift + Del permanently delete them.

Restart your device and see if the error’s fixed.

5] Temporarily Disable Firewall or Security Software

Antivirus software and Windows Defender Firewall can sometimes interrupt applications and their processes.

You may disable the antivirus temporarily, and if that does work, allow Roblox through the firewall. Disabling both can help fix the Roblox Error Code 403.

6] Modify DNS Settings

As Error Code 403 in Roblox could be a server-related error, switching to Google DNS can help fix it. Here’s how:

Next, select the Use the following DNS server addresses option.

Type the addresses mentioned below in the corresponding fields: Preferred DNS server: Alternate DNS server:

At last, select the Use the following DNS server addresses option and enter the following addresses: Preferred DNS server: 2001:4860:4860::8888 Alternate DNS server: 2001:4860:4860::8844

7] Disable Proxy or VPN

Apart from disabling the VPN, it’s also recommended to turn off the Proxy connection, to be on the safe side.

VPN or Proxy servers hide your IP address by rerouting your Internet traffic via a remote server. This can be why the Roblox Error Code 403 occurs, as the service you’re trying to access isn’t available in your region. Nevertheless, Here is how you can disable Proxy:

Press Windows + I to open Settings.

Here, toggle off the Automatically detect settings option.

Read: Fix Roblox HTTP Error Code 111

8] Reinstall Roblox

Last but not least, if nothing could help you resolve this issue, then the error can be due to incorrect Roblox installation. Try uninstalling Roblox and then starting with a fresh installation of Roblox on the PC.

We hope these suggestions have helped you.

Is error 403 an IP ban in Roblox?

Yes, the Roblox Error Code 403 can indicate an IP ban. This mainly occurs while trying to access Roblox. To fix this, check Roblox servers and clear its cache data.

Can Roblox permanently ban you?

Roblox can ban a user permanently if they are found engaging in extreme or repeated acts of cheating, hacking, harassment, or other forms of disruptive behavior. Once this happens, the user can no longer access Roblox and any of its associated features.

Roblox has multiple banning options, including a permanent ban. So, maintaining decent behavior and decorum when using the service should be your utmost priority if you don’t want to get banned permanently.

Also Read: Roblox not launching or working on Windows PC.

How To Fix Missing Or Failed Printhead Error

How to fix Missing or Failed Printhead Error [HP Printers] Make sure the printhead is properly seated




HP produces several color inkjet all-in-one printers. Their most famous line is called Officejet. 

Depending on your HP printer model, ensure the printhead latch is securely closed, or the cartridges are firmly installed.

If a printhead error still shows, reset the printer and update the drivers.



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Download Fortect and install it on your PC.

Start the tool’s scanning process to look for corrupt files that are the source of your problem

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readers this month.

The Missing or failed printhead error arises for some HP printers. That error message appears on the printer’s control panel display and states The printhead appears to be missing, not detected, or incorrectly installed.

The error is generally seen with old printers, but several users reported seeing the message with their printer after only a few months of use.

So, why does this happen, and what triggers it? Don’t worry; we’ll try to cover everything in the solutions below.

What causes printhead failure?

Printhead failures are generally due to physical issues; most commonly, it’s the ink nozzle’s clogging. If the printer is not used regularly, the ink might dry out and block the nozzle.

Also, excessive usage of the printer can lead to damage to the printhead. Every time you print a sheet of paper, the physical contact between it and the printhead nozzle will cause minor wear and tear, affecting its functioning in the long run.

Besides, the printhead may be loose, or the cartridges incorrectly identified, and both these would seem like a missing or failed printhead. So, make sure to check for these as well.

And it’s a known fact that the printhead will eventually fail. While some may print as many as 15,000 sheets before failure, others might stop working at 2000-3000 prints. It all depends on maintenance and the usage frequency.

Here are some of the known printhead issues shared by users:

Missing or failed printhead HP 8600: Simply removing the cartridges and reseating them should fix the problem.

Missing or failed printhead HP 8610: Loose printhead can cause the error. Open the printer cover and check if the printhead is suitably seated.

HP OfficeJet Pro X476dw MFP Missing or failed printhead: Encountered by several users, the fixes listed here should work.

Missing or failed printhead HP 8625: Try resetting the printer in addition to checking for physical issues.

Missing or failed printhead HP 6600: Make sure to unplug the printer from the power source for at least 15 seconds and then plug it back in.

HP OfficeJet Pro X576dw Missing or failed printhead: Some models have been found to throw errors due to improper cable connections. We recommend you contact HP customer support.

Missing or failed printhead HP OfficeJet 8620: The error is generally encountered after changing the cartridges if it disrupts the printhead’s position. So, check for that.

Missing or failed printhead HP 6700:

Make sure the printer is directly connected to the power source, and if that doesn’t work, update the firmware.

How do you know if your printhead is damaged?

The signs are pretty evident even if you don’t receive the Missing or failed printhead error. The print quality is affected depending on the severity of the damage to the printhead, and the printer won’t work in case of absolute failure.

Also, if the prints are hazy, the colors are missing or distorted, or there are stripes on the sheet, it all points to damage to the printhead.

Is it worth replacing the printhead?

There is no absolute answer to this question, but it depends on several factors. For instance, how long the printer has been in use, whether it’s still in warranty and the cost of replacing the printhead.

If the printer is still in the warranty period or is just out of it, it only makes sense to replace the printhead since it would be more economical as the printer still has a few years left.

Expert tip:

How can I fix the Missing or failed printhead error? 1. Reset the HP Printer

First, try resetting the HP printer. To do that, switch on the printer if it’s off.

Then remove the power cord from the back of the printer.

After that, unplug the power cord from the wall.

Then, plug the printer’s power cable back into the wall socket for a few minutes.

Plug the power cable into the back of the printer.

Then switch the printer on.

This should fix the HP Missing or failed printhead error. In case it doesn’t work, head to the following method.

2. Reseat the HP Printer’s Printhead 3. Clean the Ink Cartridge

Cleaning ink cartridges might also resolve the Missing or failed printhead error for some users.

To do that, remove the ink cartridges from the printhead. Next, gently wipe the cartridges’ copper contacts with a lint-free cloth and distilled water. Then dry the cartridges with a dry cloth before inserting them back into the printer.

Check if you still see Printhead: missing, failed, or incompatible. If the problem persists, try the following method.

5. Replace Non-HP Cartridges

If none of the above resolutions work, users might need to replace their cartridges. That’s especially the case if they’re using non-HP cartridges. Make sure the replacement is a genuine HP cartridge pack.

That’s all there’s to the Missing or failed printhead error encountered by users. Though the problem is generally faced on HP printers, other printers, like the ones manufactured by Epson, are prone to it.

Also, find the best printers with cheap ink, to keep the printing cost low.

Still experiencing issues?

Was this page helpful?


What’s The Difference Between Directx 11 And Directx 12?

DirectX is a collection of APIs, or application programming interfaces, used by software to render multimedia content and communicate with graphical hardware. DirectX’s major component API, Direct3D, handles communications between software and graphics hardware. Because all hardware is different, using a standardized library of functions and calls to communicate with your graphics card speeds up game development. This is called hardware abstraction, and it’s the chief job of the API.

Think about cars: If you can drive one car, you can pretty much drive all of them. The gas and brake pedals are in the same place, and the steering wheel rotates in the same direction and doors open outward. There might be some minor differences in non-critical features like the radio, but overall you know what to expect. DirectX and Direct3D are like that, allowing developers to interface with a wide range of hardware using the same tools. And since most game developers use Direct3D’s standard library, any changes to the API can impact gamers and coders alike.

What’s New in DirectX 12?

Every major update to DirectX and Direct3D brings new features and developments. Direct3D 12, however, brought some especially significant changes. In fact, it could be ushering in a new area of low-level graphics APIs that will change the way games are developed.

Lower-level hardware abstraction

DirectX 12 now lets developers get closer to the “metal” of their users’ graphics hardware, providing access to features previously unavailable for developers. Exposing lower level hardware means that skilled developers can write more efficient code that executes faster. Specifically, developers can improve optimization with faster multi-threaded performance and more efficient CPU utilization. This could potentially allow for low-level optimizations similar to those we see in console gaming where games are tuned for extremely specific mid-range hardware, eeking out performance that would be impossible without such hyper-specific optimizations.

Previously, DirectX 11 only offered a fairly high level of hardware abstraction, which vastly simplifies the process of coding. In fact, that’s the whole idea behind what makes hardware APIs so powerful. But it also meant that opportunities for fine-tuning code against specific hardware features were less frequent. Microsoft’s Developer Blog provides some great insights into how, exactly, DirectX 12 accomplishes this.

Improved Multicore Performance

Draw Call Overhead Reduction

Under DirectX 11 a significant portion of the CPU’s power is spent interpreting API instructions rather than executing game code. DirectX 12 reduces the API overhead, freeing up computation resources for running game code. This means that CPU-limited games could see greater performance, as their CPU power is freed up to handle game code. Most games aren’t CPU-limited today, but its possible that newer games will push this envelope further.

Explicit Multiadapter

DirectX 12 has the power to combine multiple GPUs (AKA “display adapters”) into a single logical unit. This feature, called Explicit Multiadapter, allows multiple GPUs to be instructed by software like a single GPU. For example, with DirectX 12 the integrated GPU on your machine can now tag team with your discrete GPU, lending its own processing power. Greater API support can also mean greater reliability and efficiency in multi-GPU SLI/CrossFire setups. In Microsoft’s testing using integrated graphics in tandem with discrete graphics provided a small but noticeable edge in benchmarks.

How Much Does DirectX 12 Matter for Gamers?

Like a lot of incremental improvements, gamers aren’t going to see night-and-day differences between DirectX 11 and DirectX 12. The new features don’t bring new rendering options that wow users. Nor will you see a 100 FPS jump between the two standards. But these gains in efficiency will eventually lead to greater performance on less powerful hardware, improving your PC’s power without upgrading its hardware.

Alexander Fox

Alexander Fox is a tech and science writer based in Philadelphia, PA with one cat, three Macs and more USB cables than he could ever use.

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How To Fix Missing Or Failed Printhead Error On Hp Printers

The printhead assembly is the compartment that houses your printer’s ink cartridges. Your printer displays the “Missing or Failed Printhead” error to signal a malfunctioning printhead. The issue could be due to clogged ink nozzles, dirty ink cartridges, internal paper jams, and more.

HP printers may also display this error if the printhead pulls air from ink cartridges. This tutorial covers troubleshooting fixes for the “Missing or Failed Printhead” error on HP printers.

Table of Contents

Restart or Factory Reset Your Printer

Rebooting your printer will fix common printer problems, so will restoring its settings to factory default.

Note: Factory resetting your HP printer won’t reset its page count, language, or tray size.

Turn off your printer and unplug its power cord from the wall outlet for at least 30 seconds.

Reconnect your printer to its power source and turn it on. If your printer has a

Resume button

, press and hold it for 10-20 seconds while your printer boots.

Release the Resume button when the yellow “Attention” light comes on. The “Attention” and “Ready” lights cycle while your preset resets to factory default.

Reseat your printer’s printhead if the missing printhead error message persists.

Reseat Your HP Printer Printhead

HP printers might malfunction if the printhead isn’t seated correctly in the carriage. Reseat your printer’s printhead and check if that stops the “Missing or Failed Printhead” error. Turn off your printer and unplug its power cable before reseating or realigning the printhead.

Open your printer’s cartridge access door, lift the latch on the carriage, and gently pull the printhead halfway out. Return the carriage latch to lock the printhead firmly.

Try the troubleshooting steps below if reseating the printhead doesn’t resolve the “Missing or Failed Printhead” error.

Check for Paper Jam

Paper jams inside your printer can prevent the detection of the printhead. Turn off your printer, disconnect its power cable, and check the ink or toner cartridge access area for jammed paper.

Examine the carriage path and other areas and remove torn pieces of paper inside your printer. Close the cartridge access door, and reconnect your printer’s power cable.

Clean or Replace the Ink Cartridges

Dirt, debris, or ink residue on your printer’s ink cartridges can also trigger printing errors. Remove your ink cartridges from the printhead and wipe off accumulated dirt or debris. HP recommends cleaning ink cartridges using a clean, dry, and lint-free cloth damped in distilled water.

You should also gently wipe accumulated ink off the copper-colored electrical contacts on the printhead and carriage. Snap the ink cartridges into their color-coded slots, close the cartridge access area, and turn on your printer.

Touching the ink nozzles or cleaning past the electrical contacts can cause print quality issues and electrical failures. Likewise, leaving your ink cartridges or printhead outside the printer for an extended period (over 30 minutes) can damage the cartridges and printer.

Clean the ink cartridges and printhead quickly (but carefully) and replace them immediately. Refer to this HP Support tutorial for more information on cleaning your printer’s ink cartridges and printhead.

Some HP Inkjet printers have a “Clean Printhead” function in their control panels. Depending on your printer model, you’ll find the cleaning option in the “Tools,” “Maintenance,” or “Printer Services” section of the control panel. Refer to your printer’s manual for instructions on accessing or using its cleaning tool.

Check for connectivity issues between the printer and cartridges if the printhead problem persists. Ensure the ink cartridges are connected correctly, and their plastic tabs align with the printhead.

Additionally, inspect the cartridge’s chip and ensure it’s properly fixed and in good condition. You might have to replace the entire cartridge pack, especially if using non-HP cartridges.

Update the Printer’s Firmware

Updating your printer’s firmware to the latest version sometimes resolves printhead errors and other printing malfunctions. You can update your printer’s firmware through HP’s website or the HP Smart app.

Update Your Printer from HP Website

Visit HP’s website’s Software and Driver Download page and select



Enter your HP printer model number or name in the dialog box and select



Expand the “Firmware” category and select


next to the latest firmware file.

Unzip the file and follow the instructions in the attached PDF document to install the firmware update.

Restart your computer and printer after installing the firmware update. Keep your printer powered on during the firmware update process. Power failure or turning your printer while updating its firmware can irreversibly damage the printer.

Update Your Printer via the HP Smart

The steps for updating your printer’s firmware may vary depending on the HP Smart app version and your printer model.

The HP Smart app will automatically download and install any available firmware update onto your printer.

You can also install firmware updates from your printer’s control panel. This HP Customer Support document highlights different ways to install firmware or driver updates on your HP printer.

Fix HP Failed Printhead Error

Contact HP Support or a local service center if the printhead missing error persists. You’ll get a new printhead or replacement printer if your printer is defective and under warranty. Use HP’s Product Warrant Check tool to verify your printer’s warranty or service status.

Otherwise, HP will service or repair your printer for a fee if you have an out-of-warranty product.

How Foldleft Function Works In Scala With Examples?

Introduction to Scala foldLeft

Scala foldLeft function can be used with the collection data structure in scala. Also, foldLeft is applicable for both immutable and mutable data structures of collection. This function takes two arguments as parameters. One is the binary operator and the second argument of the collection always points to the current elements of the collection. This binary operator is used to settle the elements of the collection.

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Syntax of Scala foldLeft:

This method takes two arguments as a parameter, and it traverses from left to right, so it is named as the foldLeft() method.

def foldLeft[B](z: B)(op: (B, A) ⇒ B): B


val result = list.foldLeft(1.1)(_ + _)

In this, we give the initial value to the function as 1.1 and try to sum all the elements present in the list. This can be applied to any collection data structure.

How foldLeft Function works in Scala?

foldLeft function traverse the element of collection data structure from left to right to it is named as foldLeft() function in scala. It takes two parameters, and also we can specify the initial value by using this function. This function is a recursive function and helps us from stack-overflow exceptions while programming.

This function is the member function of TraversableOnce in scala. TraversableOnce is a trait built to remove the duplicate code of Traversable and Iterator, which implements the common functions. This trait also contains abstract methods, and the Traversable and Iterator provide this abstract method implementation.

Now we will see one example where we will initialize our list of elements and trying to apply the foldLeft function on it.



val myList: Seq[Int] = Seq(10, 30, 50, 60) println(myList)

In this, we are creating one Sequence of integers containing around 4 variables and trying to print out the sequence elements.


val result = myList.foldLeft(0)(_ + _) println("result is  ::" + result)

After creating the sequence, now we want to sum all the elements present inside the sequence. For this, we are using the foldLeft function. First, we call foldLeft on our collection, followed by the initial value that we have assigned as 0. After that, we use the binary operator + to get the sum of all elements present inside the collection sequence. We can use any binary operator here depend upon the requirement.

We can also use the foldLeft function with string type of collection data structure; we will see one example.

Here we are creating one List if string that contains so many elements into it. After that, we are just printing our newly created list that all.



val myList: List[String] = List("amit", "sumit", "vinit", "lalti", "minit") println(myList)


Now we are trying to add some string after our every element present into the for this, we are using the foldLeft function, and inside this function, we are appending the string that we want to show.

We can also pass a function obtained value directly to the foldLeft function to concatenate the string.



val myList: List[String] = List("amit", "sumit", "vinit", "lalti", "minit") println(myList) var result = myList.foldLeft("")(valFun) println(result)

So in the above example, we are passing the value function directly to the foldLeft function. It is just a simple way and more readable to the developer. But i would recommend the first approach to follow.

Examples of Scala foldLeft

Given below are the examples of Scala foldLeft:

Example #1

In this example, we are modifying the string list elements by using the foldLeft function in scala.


object Main extends App{ val myList: List[String] = List("amit", "sumit", "vinit", "lalti", "minit") println("list before foldLeft function is  :::: ") println(myList) println("list after foldLeft function is  :::: ") println(result) }


Example #2

In this example, we are finding the sum of all the elements present inside the List collection data structure.

object Main extends App{ val myList: List[Int] = List(100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700) println("list before foldLeft function is  :::: ") println(myList) var result  = myList.foldLeft(0)(_+_) println("list after foldLeft function is  :::: ") println(result) }


Example #3

In this example, we are applying different binary operators on the list of integers by using the foldLeft function.


object Main extends App{ val myList: List[Int] = List(100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700) println("list before foldLeft function is  :::: ") println(myList) var result  = myList.foldLeft(0)(_-_) println("list after foldLeft function is  :::: ") println(result) var result1  = myList.foldLeft(0)(_*_) println("list after foldLeft function is  :::: ") println(result1) }


Example #4

In this example, we are finding the maximum value of the collection by using the max function inside the foldLeft function available in scala.


object Main extends App{ val myList: List[Int] = List(100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700) println("list before foldLeft function is  :::: ") println(myList) var result  = myList.foldLeft(0)(_ max _) println("list after foldLeft function is  :::: ") println(result) }



foldLeft functions traverse each element of the collection data structure and help us to perform operations on the element. Thus, it is more reduced and simplified, and untestable to the programmers. Also, it reduces the number of lines of code.

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This is a guide to Scala foldLeft. Here we discuss the introduction, how the foldLeft function works in scala? And examples respectively. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –

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