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Openings or cracks in the upper lip, the palate, or both are known as cleft lip and cleft palate, respectively. When a developing baby’s facial tissues don’t fully seal, it can lead to cleft lip and cleft palate.

The most prevalent birth malformations are cleft lip and cleft palate. Although they most frequently manifest as solitary birth abnormalities, they are also linked to a variety of inherited genetic diseases or syndromes.

Although having a child with a cleft might be unpleasant, cleft lip and palate can be fixed. In the majority of infants, a series of operations can attain a more normal look and restore normal function with little scarring.

Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate: Causes

When tissues in the baby’s face and mouth don’t correctly fuse, cleft lip and cleft palate develop. During the second and third months of pregnancy, the tissues that make up the lip and palate often fuse. Nevertheless, the fusion either never happens or happens partially in infants with cleft lip and cleft palate, leaving a hole (cleft).

Most cleft lip and cleft palate instances, according to researchers, are brought on by a combination of hereditary and environmental factors. A concrete reason isn’t found in many infants.

Clefting genes can be passed down from either the mother or the father, either individually or as part of a genetic condition that has a cleft lip or cleft palate as one of its symptoms. Sometimes a baby inherits a gene that increases their risk of developing a cleft, but the cleft is brought on by an environmental factor.

Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate: Symptoms

A split (cleft) in the lip or palate is typically obvious from birth. The symptoms of cleft lip and palate include −

One or both sides of the face may be affected by a split in the lip and palate (roof of the mouth).

A lip split that just looks like a little notch in the lip or that extends through the upper gum and palate and into the base of the nose

A gap in the roof of the mouth that has no impact on facial appearance

Less frequently, a cleft only affects the soft palate muscles (submucous cleft palate), which are in the rear of the mouth and protected by the lining of the mouth.

This kind of cleft is frequently undetected at birth and may not be identified until later when symptoms manifest. Submucous cleft palate symptoms and signs might include −

Having trouble eating

Swallowing issues that might cause food or fluids to leak out of the nose

Speaking with a nasal tone

Persistent ear infections

When to Visit a Doctor?

Your doctor may begin coordinating treatment when they discover that your child has a cleft lip and palate, which is often discovered at delivery. Make an appointment with your baby’s doctor if they see any of the signs and symptoms of a submucous cleft palate.

Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate: Risk Factors

Cleft lip and palate development in infants may be influenced by several variables, including −

Family background. Cleft babies are more likely to be born to parents who have a family history of cleft lip or cleft palate.

Exposure to certain chemicals when pregnant. Pregnant women who smoke, drink, or take certain drugs may be at an increased risk of developing cleft lip and palate.

Diabetes. According to some data, pregnant women who were previously diagnosed with diabetes may be more likely to give birth to children who have cleft lips or palates.

Becoming overweight when pregnant. There is some evidence to suggest that children born to obese mothers may be more likely to have cleft lip and palate.

Whether they have a cleft palate or not, males are more likely to develop a cleft lip. Females are more likely to have cleft palate without cleft lip.

Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate: Diagnosis

The majority of cleft lip and cleft palate instances are identified at birth and don’t need any additional testing to be diagnosed. More often than not, cleft lip and cleft palate may be noticed during an ultrasound before the infant is even born.

Sonograms before childbirth

During a prenatal ultrasound, sound waves are used to produce images of the growing fetus. A doctor may notice a variation in the face structures after reviewing the images.

From about the 13th week of pregnancy, ultrasonography can identify a cleft lip. Accurately diagnosing a cleft lip may get simpler as the fetus continues to develop. When a cleft palate develops on its own, ultrasonography imaging is more challenging.

Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate: Treatment

Cleft lip and palate therapy aims to restore a child’s ability to eat, speak, and hear normally as well as to give them a normal facial look.

Many doctors and specialists work together to treat kids with cleft lip and palate, including −

Cleft repair specialists, including plastic surgeons and ENTs

ENT surgeons

Doctors of ear, nose, and throat (ENTs, also called otorhinolaryngologists)


Children’s dentists



Experts in hearing or hearing

Speech pathologists

Counselling on genetics

Psychologists and social workers

Surgery is used to correct the defect, and treatments are used to treat any associated diseases.


Surgery is normally carried out in the following order −

Within the first three to six months of life Cleft lip repair by the age of 12 months, or sooner if possible Cleft palate repair

Follow-up operations — between the ages of 2 and late adolescence

A hospital is where cleft lip and palate surgery is performed. General anesthesia will be administered to your kid, so they won’t be conscious or in discomfort during the procedure. The treatment of cleft lip and palate involves the use of a variety of surgical methods and techniques.

Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate: Prevention

Parents are naturally worried about the potential of having another child with the same problem once a kid is born with a cleft. While many cleft lip and cleft palate instances cannot be avoided, take the following actions to better understand the condition or reduce your risk −

Have a look at genetic counseling. Before getting pregnant, let your doctor know if there is a family history of cleft lip and palate. Your doctor could suggest that you speak with a genetic counselor who can assess your likelihood of giving birth to children with cleft lip and cleft palate.

Use pregnancy supplements. Ask your doctor if you should take prenatal vitamins if you intend to become pregnant soon.

Avoid using alcohol or cigarettes.

During pregnancy, using cigarettes or alcohol increases the chance of having a kid with a birth defect.


Both cleft lip and cleft palate are congenital deformities that have an impact on a variety of structures and functions, including speech problems, appearance, feeding, nutrition, and more. To attain functional and aesthetic well-being, patients with oro-facial cleft deformity must have treatment at the appropriate time and the appropriate age.

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Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes Causes Symptoms Diagnosis And Treatment

The neuromuscular condition known as a congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) is hereditary and is brought on by a variety of abnormalities at the neuromuscular junction. The condition has symptoms like Lambert-Eaton Syndrome and myasthenia gravis; however, CMS is not an autoimmune disease. Just 600 familial examples of this illness have been identified, and its general prevalence in the community is thought to be 1 in 200,000.

Presynaptic, postsynaptic, and synaptic are three categories used to group the many forms of CMS.

Brief breathing pauses and muscular weakness in the eye, mouth, and throat are examples of presynaptic symptoms. Frequently, these symptoms cause double vision and make it difficult to chew and swallow.

Infants with significant muscular weakness, breathing and eating issues, and delays in sitting, crawling, and walking are all examples of post-synaptic symptoms. Early childhood feeding and breathing issues, decreased mobility, spinal curvature, and weakness are examples of synaptic symptoms that delay the attainment of motor milestones.

Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes: Causes

The congenital myasthenic syndrome can result from mutations in a variety of genes. More than half of all instances result from mutations in the CHRNE gene. Moreover, mutations in the RAPSN, CHAT, COLQ and DOK7 genes account for a sizable portion of cases. Each of these genes contains instructions for making proteins necessary for the neuromuscular junction’s healthy operation.

The region where signals are conveyed to cause muscle movement is known as the neuromuscular junction. It is found between the terminals of nerve cells and muscle cells.

Gene mutations result in modifications to proteins that affect the neuromuscular junction’s functionality and interfere with signaling between the ends of nerve and muscle cells. The inability to move the skeletal muscles, muscular weakness, and a delay in the development of motor abilities are caused by disrupted signaling between these cells.

The congenital myasthenic syndrome causes breathing issues because the muscles in the chest wall and the muscle separating the belly from the chest cavity can’t move as freely as they should (the diaphragm).

A person with the congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) frequently has a history of fatigable weakness affecting the ocular, bulbar, and limb muscles that usually begins within the first two years of life or shortly after delivery or in early childhood. Onset often occurs during the second and third decades of life.

CMS’s traditional manifestation is restricted to skeletal muscular weakness. Smooth muscle and the heart are unaffected. Coordination, sensation, tendon reflexes, and cognitive abilities are all normal. Myasthenia, however, is simply one component of a more severe and extensive clinical spectrum in certain recently discovered CMS subtypes. Disease severity and progression can range widely, from modest symptoms to progressive, crippling weakening.

The inability to move the skeletal muscles, muscular weakness, and a delay in the development of motor abilities are caused by disrupted signaling between these cells. The congenital myasthenic syndrome causes breathing issues because the muscles in the chest wall and the muscle separating the belly from the chest cavity can’t move as freely as they should (the diaphragm).

Although these mutations only account for a tiny proportion of instances, it has been discovered that certain cases of congenital myasthenic syndrome are caused by mutations in other genes that give instructions for proteins involved in neuromuscular communication. Some sufferers with congenital myasthenic syndrome don’t have a recognized mutation in any of the genes linked to the disease.

Additional significant newborn abnormalities may include poor sucking and crying, choking episodes, eyelid ptosis, and widespread, facial, bulbar, and weakening. Stridor during infancy may provide crucial CMS information.

Long face, thin jaw, and a high-arched palate have all been observed in certain people.

Presentation in childhood. Late-onset children patients have abnormal muscular fatigability and have trouble running or climbing stairs.

Movement milestones could be postponed. Affected people often exhibit variable extraocular muscular weakness and fluctuating eyelid ptosis. One or both eyelids may be involved in ptosis. There might be facial and bulbar numbness, nasal speaking, and issues with coughing and swallowing. There might be muscular atrophy or spinal deformity as well.

Limb-girdle delivery. Some people have a recognizable “limb-girdle” pattern of weakness that is accompanied by ptosis and a waddling gait, typically without ophthalmoparesis.

Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes: Risk Factors

Rare hereditary (genetic) diseases known as congenital myasthenic syndromes are caused by a deficiency at the point where your nerve stimulates muscle movement. The flaw results in muscular weakness.

Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes: Diagnosis

To diagnose congenital myasthenic syndromes, your doctor may suggest the following tests −

Laboratory Tests

The level of serum creatine kinase (CK) may be normal or slightly increased. CK levels may only be increased in CMS connected to GMPPB. Testing for anti-AChR and anti-MuSK antibodies in serum comes out negative.

EMG Analysis

To identify a problem in neuromuscular transmission, EMG testing is useful. Low-frequency (2–3 Hz) stimulation can elicit a decremental EMG response of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) in the majority of CMS subtypes.

People should typically be examined for a decreasing EMG response of CMAP to low-frequency (2–3 Hz) stimulation. In certain circumstances, stimulation at 2- to 3-Hz does not cause a decremental response in rested, non-weak muscle, yet stimulation at 10-Hz causes a substantial decremental response after five to ten minutes.

Tests on the Face Muscles

Tests on the face muscles should be performed if the CMAP amplitude in two distal and two proximal muscles is normal. A single-fiber EMG, as an alternative or in addition, is a reliable indicator of a neuromuscular transmission failure.

AChE Blockers

A favorable response to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors may happen in some subtypes of CMS.

Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes: Treatment

The following may be included in clinical management, depending on the specific clinical circumstance −

Occupational and physical therapy

Therapy for speech

Wheelchairs or orthotics

A gastric percutaneous tube

Ventilation assistance

Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes: Prevention

Even if the myasthenic symptoms are minimal between crises, sudden respiratory failure or apneic episodes brought on by fever or infections are frequent in people with pathogenic mutations in CHAT or RAPSN. Anticholinesterase medication should be administered prophylactically to these people.

Other CMS subtypes may also experience acute respiratory episodes, although less frequently. It is recommended that new parents utilize apnea monitors and receive CPR training.


The underlying genetic abnormality determines the disease’s underlying severity and course. Results range from minimal symptoms (such as slight exercise intolerance) to developing, incapacitating weakness. Particularly in people with CMS who have episodic apnea or endplate rapsyn deficit, mild myasthenic symptoms may be made worse by the rapid onset of acute weakness or respiratory insufficiency brought on by fever, illnesses, or excitement.

Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome Causes Symptoms Diagnosis And Treatment

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is a muscle and nerve disorder brought on by activity that affects the legs or arms and produces discomfort, swelling, and occasional paralysis. The illness can affect anybody, but young adult runners and athletes who engage in repetitive impact sports are more likely to acquire it.

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome may benefit from activity moderation and nonsurgical therapy. If nonsurgical therapy is unsuccessful, your doctor could suggest surgery. Many people have favorable surgical outcomes, and you might be able to resume your sport thereafter.

Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome: Causes

It is unclear what causes persistent exertional compartment syndrome. The volume of your muscles increases as your work out. The tissue (fascia) that surrounds the problematic muscle doesn’t grow with the muscle if you have chronic exertional compartment syndrome, which results in pressure and discomfort in a compartment of the affected limb.

You have particular muscle regions in your limbs (compartments). For instance, your lower leg contains four compartments. On both sides of the body, generally the lower leg, chronic exertional compartment syndrome frequently affects the same compartment of the afflicted limb.

Among the warning, signs, and symptoms are −

Discomfort that is dull, sharp, or cramping in a particular area of the afflicted limb

The afflicted limb is tense

Tingling or numbness in the afflicted limb

Limb weakness that is being influenced

In extreme situations, foot drop if the legs are damaged

Occasionally, a muscular hernia can cause swelling or bulging.

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome pain often has the following characteristics −

Begins repeatedly as you begin exercising the afflicted leg, regardless of the amount of time, distance, or effort.

Gradually gets worse as you exercise

Within 15 minutes of ceasing the exercise, the intensity decreases or ends altogether.

Recovery period following exercise may lengthen over time.

Your symptoms could be relieved by taking a total vacation from exercise or engaging in just low-impact activities, although relief is typically only momentary. For example, if you start jogging again, those recognizable symptoms frequently return.

When to Visit a Doctor?

See your doctor if you have persistent, unexpected discomfort, swelling, weakness, loss of feeling, or soreness when working out or taking part in sports.

Often shin splints, a more prevalent cause of leg discomfort in young individuals who engage in a lot of strenuous weight-bearing exercise like running, are confused with chronic exertional compartment syndrome. See your doctor if you believe you have shin splints and the pain does not go away with rest and self-care.

If you receive the right care, chronic exertional compartment syndrome is not a life-threatening illness and often doesn’t have a permanent negative impact. Yet, you might be unable to exercise or engage in your sport at the same degree of intensity if you have chronic exertional compartment syndrome due to discomfort, weakness, or numbness.

Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome: Risk Factors

Your chance of getting chronic exertional compartment syndrome is increased by several circumstances, such as −

Age. Although anybody can acquire chronic exertional compartment syndrome, male and female athletes under the age of 30 are the ones most likely to do so.

Workout style. Your chance of getting the illness rises when you engage in repetitive impact exercise like jogging.

Overtraining. Your chance of developing chronic exertional compartment syndrome might also increase if you exercise too frequently or vigorously.

Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome: Diagnosis

To rule out other reasons, such as shin splints or stress fractures, your doctor may first try to rule out other exercise-related disorders that are more frequent than chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

Physical exam findings for chronic compartment syndrome due to excessive effort are frequently unremarkable. Your physician might want to see you after you’ve worked out enough to cause symptoms. Your doctor could see tension, pain, or a protrusion in the afflicted muscle.

MRI Scan

The anatomy of the muscles in the compartments may be examined and other potential causes of your symptoms can be ruled out using a standard MRI scan of your legs.

The compartments’ fluid contents may be evaluated with the use of a sophisticated MRI scan. Pictures are captured before, during, and after the workout while your foot is at rest. The effectiveness of this sort of MRI scan in identifying chronic exertional compartment syndrome suggests that it may eliminate the necessity for invasive compartment pressure testing.

Spectroscopy in the Near Infrared (NIRS)

The quantity of oxygen in your blood in the damaged tissue is measured using NIRS, a more recent technology. The test is administered both before and after exercise. This enables you to assess whether the blood supply to your muscles has diminished.

Tests of Compartment Pressure

The gold standard for identifying chronic exertional compartment syndrome is this examination, sometimes known as a compartment pressure measurement. Before and after exercising, a needle or catheter is inserted into your muscle as part of the test to take measurements.

Compartment pressure measurement is generally not done unless your medical history and other tests indicate you have this problem because it is intrusive and moderately uncomfortable.

Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome: Treatment

Both nonsurgical and surgical treatments are available for persistent exertional compartment syndrome. Nonsurgical treatments, however, usually only work if the condition-causing behavior is stopped or significantly reduced.

Non-surgical Alternatives Operative Choices

The most successful method of treating chronic exertional compartment syndrome is a surgical surgery termed a fasciotomy. It entails slicing apart the rigid tissue covering each damaged muscle compartment. Pressure is reduced as a result.

Little incisions can occasionally be used to do a fasciotomy, which may speed up healing and enable you to resume your usual sport or activity.

Although surgery is helpful for the majority of patients, it is not without danger, and in certain situations, the symptoms of chronic exertional compartment syndrome may not entirely disappear. The procedure may result in complications such as infection, long-term nerve damage, numbness, paralysis, bruising, and scarring.

Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome: Prevention

One can take the following preventive measures to avoid this condition −

Instead of doing too much too soon, increase workout endurance gradually.

While you work out, you should adopt new body postures (for example, mixing up your gait when you run).

Increasing adaptability.

Avoid overworking your muscles.

Using appropriate footwear.

Exercising on surfaces that are softer and easy on your body.


Young people who have post-exercise discomfort may have chronic exertional compartment syndrome, which has to be surgically addressed. This condition is underdiagnosed and should be taken into consideration. Confirming the diagnosis requires measuring the compartment pressure.

Pocs Signs, Symptoms, And Diagnosis

Learning the typical symptoms of PCOS is the first step in comprehending the condition. Examine some of the most prevalent ones listed below to see if PCOS might be the cause of your health problems.

One Possible Symptom of PCOS Is Unreliable or Irregular Periods

Having periods that are erratic and difficult to anticipate is one symptom (called oligomenorrhea). This is more than a random delay of two or three days; it indicates that your cycle lasts longer than 35 days. A typical menstrual cycle lasts 22 to 35 days due to low progesterone levels in PCOS women and can range from extremely light to extremely heavy.

The Inability to Conceive is a Hallmark Symptom of the Syndrome

It’s difficult for women with PCOS to conceive. In fact, PCOS is a leading cause of infertility among women. Inadequate ovulation is the root cause of infertility. Although a woman may be getting her period (albeit highly late), this is no guarantee that she is ovulating. The need for ovulation is unnecessary for a woman to get her period. This is why some women may not realize there is a problem with their fertility until they have tried unsuccessfully for several months.

Unwanted Hair Growth in Unusual Areas of the Body (Hirsutism)

Increased levels of androgens (male hormones) are a symptom of PCOS, which causes women to develop hair where it is not intended. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome commonly have this condition all over their bodies, but especially on their faces, arms, backs, chests, thumbs, toes, and bellies. Nevertheless, your risk for this symptom varies based on your ethnic background, which may make you more prone to excessive hair growth. Pay special attention to this symptom. Hirsutism was substantially associated with metabolic issues in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Contrarily, Hair loss may Indicate Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

There’s a chance of excessive hair growth and loss, so it’s best to be prepared for both. Females with high levels of androgens are at risk for “male pattern” hair loss, which manifests as a gradual thinning of hair on the crown or a receding hairline, especially after menopause.

Increasing Androgen Levels may Increase the Likelihood of Acne in some skin Types PCOS may raise the Risk of Obesity and Overweight

Overweight or obesity affects 50% of women with PCOS; however, even very slim women can be affected by the condition. A correct diagnosis may be delayed by the misconception that all women with polycystic ovary syndrome are overweight or obese.

PCOS is Associated with mood Disorders, Including Depression and Anxiety

Around 25% of women with PCOS also suffer from a mental illness. Disorders of food and body image are among them. A Your doctor should do a mental health screening to better assist you.

Insulin Resistance, a Characteristic of type 2 Diabetes, is Associated to PCOS

Insulin, a hormone that helps transport glucose to cells for fuel, is often not well received by women with PCOS. Insulin resistance is the body’s lack of insulin reaction. Between two-thirds to three-quarters of PCOS women also have insulin resistance. (This is the root of the metabolic issues accompanying PCOS.) Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance. However, persons with insulin resistance do not necessarily go on to acquire diabetes.

Difficulty Sleeping and the Accompanying Exhaustion are Symptoms of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Women with PCOS frequently report feeling fatigued and lacking in energy. One possible cause is that PCOS women are more prone to suffer from sleep apnea, a kind of disorder characterized by short pauses in breathing. Sleep disturbances and insomnia can make mood issues much worse.

How can Medical Professionals Determine and what to Anticipate?

Precocious ovarian syndrome (PCOS) may develop in adolescence or middle age. A lady developing this illness in her thirties or forties is improbable but not impossible. Yet, there are several barriers that women patients must overcome before receiving a correct diagnosis.

Consult Doctors

Many women avoid discussing their health with doctors, and those who do often seek out the help of many specialists for their various complaints. This doesn’t make any sense.


Nonetheless, statistics show that the United States spends $4 billion each year on diagnosis and therapy. See a doctor if you have any of these symptoms or are having problems conceiving. Symptoms and physical condition are generally the focus of a doctor’s examination.

Diagnosis of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

The Endocrine Society’s 2013 recommendations recommend utilizing the Rotterdam criteria for diagnosing. Androgen excess (as seen in acne, hirsutism, hair loss, or androgen excess), polycystic ovaries, and ovulatory dysfunction (as seen in irregular menstruation) are diagnostic of the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in women (found on an ultrasound). In other words, ovarian cysts are not a necessity. The woman’s doctor also has some say in whether or not she has them. PCOS is difficult to diagnose due to the similarity of its symptoms to those of other diseases. Women often require three doctors’ opinions before receiving a diagnosis.

Test Blood and Urine

Menstrual problems are a common reason women see an obstetrician. As there is currently no definitive test for PCOS, the condition is often identified by the process of elimination. This cluster includes hypothyroidism, excessive prolactin, Cushing syndrome, and acromegaly. This can only be determined by testing blood and urine.

When to seek Medical Help?

Have a conversation with your doctor if you think you might have PCOS. Solace is one benefit. Teenage girls have been recorded as stating things such as, “My period is wild” or “I’m scared I’m going to bleed to death,” and as adding, “I felt there was something wrong the whole time.” Second, it’s vital to detect PCOS early so that related health issues, including type 2 diabetes (due to insulin resistance), heart disease, high blood pressure (hypertension), sleep apnea, and stroke, can be prevented.

Different Types Of Lip Products And Their Uses

Lip products have become a staple in many people’s makeup routines, offering a variety of options to enhance and protect the lips. From lip balms to lipsticks, glosses to stains, there are countless types of lip products available in the market today. Each product serves a unique purpose, from providing hydration and nourishment to adding color and shine. With so many options to choose from, it’s easy to find a lip product that suits your individual needs and preferences.

Lips Products

One of your face’s most appealing traits is the shape of your lips. They might give you a fashionable or even boring appearance. There are numerous lip cosmetic options on the market that can transform your appearance. Moreover, lip makeup is important for face makeup. Hence, it would be beneficial if you carefully selected the lip tints to make your lips look fantastic. The list below might help you learn more about the various lip creams and how they can affect your lips.

Lip Oil

Lip oils can be worn alone or on top of lipstick for extra shine and hydration. They are available in a variety of colours and finishes, from clear to tinted. They are a fantastic option for anyone who wish to maintain soft, smooth lips while achieving a natural, effortless look.

Lip Gloss

A classic lip cosmetic, lip gloss gives the lips a glossy, high-shine look. Typically, oils, waxes, and polymers are included in its formulation to assist create a smooth, shiny finish. Lip glosses are available in a wide range of colours and formulations, from glittery to metallic to holographic, and come in a number of textures, including transparent, sheer, and opaque. They can be used on their own or over lipstick for more dimension and shine. For individuals who want to add a dash of glitz to their makeup look or highlight the natural beauty of their lips, lip glosses are a fantastic alternative.

Lip Balm

The purpose of lip balm, a type of lip lotion, is to deeply hydrate and nourish the lips. Beeswax, shea butter, and coconut oil are frequently used in its formulation since they assist to calm and protect the delicate skin on the lips. Lip balms are offered in a number of flavours and scents and come in a range of forms, including classic sticks, pots, and tubes. They offer long-lasting hydration and aid to halt further drying or cracking, making them a fantastic option for people with dry or chapped lips. Lip balms can be used to add moisture and smoothness on their own or under lipstick.

Lip Plumper

A lip product called a lip plumper is made to increase the volume and fullness of the lips. It is frequently made with chemicals like cinnamon or peppermint oil, which temporarily boost blood flow to the area and give the lips a plumper appearance by stimulating the lips. Hyaluronic acid and collagen are additional ingredients in certain lip plumper’s, which aid to moisturize and plump the lips over time. Lip plumper’s can be worn alone or over lipstick to give lips more fullness and dimension. They are available in a variety of forms, from clear to coloured. They are a fantastic option for people who want a pout that is fuller and more voluminous.

Exfoliating Lip Products

Lip products with exfoliating properties are made to exfoliate dead skin cells from the lips and expose softer, smoother skin. They are frequently made with fruit enzymes, sugar, salt, or other exfoliating chemicals that assist to gently remove dry, flaky skin. Exfoliating lip products are offered in a number of flavours and smells and come in a range of compositions, including scrubs, masks, and balms. They offer a gentle and efficient technique to remove dead skin and support healthy, moisturized lips, making them a fantastic option for people who have dry or chapped lips.


The traditional lip cosmetic, lipstick, gives the lips long-lasting colour and definition. It is often made with pigments, oils, and waxes, which contribute to the creation of a creamy, smooth texture that applies effortlessly and maintains its appearance for hours. Lipsticks are offered in a number of colours and finishes, with a range of formulas including matte, satin, and glossy. For more depth and complexity, layer them with other lip treatments like lip liner or gloss or wear them alone. Lipsticks are a fantastic option for people who want to add a burst of colour to their makeup or make a big statement with their lip colour.

Whipped Lip Butter

A sort of lip balm that offers the lips exceptional moisture and nourishment is whipped lip butter. Shea butter, cocoa butter, and coconut oil are common hydrating components included in its formulation, all of which assist to soothe and soften dry, chapped lips. Lips feel soft and silky after applying whipped lip butter, which frequently contains natural flavours or aromas for an enticing, aromatic experience. It offers a glossy, translucent finish that highlights the lips’ inherent beauty and offers long-lasting moisture and defense. When looking for a high-end, hydrating lip product that feels rich and nurturing, whipped lip butter is a fantastic option.


Knowledge of the various lip product varieties and their applications is crucial for attaining the desired look and preserving healthy lips. There are numerous solutions to fit your needs, whether you choose a natural or strong lip look. You may choose the ideal lip product to improve your overall appearance and keep your lips feeling and looking their best by taking into account elements like texture, colour, and formulation.

A wide range of substances, including moisturizers, sunscreens, and scents, can be included in lip products in addition to the many lip product kinds. When choosing a lip product, it’s crucial to take into account these substances to make sure it suits your demands and doesn’t have any negative side effects. In order to maintain your lips healthy and looking their best, you should exfoliate and moisturize them on a regular basis. The appropriate lip cosmetics can help you create attractive, healthy lips with a little knowledge and attention.

Mark Grinstaff: Local Drug Delivery In Treatment Of Mesothelioma And Esophageal Cancer

Cancer Treatment Goes Local In two studies, Grinstaff offers new therapeutic approaches to mesothelioma and esophageal cancer

Mark Grinstaff, professor of biomedical engineering and chemistry. Photo by Cydney Scott

When it comes to treating cancer, one Boston University researcher is going local. Mark Grinstaff, a BU College of Engineering professor of biomedical engineering and materials science and engineering, published two studies in January 2023 that offer new approaches to the treatment of two intractable cancers—mesothelioma and esophageal cancer—by delivering therapeutic agents directly to the tumor site.

“Local drug delivery allows us to maximize drug dose at the disease site while reducing drug exposure to the rest of the body,” says Grinstaff, who is also a professor of chemistry and of medicine. “This approach affords significantly fewer negative side effects, like hair loss and an overall decrease in the immune system, which are common with conventional intravenous chemotherapy treatments.”

The first study, published in Scientific Reports, describes a highly targeted approach to treating mesothelioma, an aggressive and highly fatal cancer associated with asbestos exposure. Mesothelioma progresses locally, Grinstaff noted, and current chemotherapy treatments—which infuse toxic drugs throughout the body for a relatively brief period—have not been effective in extending survival.

Postdoctoral research associate Aaron Colby (ENG’09, ’14) prepared 100-nanometer particles that were small enough to enter a cancer cell, but expanded to 1,000 nanometers once exposed to the cell’s low pH level. In addition, the nanoparticles were engineered to attract a chemotherapy drug and draw it away from healthy cells through a process similar to that which causes oil to separate from vinegar. With the particles acting as beacons for the chemotherapy and the cancer cells unable to expel them quickly, the drug spent more time on target while avoiding healthy tissue.

“In our strategy, we are sending in a nanoparticle first and the drug second, which we have found to increase the amount of drug delivered to the tumor itself compared to the current treatment method,” says Colby.

The second study, published in Angewandte Chemie International Edition, reports a novel drug delivery technology to treat esophageal cancer. A common problem that arises with esophageal cancer patients is difficulty swallowing, as a result of the tumor narrowing or blocking the esophagus. Doctors insert a wire mesh stent to open the passageway.

Grinstaff and his research team had the idea to integrate drug delivery with this tool as a one-two punch to focus the drug on the problem itself. Graduate student Julia Wang wrapped a drug-infused polymer sheath around the stent so that when it is stretched, it releases drug directly to the disease site.

“By changing the treatment method from a more passive release system to a more active release system, we are able to control when and how much drug is released,” says Wang.

“What is unique about this drug delivery system is that the amount of drug delivered depends on the extent the cloth is stretched. Using this approach a clinician can tune the dose, something they cannot do today,” says Grinstaff. “That control comes from the polymer composition and the engineering aspects of the design.”

Grinstaff and his team continue to refine the technology so it can pass through the regulatory process and get into the clinics. According to Grinstaff, his unique approaches to treating these diseases will not only lead to more effective treatment, but also will reduce the exposure of healthy cells to toxic chemotherapy drugs.

“Above all else, the potential benefit of both studies is the impact on patient care,” says Grinstaff. “By improving upon and streamlining the processes in place to treat aggressive diseases that currently have poor prognoses and no good therapies, not only are you going to treat the disease itself more effectively, but you will also improve the patient’s quality of life.”

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