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Concept of ITIL Overview

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ITIL overview service Value Systems- This is a key component of the ITIL 4 framework. The name suggests; it helps companies synchronize all the components used to deliver service to their customers. It helps identify all the components and can also evaluate the contribution of each component. They can determine if any component lacks efficiency and can be further improved or worked, or eliminate a component.

Top 4 Factors in ITIL Overview

The most important aspect for companies is generating profits; if a component is not adding to profits, it is useless to the company. There are four essential components of ITIL service value systems.

Below is the list of the 4 factors:

1. Organizations and People

The organization needs to operate smoothly and efficiently, with all departments clearly defined and know of their role and duties and how they contribute to the overall productivity and profitability of the organization.

Often in today’s modern age, companies have their operations spread across geographies. No department can work and operate in isolation; there needs to be easy interconnectivity between teams. And clogs that can slow down processes must be identified and rectified immediately.

Intrinsic Motivation

Giving employees responsibility and autonomy.

Including their suggestions in the decision-making process.

Exploring different ways of working gives them the flexibility to do their job.

Extrinsic motivation

Tying their pay to their performance.

Giving them a fair and decent raise every year.

2. Information and Technology

This refers to the organization having modern IT management systems in place that aid in the organization’s organization’s overall development. Working with the latest technology helps the organization stay relevant and cut costs, as modern technology reduces dependency on humans and increases efficiency.

3. Partners and Suppliers 4. Value Streams and Process

The company can use IT services to streamline existing processes and services. As time passes, the existing process can become obsolete with the help of technology patterns where a slow process can be identified and worked up. At the same time, value creation is essential to the organization’s success.

Creating new channels to create value should be the company’s target. IT service management can help in identifying new trends to create value. ITIL 4 factors consider these four components not part of previous versions. It focuses on creating value by-products and the services it provides.

Who Can Use ITIL?

All organizations can use ITIL, regardless of size, business, and industry. They can use ITIL to solve technical and business-related issues they face. Using ITIL optimizes and enhances service quality, keeping customer needs, current trends, and demand in mind.

Why do Companies Use ITIL?

Companies can use ITIL for the following purposes:

Demand Management – Effectively manages the clients’ demand to ensure they have resources to meet the existing demand, simultaneously making provisions to prevent inventory from becoming obsolete from the drop in order.

Developing Market Spaces – This means creating a market for their products and services, identifying customer types, demands, needs, and what can be done to better their services to meet their demands.

Business Relationship Management – Maintaining relations with suppliers and clients is crucial for having a long-term relationship and developing trust with them. Loyal customers will continue to bring business sustainably.

The Service Portfolio and Implementation of Strategy – Using IT to create an overview of the company’s services and identify potential opportunities. Once a full list is created, it can be added to the company’s portfolio of assets.


Aligning the strategic and long-term objectives of the company with IT.

Improving how companies deliver their products and increasing customer satisfaction.

Saving costs by using modern IT practices and systems.

Overall increasing organizational efficiency and productivity.

It can also be used to change the organization’s structure if there is scope for improvement.

It can be used to manage the organization’s resources effectively and productively. This includes the workforce, raw materials, and other key factors the business uses in its operations.

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Overview And Top Applications Of Kafka

Overview of Kafka Applications

One of the trending fields in the IT industry is Big Data. The company deals with a large amount of customer data and derives useful insights that help their business and provide customers with better service. One of the challenges is handling and transferring these large volumes of data from one end to another for analysis or processing; this is where Kafka (a reliable messaging system) comes into play, which helps in the collection and transportation of a huge volume of data in real-time. Kafka is designed for distributed high throughput systems and is a good fit for large-scale message processing applications. Kafka supports many of today’s best commercial and industrial applications. There is a demand for Kafka professionals having strong skills and practical knowledge.

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This article will learn about Kafka, its features, use cases, and understand some notable applications where it is used.

What is Kafka?

Apache Kafka was developed at LinkedIn and later became an open-source Apache project. Apache Kafka is a fast, fault-tolerant, scalable and distributed messaging system that enables the communication between two entities, i.e. between producers (generator of the message) and consumers (receiver of the message) using message-based topics and provides a platform for managing all the real-time data feeds.

The features that make Apache Kafka better than other messaging systems and applicable to real-time systems are its high availability, immediate, automatic recovery from node failures and supports low latency message delivery. Apache Kafka’s features help integrate it with large scale data systems and make it an ideal component for communication.

Top Kafka Applications

This section of the article will see some popular and widely implemented use cases and see some real-life implementation of Kafka.

Real-Life Applications 1. Twitter: Stream Processing Activity

Twitter is a social networking platform that uses Storm-Kafka (an open-source stream processing tool) as a part of its stream processing infrastructure. In turn, input data(tweets) are consumed for aggregation, transformations, and enrichment for further consumption or follow-up processing activities.

2. LinkedIn: Stream Processing & Metrics

LinkedIn uses Kafka for streaming data and operational metrics activity. LinkedIn uses Kafka for its additional features, such as Newsfeed, for consuming messages and performing analysis on the data received.

3. Netflix: Real-time Monitoring & Stream Processing

Netflix has its own ingestion framework that dumps input data in AWS S3 and uses Hadoop to run analytics of video streams, UI activities, events to enhance the user experience, and Kafka for real-time data ingestion via APIs.

4. Hotstar: Stream Processing

Hotstar introduced its own data management platform- Bifrost, where Kafka is used for data streaming, monitoring, and target tracking. Because of its scalability, availability, and low-latency capabilities, Kafka was ideal for handling the data that the Hotstar platform generates daily or on any special occasion (live streaming of any concerts, or any live sports match, etc.) where the volume of data increases significantly.

For these types of use cases, we would want to stream our input data / raw data into a data lake to store our data and ensure data quality without hampering the performance.

A different situation, we might be reading data directly from Kafka, is when we need extremely low end-to-end latency, like feeding data to real-time applications.

Kafka lays out certain functionalities to its users :

Publish and subscribe to data.

Store data in the order they were generated efficiently.

Real-time / On-the-fly processing of data.

Kafka, most of the time, is used for:

Implementing on-the-fly streaming data pipelines that reliably get data between two entities in the system.

Implementing on-the-fly streaming applications that transform or manipulate, or process the streams of data.

Use Cases

Below are some widely implemented use cases of the Kafka application:

Kafka works better than other traditional messaging systems such as ActiveMQ, RabbitMQ, etc. In comparison, Kafka offers better throughput, built-in partition facility, replication, and fault-tolerance capabilities, making it a better messaging system for large scale processing applications.

2. Website Activity Tracking

User activities (page views, searches, or any actions) can be tracked and fed for real-time monitoring or analysis via Kafka or Kafka to store these kinds of data into Hadoop or data warehouse for later processing or manipulation. Activity tracking generates a huge amount of data that needs to be transferred to the desired location without losing data.

3. Log Aggregation

Log aggregation is a process of collecting/merging physical log files from different servers of an application into a single repository (file server or HDFS) for processing. Kafka offers good performance, lower end-to-end latency when compared to Flume.


Kafka is used heavily in the big data space to ingest and move large amounts of data very quickly because of its performance characteristics and features that help achieve scalability, reliability, and sustainability. In this article, we discussed Apache Kafka its features, use cases, and application, making it a better tool for streaming data.

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What Is The Concept Of Disguised Unemployment?

The Concept of Unemployment

Unemployment simply means that a working-age individual who is capable of working and wants to work cannot find work for various reasons.

Unemployment rate = (total number of unemployed people divided by the total number of workers)

Various Types of Unemployment

Open Unemployment − A large section of society cannot get a job that may yield a regular income. This situation occurs when the growth rate of the economy is slow.

Seasonal Unemployment − This occurs because not all businesses operate in all seasons. Hence, the factory may lay off individuals when it is shut down. For example, umbrella and ice cream manufacturers.

Cyclical Unemployment − This occurs when the economy or business experiences a recession or depression.

Frictional Unemployment − In this type of unemployment, there are job seekers with the skills and there are companies that are searching for such job seekers, but because of a lack of information, the demand and supply cannot meet.

Disguised Unemployment − This is a type of unemployment that is not visible to the naked eye. There is a problem of surplus manpower, so even if some of the resources are removed from the process, production is not hampered.

The Concept of Disguised Unemployment

Disguised unemployment, also known as hidden unemployment, is a type of unemployment in which more resources are allocated to the job than are actually required. Some of the resources here have negligible or zero productivity. Hence, if these resources are removed from the process, there will be no production or project deliverables hampering. Here, the resources are not working at their full capacity. Disguised unemployment is not calculated in unemployment statistics.

Disguised unemployment in India occurs mostly in the agriculture or unorganized sector. Although agriculture employs 51 percent of India’s labor force, it only accounts for 12–13 % of the economy’s gross domestic product (GDP). Reading such data helps us understand that there is something majorly wrong in this scenario. Let’s dive deep into this scenario.

According to the 2011 census data, 70% of India’s population resides in rural areas.

Because there is limited intervention by companies and large corporations in rural areas, we frequently face the problem of open, seasonal, and frictional unemployment.

Factory owners hire blue-collar employees as needed, denying them a regular source of income.

There is also a lack of resources and capital in rural areas among working individuals.

Because of a lack of resources and capital, the families cannot buy resources like land, pesticides, big machines, or tractors, or invest in their child’s skill enhancement process.

The youth cannot find decent jobs because of a lack of skills, and because of family love, they are not ready for relocation as well.

These kids are then employed in the family’s agriculture work; hence, the individuals now work at a lesser capacity.

The total production has not increased, even by marginal quantities, and now we have too many dependents on one land. resulting in disguised unemployment and a call for a poverty

The Different types of Disguised Unemployment

Disguised unemployment also happens in a scenario where the employee or an individual is underworked. It means the resource has the capacity to work in bigger and more challenging roles but cannot find work because of loss of morale, limited opportunities, or other reasons.

Disguised unemployment also occurs when a person who desires and is capable of working a full-time job opportunity is limited to part-time, freelancing, or other internship opportunities. It happens when the economy is unable to meet the demand for the job.

It is difficult for disabled and sick individuals to get a job even though they have the desire and the skills to perform the job. It happens when the economy and companies are not flexible enough to adapt to changes or diversification.

Disguised unemployment occurs when an individual is tired of looking for job opportunities that meet his reasonable criteria and hence give up.

How to Prevent Disguised Unemployment?

Birth Control Measures − We notice that the major reason for disguised unemployment is the excess supply of labor. Sometimes companies have too many options, and other times the companies or the economy as a whole are unable to meet the ever-increasing demand for jobs. The economy can plan the birth control measure so as to ensure that there is less weightage to create jobs and that there are not numerous job seekers added every year.

Skill Enhancement − Disguised unemployment is generally seen in the rural sector of India, so if the schools, colleges, and government work together, they can ensure a youth that has the skills to perform the different jobs and is hence employable by the companies. This ensures that they are not wasting their crucial learning years on something that will not be useful when they seek jobs in the outside world.

Mobility of the Workforce − There is always going to be a gap between demand and supply in various states, so individuals should prepare themselves for mobility so as to ensure a better standard of living for themselves and their loved ones.

Self-Employment − Instead of relying on businesses and the government to provide jobs, individuals should create jobs for themselves. Individuals must cultivate a sense of self-entrepreneurship in order to be successful.

An Overview Of Apple Watch Apps And Software

We’re still trying to sift through all of the information Apple dropped on us this morning regarding its new smartwatch, and I have to admit, it’s been tough. There is just so much to this device, and so much it can do, it’s tough to figure out where to begin picking out points of interest to pass along to our readers.

But we knew for sure that we wanted to highlight some of the software features and apps Apple showed off for its Watch today, such as Phone, Messaging, Siri and more. So we put together a brief overview, if you will, highlighting what we thought were some of the Watch applications and features worth noting.


Receiving a message on Apple Watch is as easy as you’d expect. Once you’ve been notified (more on that in a minute), you can choose to read it, delete it or respond to it. Sending messages is also fairly easy, thanks to dictation and smart replies. The Watch can actually suggest responses to you based on the incoming message and the things you write most. Or, you can skip text altogether by sharing an animated emoji, which you can customize yourself.

Email works the same way. You can read the message, flag it, mark it as read or unread, or move it to the Trash. Or you can elect to open the message on your iPhone, where you can type a lengthier response.



Fitness software on the Apple Watch is broken up into 2 apps: Activity and Workout. Activity provides a simple graphical overview of your daily activity, with three rings telling you everything you need to know. The Move ring shows how many calories you’ve burned, the Exercise ring shows how many minutes of brisk activity you’ve done, and the Stand ring shows how often you’ve stood up to take a break from sitting.

The workout app takes things a little bit further, showing real-time stats for cardio workouts such as time, distance, calories, and pace. It allows you to set goals for each workout, and encourages you to meet or beat those goals along the way. Your workout is included in your Activity app measurements for the day, and the data is funneled into the Health app on your iOS 8 device.



Yes, Apple Watch features Siri integration as well. The Watch version of the digital assistant allows you to accomplish many of your favorite voice command tasks without pulling your iPhone out, including dictating a message, asking to view your next event, finding the nearest coffee shop or restaurant, and much more.

Alerts & Notifications

Apple Watch uses new Taptic technology (essentially haptic feedback) to ‘tap’ you for alerts and notifications. There are subtle audio cues too, and each notification has its own unique character.

You can also choose to have notifications show up on your Apple Watch for apps (both stock and third-party), and notifications built with WatchKit will allow you to take action or respond right from your wrist.


WatchKit is Apple’s developer platform for Apple Watch, which will allow devs to create and submit third-party apps for the device. WatchKit apps can incorporate Glances—a gesture that involves swiping up from your watch face to expose at-a-glance information, as well as actionable notifications, and other unique-to-Apple-Watch features.


Over two million combinations of customizable watch faces

Friends – shortcut icons to those you communicate with most

Sketch – draw in real time with friends

Walkie-Talkie – use the built-in speaker and microphone to trade sound bites with friends.

Tap – let friends or loved ones know you’re thinking of them with a silent, gentle tap they’ll feel on the wrist

Heartbeat – when you press two fingers on the screen, the built-in heart rate sensor records and sends your heartbeat

Calendar app – see what’s next in your day or upcoming week. Apple Watch sends you meeting reminders, as well as calendar invitations you can accept or decline directly from your wrist

Maps app – see your current location and get directions, highlighting the best route with turn-by-turn navigation

Music app – control the music on your iPhone without taking it out of your pocket, or listen to music directly on Apple Watch

Remote app – control iTunes and Apple TV using Apple Watch

Remote Camera – Apple Watch doubles as a remote for the iSight camera on your iPhone and doubles as a live display

Stopwatch, Timer, World Clock, Alarms

View Stocks and Weather information

Watered down versions of Photos and Settings apps

Continuity support – start something on Apple Watch—writing a message, reading news headlines—and finish it on iPhone

Top Ten Factors For Choosing A Gaming Pc

PC gaming is big again. According to market research firm NPD, the release of Diablo III drove PC game sales up 230 percent in May. That was in a month where overall sales of games dropped by 28 percent. The Gods and Kings expansion to Sid Meier’s Civilization V did well in its recent release, too. Even smaller companies, such as Ironclad Games, with its Sins of a Solar Empire: Rebellion, are shipping PC games that garner great reviews and attract new players.

1. Budget

How much can you spend? You probably don’t have an unlimited budget, so it’s a good idea to settle on a maximum dollar outlay for your new PC. If you’re concerned about the cost, remember that other considerations somewhat mitigate that, since you can use a PC for tasks other than gaming. Then again, you’re not buying a $500 GPU just to run Quicken.

Your budget will determine the types of components you can afford. You may love the idea of running two graphics cards in SLI or CrossFire mode, but if your total system budget is $900, dual graphics cards won’t be part of the mix.

Once you iron out your budget, you can start thinking about how to divide it up. You have one more consideration before you dive into product choices.

2. What Do You Play?

What are your tastes in PC games?

If you love playing modern first-person shooters, graphics hardware becomes a higher priority than CPU performance. If turn-based war games scratch your gaming itch, a fast CPU to process the AI more quickly may be more important than a high-end GPU. Real-time strategy games often require a balance between graphics and CPU.

3. Graphics: Consider Your Display

I know, you’re itching to drop hundreds on a spanking-new, high-end graphics card. Your games will look so much better on your 20-inch display, with its 1680-by-1050-pixel resolution.

Once you understand which types of games you’ll be playing, you should think about the GPU. Even in CPU-heavy titles, graphics remain an important aspect of gaming, so you want to buy the best possible graphics card within your budget. On the other hand, you don’t want to spend too much. It always amazes me when I see someone drop a cool grand on two high-end graphics cards to drive one 1080p monitor, and then run most games at default settings.

As a rule of thumb, I allocate one-third of the cost of a gaming rig for graphics. So if your system budget is $1000, for instance, don’t spend more than about $330 on the graphics hardware. Note that the prices of cards using the same graphics chip can fluctuate. In general, I avoid most overclocked graphics cards–you don’t get much additional performance, and you may run into stability issues in the long term.

You should consider getting the most recent generation of GPU you can afford. Unlike CPUs, newer-generation GPUs often perform significantly better than previous generations do. As an example, today’s Radeon HD 7850 outperforms the high-end, $500 cards from two years ago, and it’s under $300.

As for displays, while image quality is important, so is frame rate. The great thing about modern LCD panels is that low-latency monitors are common and inexpensive. If you appreciate higher color fidelity, you may want a monitor using some form of IPS LCD technology, but that’s more of a “nice to have” rather than a requirement.

4. CPU and Cooling

If you really want a high-end platform, Intel makes the Core i7-3820, a quad-core processor that plugs into the LGA 2011 socket. It’s relatively affordable, at roughly $300. The LGA 2011 platform offers tremendous memory bandwidth, given its four-channel memory architecture.

On the budget end, Intel recently shipped the Core i5-3450, which you can find for under $200; it can run in lower-cost motherboards based on Intel’s LGA 1155 socket.

5. Memory

New motherboard core logic now supports high-speed memory–that is, DDR3 at 1600MHz or faster. Most modern motherboards are dual-channel, with a few higher-end, socket 2011 boards supporting quad memory channels. It’s worth noting that even dual-channel systems running Ivy Bridge CPUs can pump out nearly 30GB per second of peak memory bandwidth, which is plenty for most games.

DDR3 memory also happens to be fairly cheap currently. It’s worthwhile to go with at least 8GB of memory, if you’re running a 64-bit version of Windows. Windows 7 Home Premium currently supports a maximum memory configuration of 16GB, though, so keep that in mind as you load up on RAM.

Next Page: Storage, Power Supplies, Motherboards, and More

Concept Of Self In Different Tradition

Concept of Self in Different Tradition

Self! How often do we use or think of words related to self? Self is a continuous ongoing phenomenon while it is also a concept. We feel what self is but often find it difficult to express. We know ourselves in many ways but do not in many other ways. In a psychologist’s explanation, the self is a concept revolving around the individual. It is one’s perception of self as an object, experience of self, how others see oneself, and what one is and is not. Simply put, the self is whatever data one has about oneself in mind. This self has been defined and conceptualized in different ways, not just by different psychologists and schools of thought within psychology but also by different traditions worldwide and at different times. The upcoming sections will explore different ways of understanding self and traditions.

Culture is a collection of norms, beliefs, practices, relationships, attitudes, and values that a group communicates and shares, usually called a society. Researchers have tried to classify cultures since early times, and this classification can indeed be used to understand how the notion of ‘self’ differs in different traditions. These differences have been discussed below based on the cultural taxonomy of Hofstede.

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Individualistic and collectivistic − This classification revolves around the values based on the group. Individualistic culture values self as opposed to the group and vice versa. This difference in importance allocation influences how an individual sees oneself and how components of self-concept, like self-esteem, self-image, etc. are formed. The self of an individualistic tradition is likely to be independent and builds a positive self when one can achieve high in personal life. At the same time, an individual in a collectivistic society will view oneself (whether positive or negative) based on one’s ability in social situations, society’s goals, and keeping relationships intact. Thus, this dimension implies a difference in what forms the core of self-concept (whether society or individual).

Power distance − This implies acceptance of inequalities in society based on social status, wealth, power, laws, and physical characteristics. High power distance societies encourage acceptance of certain societal hierarchies and inequalities; which people seldom question. On the other hand, people in low power distance cultures are open to change and are non-accepting of power distance in a society. These differences also result in the formation of the self in both societies. In high power distance traditions, the self and self-concept are usually built around the hierarchy, and difference in status and inequalities becomes a part of people’s identity. That is why people seldom question them and feel unsafe if these differences are threatened. At the same time, the self-concept of an individual living in a low power distance culture may not be shaped by this societal status.

Masculinity and Femininity − This dimension is based on different values placed on work goals, i.e., ego and social goals. Masculine cultures place greater value on ego goals, i.e., success, career, and money; thus, the self of people living in these traditions is built around their goals and accomplishment. This implies that a person living in masculine culture is likely to have an ideal self with a successful career and much money. His self-concept will be based on how close his actual self is to this ideal self. On the other hand, Feminine culture is oriented toward social goals, i.e., social harmony, relationships, and helping others, and thus individuals living in such traditions are likely to have a self-built around themes related to social goals.

Uncertainty Avoidance − This implies the reaction to uncertainty and ways to avoid uncertainty in different cultures. Cultures may thus be acceptable to different ways of dealing with uncertainty, like technology, religion, social customs, etc. People in high uncertainty avoidance cultures feel threatened by uncertainty and are likely to actively find ways to avoid it. Such people’s self will likely be built around societal norms and rules. While a person living in low uncertainty avoidance culture will accept uncertainty; therefore, her self-concept may include less authoritarianism.

Long and Short-term orientation − Long-term orientation implies one’s focus on long-term future rewards, and therefore, the self of such a person will be built around persistence, thrift, patience, and harmony. When these values are perceived as lacking by individuals or society, the individual may develop negative self-esteem or self-concept. At the same time, this may not happen in the case of a short-term orientation culture.

Beyond the basic social taxonomy, cultures and society directly affect the development of an individual’s self. The awareness of self is built based on self-perception, others’ perceptions, and interaction with others. Further, a type of self, i.e., societal or collective, is built around one’s interaction with people around him.

Building of Self in a Religious Tradition

Self can also differ based on whether the tradition is religious or not. Religious traditions put much emphasis on a higher power, ‘GOD,’ or even on spirituality. This emphasis and teaching of religion influence one’s perception and development of self. For example, a person with a Hindu upbringing will idealize a Hindi God like ‘Shiva’ while building his ideal self and learning to scrutinize himself based on the teachings of the religion. These teachings will tell him if he is right or wrong and will thus build his self-esteem and self-image.

On the other hand, a Christian may idealize Jesus to form his ideal self and build his self-image and esteem based on whether he can work according to Jesus’s teachings. Further, society also plays an important role here, a society that is traditionally religious society will somehow pressure its dwellers to be religious, and those who are deviant will be scrutinized. The resultant interaction with society will then certainly affect one’s self-concept.

Can traditions be embedded in socioeconomic status and rural-urban affect self?

Self may also differ across different socioeconomic traditions. The tradition, norms, and even, as a matter of fact, the people in an elite culture or class are very different from a poor society. The development of self-concept may thus be very different in the traditions. How people see themselves in both society as well as in the presence of the people of other societies may differ. For example, an individual from poor socioeconomic status may feel diminished self-esteem in the presence of an individual with better economic status. Further, the difference may also exist in urban and rural societies. Urban societies are more industrialized and have nuclear families; therefore, their self is more individualistic than rural societies, where the collectivist self exists.

Self in the Context of Changing Traditions

Interestingly, the notion of self within a single tradition has also changed over time. Industrialization, globalization, and development have changed the nature of society and the ideal self. For example, in developing countries like India, unlike earlier when they had a traditional self, now they are moving towards westernized culture and aligning with the ‘American dream,’ which is also affecting their ideal self. Over time, changes in occupation and traditions have also affected the self-concept within societies like India. Many communities discriminated against earlier are less prejudiced, influencing their interaction with society and self-concept.


Overall, the self is a very significant construct, not only for an individual but also for society. It is affected by many actors, one of which is culture and tradition. Not only do different cultures have different effects on self but also socio-economics traditions and rural-urban traditions. Further, these traditions and societies have changed throughout history, thereby impacting people’s self-concept over time. These factors can thus easily account for differences in self-concept observed across countries like India, the USA, China, Japan, the UK, and Russia.

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