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What is a Circular Linked List?

A circular linked list is a sequence of nodes arranged such a way that each node can be retraced to itself. Here a “node” is a self-referential element with pointers to one or two nodes in it’s immediate vicinity.

Below is a depiction of a circular linked list with 3 nodes.

Here, you can see that each node is retraceable to itself. The example shown above is a circular singly linked list.

Note: The most simple circular linked list, is a node which traces only to itself as shown

In this circular linked list tutorial, you will learn:

Basic Operations in Circular Linked lists

The basic operations on a circular linked list are:

Insertion

Deletion and

Traversal

Insertion is the process of placing a node at a specified position in the circular linked list.

Deletion is the process of removing an existing node from the linked list. The node can be identified by the occurrence of its value or by its position.

Traversal of a circular linked list is the process of displaying the entire linked list’s contents and retracing back to the source node.

In the next section, you will understand insertion of a node, and the types of insertion possible in a Circular Singly Linked List.

Insertion Operation

Initially, you need to create one node which points to itself as shown in this image. Without this node, insertion creates the first node.

Next, there are two possibilities:

Insertion at the current position of the circular linked list. This corresponds to insertion at the beginning of the end of a regular singular linked list. In a circular linked list, the beginning and the end are the same.

Insertion after an indexed node. The node should be identified by an index number corresponding to its element value.

For inserting at the beginning/end of the circular linked list, that is at the position where the first-ever node was added,

You will have to break the existing self-link to the existing node

The new node’s next pointer will link to the existing node.

The last node’s next pointer will point to the inserted node.

NOTE: The pointer that is the token master or the beginning/end of the circle can be changed. It will still return to the same node on a traversal, discussed ahead.

Steps in (a) i-iii are shown below:

(Existing node)

STEP 1) Break the existing link

STEP 2) Create a forward link (from new node to an existing node)

STEP 3) Create a loop link to the first node

Next, you will try insertion after a node.

For example, let us insert “VALUE2” after the node with “VALUE0”. Let us assume that the starting point is the node with “VALUE0”.

You will have to break the line between the first and second node and place the node with “VALUE2” in between.

The first node’s next pointer must link to this node, and this node’s next pointer must link to the earlier second node.

The rest of the arrangement remains unchanged. All nodes are retraceable to themselves.

NOTE: Since there is a cyclic arrangement, inserting a node involves the same procedure for any node. The pointer that completes a cycle completes the cycle just like any other node.

This is shown below:

(Let us say there are only two nodes. This is a trivial case)

STEP 1) Remove the inner link between the connected nodes

STEP 2) Connect the left-hand side node to the new node

STEP 3) Connect the new node to the right hand side node.

Deletion Operation

Let us assume a 3-node circular linked list. The cases for deletion are given below:

Deleting the current element

Deletion after an element.

Deletion at the beginning/end:

Traverse to the first node from the last node.

To delete from the end, there should be only one traversal step, from the last node to the first node.

Delete the link between the last node and the next node.

Link the last node to the next element of the first node.

Free the first node.

(Existing setup)

STEP 1) Remove the circular link

STEPS 2) Remove the link between the first and next, link the last node, to the node following the first

STEP 3) Free /deallocate the first node

Deletion after a node:

Traverse till the next node is the node to be deleted.

Traverse to the next node, placing a pointer on the previous node.

Connect the previous node to the node after the present node, using its next pointer.

Free the current (delinked) node.

STEP 1) Let us say that we need to delete a node with “VALUE1.”

STEP 2) Remove the link between the previous node and the current node. Link its previous node with the next node pointed by the current node (with VALUE1).

STEP 3) Free or deallocate the current node.

Traversal of a Circular Linked List

To traverse a circular linked list, starting from a last pointer, check if the last pointer itself is NULL. If this condition is false, check if there is only one element. Otherwise, traverse using a temporary pointer till the last pointer is reached again, or as many times as needed, as shown in the GIF below.

Advantages of Circular Linked List

No requirement for a NULL assignment in the code. The circular list never points to a NULL pointer unless fully deallocated.

Circular linked list also performs all regular functions of a singly linked list. In fact, circular doubly linked lists discussed below can even eliminate the need for a full-length traversal to locate an element. That element would at most only be exactly opposite to the start, completing just half the linked list.

Circular lists are complex as compared to singly linked lists.

Reverse of circular list is a complex as compared to singly or doubly lists.

If not handled carefully, then the code may go in an infinite loop.

Harder to find the end of the list and loop control.

Inserting at Start, we have to traverse the complete list to find the last node. (Implementation Perspective)

Singly Linked List as a Circular Linked List

You are encouraged to attempt to read and implement the code below. It presents the pointer arithmetic associated with circular linked lists.

struct node { int item; struct node *next; };

struct node* addToEmpty(struct node*,int); struct node *insertCurrent(struct node *, int); struct node *insertAfter(struct node *, int, int); struct node *removeAfter(struct node *, int); struct node *removeCurrent(struct node *);

void peek(struct node *);

int main() { …

Explanation of code:

The first two lines of code are the necessary included header files.

The next section describes the structure of each self-referential node. It contains a value and a pointer of the same type as the structure.

Each structure repeatedly links to structure objects of the same type.

There are different function prototypes for:

Adding an element to an empty linked list

Inserting at the currently pointed position of a circular linked list.

Inserting after a particular indexed value in the linked list.

Removing/Deleting after a particular indexed value in the linked list.

Removing at the currently pointed position of a circular linked list

The last function prints each element through a circular traversal at any state of the linked list.

int main() { struct node *last = NULL; last = insertCurrent(last,4); last = removeAfter(last, 4); peek(last); return 0; } struct node* addToEmpty(struct node*last, int data) { struct node *temp = (struct node *)malloc(sizeof( struct node)); last = temp; return last; } struct node *insertCurrent(struct node *last, int data)

Explanation of code:

For the addEmpty code, allocate an empty node using the malloc function.

For this node, place the data to the temp variable.

Assign and link the only variable to the temp variable

Return the last element to the main() / application context.

struct node *insertCurrent(struct node *last, int data) { if(last == NULL) { return addToEmpty(last, data); } struct node *temp = (struct node *)malloc(sizeof( struct node)); return last; } struct node *insertAfter(struct node *last, int data, int item) { …

Explanation of code

If there is no element to insert, then you should make sure to add to an empty list and return control.

Create a temporary element to place after the current element.

Link the pointers as shown.

Return the last pointer as in the previous function.

... struct node *insertAfter(struct node *last, int data, int item) { if (last == NULL) { return addToEmpty(last, item); } do { prev = temp; { printf("Element not found. Please try again"); ...

Explanation of code:

If there is no element in the list, ignore the data, add the current item as the last item in the list and return control

For every iteration in the do-while loop ensure that there is a previous pointer that holds the last-traversed result.

Only then can the next traversal occur.

If the data is found, or temp reaches back to the last pointer, the do-while terminates. The next section of code decides what has to be done with the item.

... { printf("Element not found. Please try again"); return last; } else { newnode = (struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)); } return last; } struct node *removeCurrent(struct node *last) ...

Explanation of code:

If the entire list has been traversed, yet the item is not found, display an “item not found” message and then return control to the caller.

If there is a node found, and/or the node is not yet the last node, then create a new node.

Link the previous node with the new node. Link the current node with temp (the traversal variable).

This ensures that the element is placed after a particular node in the circular linked list. Return to the caller.

struct node *removeCurrent(struct node *last) { if(last == NULL) { printf("Element Not Found"); return NULL; } free(temp); return last; } struct node *removeAfter(struct node *last, int data)

Explanation of code

To remove only the last (current) node, check if this list is empty. If it is, then no element can be removed.

The temp variable just traverses one link forward.

Link the last pointer to the pointer after the first.

Free the temp pointer. It deallocates the un-linked last pointer.

struct node *removeAfter(struct node *last,int data) { struct node *temp = NULL,*prev = NULL; if (last == NULL) { printf("Linked list empty. Cannot remove any elementn"); return NULL; } prev = temp; do { prev = temp; { printf("Element not found"); ...

Explanation of code

As with the previous removal function, check if there is no element. If this is true, then no element can be removed.

Pointers are assigned specific positions to locate the element to be deleted.

The process continues until an element is found, or the next element retraces to the last pointer.

{ printf(“Element not found”); return last; } else { free(temp); } return last; }

void peek(struct node * last) { struct node *temp = last; if (last == NULL) { return;

Explanation of program

If the element found after traversing the entire linked list, an error message is displayed saying the item was not found.

Otherwise, the element is delinked and freed in steps 3 and 4.

The previous pointer is linked to the address pointed as “next” by the element to be deleted (temp).

The temp pointer is therefore deallocated and freed.

... void peek(struct node * last) { struct node *temp = last; if (last == NULL) { return; } { } while (temp != last) { } }

Explanation of code

The peek or traversal is not possible if there are zero needed. The user needs to allocate or insert a node.

If there is only one node, there is no need to traverse, the node’s content can be printed, and the while loop does not execute.

If there is more than one node, then the temp prints all the item till the last element.

Moment the last element is reached, the loop terminates, and the function returns call to the main function.

Applications of the Circular Linked List

Implementing round-robin scheduling in system processes and circular scheduling in high-speed graphics.

Token rings scheduling in computer networks.

It is used in display units like shop boards that require continuous traversal of data.

You're reading Circular Linked List: Advantages And Disadvantages

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Cloud Computing

Advantages of Cloud Computing Cost Reduction

The major reason companies shift towards cloud computing is that it takes lower costs. The business does not need to build its own IT infrastructure or purchase hardware or equipment. Costs include physical hardware for data storage purposes like hard drives, solid-state drives or disks, etc.

Better Collaboration

Cloud computing allows people to access cloud data from any device, from anywhere, from any time as long as they have an internet connection.

Suppose the team is working remotely. The team is spread worldwide, so it is a good option to go ahead with cloud computing as employees can access data from anywhere in the world, at any time, and from any device.

Backup and Restore Data Security

Due to different security reasons, cloud providers have designed very high-security cloud features so that you can allow what data is accessible to which person groups.

Pay as you go

Cloud computing allows you flexibility because you have to pay only for what you use as a service.

Boundless storage capacity

No storage capacity is predefined, so you can increase or decrease storage capacity according to your needs at any time.

Accessibility

Cloud computing allows you to quickly and easily store, access, and manipulate information on the cloud.

Mobility

Cloud computing allows easy access to all cloud data via mobile through the internet.

Quicker Deployments Automatic Software Integrations

Cloud computing allows you to set automation of software updates and upgrades. So as soon as a newer version of any software is released, it will automatically integrate into the services you are using.

Internet Connectivity

In cloud computing, data (files, images, video, audio, etc.) is stored in the cloud. So to access the data, an internet connection is required. In the absence of the internet, we can’t access it.

Downtime

We can’t access the data if there is downtime (internet loss at the cloud provider’s end). Other than this, downtime also includes cloud providers that may face power loss, service maintenance, etc.

Vendor lock-in

When transferring all the data from one cloud provider to another, there can be many issues, such as the different cloud providers using different platforms, hosting, and running of the applications on the different platforms that can result in configuration and complexities issues.

The company data might be left vulnerable to security or thereat attacks due to compromises made during the data migrations.

Limited Bandwidth

As the Cloud provider provides limited bandwidth to all its users, you have to pay significantly higher costs if your organization surpasses that limit.

Security

Even though the cloud providers are storing information very securely, we still don’t have to forget that data is vulnerable to cyber-attacks when stored in the cloud. Many organizations and companies have suffered from security breaches and their potential risks in the cloud.

Performance Variation

As the server is hosted on a cloud provider, which also provides services to other businesses, any cyberattack on shared resources may slow down your services.

Lack of support staff

Some cloud companies do not provide proper support to their clients; then, you have to only depend on FAQs or online help.

Limited Control and Flexibility

The cloud infrastructure is completely owned, managed, and monitored by the cloud providers. So businesses using cloud computing have limited control over their data, applications, and services. It makes it hard for companies to have the level of control they want over the different services they use.

The customer may not have access to key administrative services. So it’s recommended that companies have a proper end-user license agreement(EULA) so that what a company can do and what not with cloud infrastructure is clearly defined.

Technical issues

Due to frequent version releases of some applications, you have to constantly upgrade your systems to meet a market need; in between these updates, there is a chance that you may be stuck on some technical problems.

Linked List Representation In Javascript

Operations in Linked List

There are several operations in Linked list, which are adding a node, deleting a node and searching a node. which are detailed in the below scenarios.

Creating a Node

Let’s see the scenario of linked list node below −

class Node { constructor(element){ this.element = element, chúng tôi = null } }

In the above scenario, we have created a Node which has two properties: element and next. Element holds the data of the node and the second property “next” will holds the pointer referring to the next node. In above example next is referring to NULL because there is only node in linked list.

Creating a Linked list class

Below is the method to create a linked list class −

class LinkedList{ constructor(element){ this.head_of_LL = { element: element, next : null }; this.length = 1; } }

In the above snippet, we have created a linked list class that will perform adding, deleting and searching the nodes. And the length of this list is defined as 1, as there is only one node in the linked list (head is also the last node).

Adding Node at Beginning

Following is the algorithm to add node at head of the Linked List −

Create a New node by creating instance of node class.

Point New node’s next to the head.

Now, make New node as head.

The following is the method to add a node at head position −

Add_node(element){ const newNode = new Node(element); chúng tôi = this.head_of_LL; this.head_of_LL = newNode; this.length++; return this; } Deleting a node at Beginning

Following is the algorithm to delete node at head of the Linked List −

Make the very next element of deleted element as head.

Now, decrease the length of Linked list by 1.

This is the method below to delete a node at head position −

delete_head_node(){ this.head_of_LL = this.head_of_LL.next; this.length--; }

Here, we are performing to delete the element at head position in linked list. The next node of deleted element will become the new head and length of the linked list will reduce by 1.

Searching an element

Following is the algorithm to search for an element in the Linked List −

Traverse the entire linked list.

Now, Compare the values

Return true, if found

Else, return false.

The below scenario is searching an element in the linked list −

search_Node(element){ let curr_Node = this.head_of_LL; while(curr_Node !== null){ if(curr_Node.element === element) return true; curr_Node = curr_Node.next; } return false; } Implementation of Linked list

We are implementing a Linked List data structure in JavaScript. In Linked List we can perform the operations like adding and deleting the elements, searching an element. In the code below we have implemented all the above mentioned operations.

Example

Let’s look into the final execution of code below −

class

Node

{

constructor

(

element

)

{

this

.

element

=

element

,

this

.

next

=

null

}

}

class

LinkedList

{

constructor

(

element

)

{

this

.

head_of_LL

=

{

element

:

element

,

next

:

null

}

;

this

.

length

=

1

;

}

Add_node

(

element

)

{

const

newNode

=

new

Node

(

element

)

;

newNode

.

next

=

this

.

head_of_LL

;

this

.

head_of_LL

=

newNode

;

this

.

length

++

;

return

this

;

}

delete_head_node

(

)

{

this

.

head_of_LL

=

this

.

head_of_LL

.

next

;

this

.

length

;

}

search_Node

(

element

)

{

let

curr_Node

=

this

.

head_of_LL

;

while

(

curr_Node

!==

null

)

{

if

(

curr_Node

.

element

===

element

)

return

true

;

curr_Node

=

curr_Node

.

next

;

}

return

false

;

}

getLinkedlist

(

)

{

let

getArrayList

=

[

]

;

let

curr_Node

=

this

.

head_of_LL

;

while

(

curr_Node

!==

null

)

{

getArrayList

.

push

(

curr_Node

.

element

)

;

curr_Node

=

curr_Node

.

next

;

}

return

getArrayList

.

join

(

‘ → ‘

)

;

}

}

document

.

write

(

“Creating a LL with node 44:”

)

;

const

myLinkedList

=

new

LinkedList

(

44

)

;

document

.

write

(

myLinkedList

.

getLinkedlist

(

)

)

;

document

.

write

(

‘Adding nodes (33, 22 and 11) at head position :’

)

;

myLinkedList

.

Add_node

(

11

)

;

myLinkedList

.

Add_node

(

22

)

;

myLinkedList

.

Add_node

(

33

)

;

document

.

write

(

myLinkedList

.

getLinkedlist

(

)

)

;

document

.

write

(

‘Deleting (32) node at head position :’

)

;

myLinkedList

.

delete_head_node

(

)

;

document

.

write

(

myLinkedList

.

getLinkedlist

(

)

)

;

document

.

write

(

‘Searching for element 11 :’

)

;

document

.

write

(

myLinkedList

.

getLinkedlist

(

)

)

;

document

.

write

(

myLinkedList

.

search_Node

(

11

)

)

;

document

.

write

(

‘Searching for element 55 :’

)

;

document

.

write

(

myLinkedList

.

getLinkedlist

(

)

)

;

document

.

write

(

myLinkedList

.

search_Node

(

55

)

)

;

Output

The output of the above script will be −

Creating a LL with node 44: 44 Adding nodes (33, 22 and 11) at head position : 33 → 22 → 11 → 44 Deleting (32) node at head position : 22 → 11 → 44 Searching for element 11 : 22 → 11 → 44 true Searching for element 55 : 22 → 11 → 44 false

Disadvantages And Limitations Of Using Unactivated Windows 11/10

What is unactivated Windows 11/10?

The popular computer operating system, Windows, requires a valid license or product key to be activated entirely. Like a paid software, Windows 11, 10, or other older versions require a license purchased from Microsoft. If you do not buy the license or enter the product key while or after installing the Windows operating system on your computer, it is called unactivated Windows.

Although Microsoft allows users to use Windows 10 and 11 forever without using a product key, there are some limitations that you need to prepare for. There are one significant and multiple minor setbacks, and you may want to know about them before deciding not to buy a product key.

As per the Microsoft retail license agreement,

You are authorized to use this software only if you are properly licensed and the software has been properly activated with a genuine product key or by other authorized method.

However, you want to ignore this statement to continue using Windows 10 or 11; you should know the backend of it.

The Activate Windows watermark

Activation message on Windows Settings

No Personalization settings

Frequent notification to activate Windows

1] The Activate Windows watermark

Your Windows computer will continue showing an Activate Windows watermark in the bottom-right corner of your screen. Although there are some ways to remove Activate Windows watermark, it may come back when there are some issues with the Registry files. On the other hand, if you do not want to change files in Registry Editor, you would need to live with this watermark.

For your information, it will be visible when you take screenshots or share your screen with someone remotely.

2] Activation message on Windows Settings

Like the desktop watermark, this message would appear in every screenshot you capture or videos you record.

3] No Personalization settings

If you do not activate Windows 10 or 11, you cannot change any Personalization settings. In other words, you cannot change wallpaper, theme, title color, Start Menu color, transparency, etc. It shows an error message saying:

You need to activate Windows before you can personalize your PC.

If you often change the desktop wallpaper, lock screen background, theme, etc., you might face troubles doing it on an activated Windows 11/10 – but then there are ways to do this too.

4] Frequent notification to activate Windows

It is probably the most irritating part of not having an activated copy of Windows. You may get countless notifications at a particular interval, asking you to activate your Windows installation with a valid product key. Whether you are watching a movie or reading an article on the internet, you may confront this popup message.

Read: Why not to use a Pirated copy of Windows OS?

Is it OK to use unactivated Windows 10?

If you want to use Windows 10/11 permanently, it is highly recommended to purchase a product key for activation. Otherwise, you may get some issues in the future since the official license agreement doesn’t comply with your usage of Windows.

How long can I use unactivated Windows 10?

Technically, you can use unactivated Windows for a lifetime. Gone are the days when Microsoft asked users to buy a license to continue using the operating system.

That’s all! Hope this article helped you decide whether you should buy a product key or not.

How To Test Cookies With Techniques And Advantages

Introduction to Cookie Testing

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

Why do we need Cookie Testing?

Cookie testing is required to check if particular information is being sent back to the server. Each time the browser requests for a page from the server this information should be saved. It is needed and important to check the website functions. It is important to verify how the cookies are being written to files and are being stored in your hard drive. Cookies should be tested as they play an important role as they store very important information within it.

How to Test Cookies?

Below steps can be followed when cookies are to be tested.

Step 1: Disable cookies

To start testing the cookies should be first disabled. This can be done by going to browser settings. Once the cookies are disabled the different functionalities can be tested. The website pages and its different functionalities and monitoring of general functions can be done easily. These may behave in a weird manner when the cookies are disabled. The websites should proactively be able to recover from any failure and should be fine. Some websites also provide information to the user through help messages whenever the cookies are disabled. Testing should be in such a way that it should ensure that all such scenarios are handled upfront.

Step 2: Testing cookies by editing them

To test the application the cookie can be edited with its information. This scenario is valid when cookies store information like user names, passwords, etc. The testing can be done by going to the cookie file. This file can be easily edited by changing the current id with any other valid or invalid number. Once the change is done the website should not allow you to log in. This is because the username is changed and the proper error message should be sent as access denied.

Step 3: Remove the cookies for testing purpose Step 4: Corrupt the cookies

This is one of the important scenarios which should not be missed. It is very important from the security perspective as hackers use this information and will try to access unauthorized information about you and your application. This is usually done by either corrupting the cookie or by overwriting the cookie information with the motive of gaining access to your information through the cookie file. This test is important from the point of view of banking, financial and investment applications. Security for these applications is the utmost. The behavior of cookies should be monitored when they are destroyed. This monitoring can help in find bugs with the cookies if any.

Step 5: Cookie Encryption testing

For the sole purpose of security, it is important that all usernames, user id’s and other sensitive information which is stored in cookie files of websites should be encrypted. The encryption should be validated before being sent to the local computer.

Step 6: Testing behaviour of cookies across various browsers

A cookie when stored on one browser should not work on any other browser. It should be operated only on the browser where it was created. This cross-browser testing should be done appropriately.

Cookie Testing Techniques

Deactivating the cookies

Corrupting the cookies

Rejecting the cookies

Cross Browser testing

Encryption of Cookies

Testing with different browser settings

By using this technique, the functionality and working of cookies can be tested properly and all data can be validated.

Advantages

The cookies are easy to implement and do not require any server. They are stored on the user’s computer.

Cookies can be configured in a way that they expire when a session expires. This makes them persistent only till the user is active. This also ensures security.

Cookies help in storing information and they work in a way where user work without being aware that the information is being stored.

They store less memory and as there is no server involved there is no need to send the data back to the server.

Cookies are persistent and if not restricted to a session the information in cookies can stay there for days, months and even years. It is easy for the user to check the information.

Cookies are stored on the client’s hard disk and even if the server crashes the information will still be available.

Cookies make browsing the internet faster and easier.

Loss of site traffic: Some functionalities will not work when cookies are disabled.

Overuse of cookies: Some browsers give pop-ups when cookies are being used. When testing is being done many cookies need to be enabled and disabled

Sensitive Information: Sometimes sensitive information is stored in cookies without encryption. This compromises security.

Conclusion

Cookies are very useful and lightweight objects which store user information on their system. It is important to test them as they store sensitive information. Cookies can be testing by editing, rejecting and even destroying them. This helps in checking all perspectives and validating if all data is being stored properly in the cookies.

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List Of 47 Phrasal Verbs And Their One

The following is a list of commonly deployed phrasal verbs that find one use or another in academic texts. These (and others) can be acceptably used in academic texts. Along with these examples, however, are a number of one-word substitutions to illustrate that in each case the phrasal verb can be easily replaced.

Table of contents

Separable

Inseparable

As you look through the substitutions, be aware that phrasal verbs (like other verbs) often have more than one definition and more than one context of proper use.

This flexibility means that although these substitutions work for the examples given, and although the examples are common uses of phrasal verbs, a suggested replacement will not cover every possible use of its phrasal verb.

Separable

Note: If it uses a pronoun, the separable phrasal verb must be separated (e.g. “He added up the number” but “He added it up”).

Phrasal verbs Example uses Definitions and Replacements

Add up James added up the number of affirmative responses. calculate

Buy out The large company bought out the smaller. purchase (someone’s assets)

Buy up The business’s assets were bought up in the auction. purchase (all of something)

Call off The order was to call off the strike immediately. cancel

Carry on The meeting will carry on in your absence. continue

Carry out Sam carried out the research because Jimmy couldn’t find the time. execute

Cut out Because the subsection was not directly relevant to the rest of the paper, Randal had to cut it out. excise

Find out The purpose of the literature review is find out what has been said on the topic. discover

Get (it) over with (must be split) Isa and the other participants were happy to get the laborious questionnaire over with. complete

Get across Lars’s paper has too many grammatical mistakes, meaning he couldn’t get his message across. communicate

Give up The outnumbered forces would not give up. surrender

Hold up When deadlines approach, a student cannot let anything hold up the completion of an assignment. delay

Leave out The witness left out a number of important details. omit

Make up We asked participants to make up a scenario in which they would be content. fabricate

Make out In the darkness he could not make out the size of the camp. see

Pass up We could not pass up this opportunity to collaborate. forgo

Pass on The common flu can be passed on through saliva. transmit

Pass out Our research assistants passed out four-hundred surveys to a random sample of shoppers. distribute

Pick up This study picks Dekker’s research up where he left it. resume

Point out Hendriks (2010) points out that such a study might be useful. explain

Set up The equipment’s sensitivity meant we had to set it up with utmost care. arrange

Turn down Regretfully, the board must turn down a number of applicants every year. reject

Use up The campers were thirsty after they used up the last of the water. exhaust

Inseparable

Phrasal verbs Example uses Definitions and Replacements

Back out of Several subjects backed out of their treatment. abandon

Bear on Foucault’s writings still bear on contemporary thought about prison. influence

Catch up with It will take some time for our newer coal mines to catch up with our older ones. equal

Call on I call on the work of other contemporary thinkers. utilize

Call for The act of aggression called for immediate response. necessitate

Count on The question is, should a citizen be able to count on its government to preserve free access to clean water? rely on

Cut down on reduce

Come up with Hannah had to come up with a way to isolate the variable. invent

Fall apart The board of directors fell apart. disintegrate

Get away Several of them sought to get away from the cold winter night. escape

Get along with They commonly exaggerated the degree to which the indigenous tribes would not get along with one another. be friendly with

Give in After a long pause for thought, he gave in to the demands. yield

Go on Bakker went on to win a prestigious award. continue

Hold on to Sven tried everything, but could not hold on to his youth. keep

Hold out Bram would hold out until morning when the supplies arrived. wait

Hold out on Napoleon would not tolerate his generals holding out on him. hide (something)

Look into We have a hypothesis, but we must look into other possible explanations for the phenomenon. research

Look out for Among 50 respondents who regularly walk home from work in the middle of the night, 45 indicated looking out for criminals. safeguard against

Make sure of To print the name of interviewee, an author must make sure of the interviewee’s consent. ensure

Pick up on The data show various relationships that we had not picked up on. notice

Put up with The country will put up with a certain number of economic sanctions. tolerate

See to The custodian would see to the security of the building. arrange

Take after This new state takes after its regional neighbours. resemble

Touch on At the beginning of his speech, Finn found it necessary to touch on the circumstances of the event. mention

Cite this Scribbr article

Bryson, S. (2024, October 24). List of 47 Phrasal Verbs and Their One-Word Substitutions. Scribbr. Retrieved July 17, 2023,

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