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This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon


Cryptocurrency serves as a digital asset and is a medium of exchange between individuals where coin ownership records are stored in a secure computerized database. They are named as such because complicated cryptography helps in creating and processing these digital currencies and transactions across decentralized systems.

Note: The article is written at the end of May 2023. Current conditions will be different.

Overview of Cryptocurrencies

Cryptocurrencies do not belong to any nation or so. Traditional currencies are usually related to the central banks of nations or the government, India has Indian Rupee, the USA has US Dollar, Japan has Yen, the EU has Euro and the list goes on.

Cryptocurrencies are designed to be free from the control of any Government or Central bank. The Crypto market has always been highly unstable and erratic and a variety of factors determine the overall direction.

Crypto Fall of May 2023

The Crypto market was on the rise in the pandemic season. Since mid-2023, almost all cryptocurrencies were on the rise. The social media was all buzzed up on bitcoin and the other cryptocurrencies.

Memes spread all over social media regarding the rise of cryptocurrencies. One of the major factors about the cryptocurrency trends was Elon Musk. In February 2023, Tesla bought $1.5 billion in bitcoin, and Elon musk even mentioned that Tesla would accept cryptocurrency as payment.

In early February 2023, the bitcoin price was about 32000 USD, and by February end, it had crossed 50000 INR. Elon Musk also added the hashtag #bitcoin to his Twitter bio, which did help in the rise of cryptocurrency prices.

The cryptocurrency had become the new “cool” thing among youngsters and people wanted to buy as much crypto as possible.


Similarly, Dogecoin was another cryptocurrency that rose to fame was Dogecoin. In February 2023, when Elon Musk and many other celebrities tweeted about Dogecoin, the value of the coin shot up suddenly. And Dogecoin, unlike Bitcoin or Ethereum has technically no use. It is a meme cryptocurrency.

In 2013, a Japanese Shiba Inu dog was immensely viral and Dogecoin was started, as a joke. And it was just a fun experiment.

On 1st April 2023, Elon Musk tweeted that SpaceX will put a literal Dogecoin on the moon. This immediately became an internet meme, and the price of Dogecoin suddenly soared.

Images like this spread all over the internet. The world might have been physically apart due to the Covid19 pandemic, but through the internet, everyone was together. Bitcoin and Dogecoin gained the limelight and this ultimately pushed the prices of most other cryptocurrencies. People got hyped up that crypto is the new future and will replace traditional currencies soon.

Musk then tweeted SpaceX’snew satellite will be called Doge-1. In an unexpected move, it was also said that the entire mission will be paid in DogeCoin. This meant Doge would be the first cryptocurrency to contribute to space exploration and also be the first meme in space.

All this social media hype and jokes lead to an increase in prices in the whole crypto market.

The Great Crash:

On 13th May 2023, Elon Musk announced that Tesla will suspend Vehicle purchases using Bitcoin.

So what are these climate concerns?

Well, Bitcoin mining involves using high-powered computers to solve complex algorithms. This involves multiple computers and involves high electricity and bandwidth consumption.

On the other hand, China banned financial institutions and payment companies from providing services to buy/sell cryptocurrency or provide any other services. Investors were also warned against crypto trading.

A report from JP Morgan also mentioned that investors were moving away from Crypto and back to Gold. Many other factors also contributed, and suddenly the massive fall in cryptocurrency prices wiped out $1 trillion of wealth.

Let us try to look at the data of some important cryptocurrencies and have a look at what really happened.

Getting started with Python for Finance:

We will extract various crypto prices from Yahoo finance. Let us get started by importing the libraries.

import warnings warnings.filterwarnings('ignore') # Hide warnings import datetime as dt import pandas as pd import as web import numpy as np import matplotlib.pyplot as plt import seaborn as sns import matplotlib.dates as mdates import as px start = dt.datetime(2023, 1, 1) end = dt.datetime(2023,5,29)

We set the starting and ending dates of the data.

Python Code:


“BTC-USD” indicates Bitcoin prices in US dollars. So we extract bitcoin prices.

#bitcoin crypto= btc[['Date','Adj Close']] crypto= crypto.rename(columns = {'Adj Close':'BTC'}) # 7 day moving average crypto[ 'BTC_7DAY_MA' ] = crypto.BTC.rolling( 7).mean()

A rolling average or moving average is a way to analyze data points by creating a series of averages of the data already present in the data. Here we calculate average prices based on the previous 7 days’ data of Bitcoin price. Moving averages are often used in technical analysis.

To read more on moving averages, visit this link.


Next, we try Ethereum. Ethereum is the 2nd largest cryptocurrency by market cap, after bitcoin. Ethereum went live on 30 July 2023 with 72 million coins.

#Ethereum eth = web.DataReader("ETH-USD", 'yahoo', start, end) # Collects data eth.reset_index(inplace=True) crypto["ETH"]= eth["Adj Close"] # 7 day moving average crypto[ 'ETH_7DAY_MA' ] = crypto.ETH.rolling( 7).mean() Dogecoin

Next up is Dogecoin. We already discussed Dogecoin. It was introduced on Dec 6, 2013.

#doge coin doge = web.DataReader("DOGE-USD", 'yahoo', start, end) # Collects data doge.reset_index(inplace=True) crypto["DOGE"]= doge["Adj Close"] # 7 day moving average crypto[ 'DOGE_7DAY_MA' ] = crypto.DOGE.rolling( 7).mean() BinanceCoin

Next, we proceed with Binance Coin. Binance was launched in July 2023 and is based on the Ethereum network. But Binance has its own blockchain, the Binance chain.

#BinanceCoin bnb = web.DataReader("BNB-USD", 'yahoo', start, end) # Collects data bnb.reset_index(inplace=True) crypto["BNB"]= bnb["Adj Close"] # 7 day moving average crypto[ 'BNB_7DAY_MA' ] = crypto.BNB.rolling( 7).mean() Cardano

Next, we take Cardano. Cardano is a public blockchain platform and peer-to-peer transactions are facilitated by its cryptocurrency ADA. It was launched in September 2023.

#Cardano ada = web.DataReader("ADA-USD", 'yahoo', start, end) # Collects data ada.reset_index(inplace=True) crypto["ADA"]= ada["Adj Close"] # 7 day moving average crypto[ 'ADA_7DAY_MA' ] = crypto.ADA.rolling( 7).mean()

Ripple is a payment system and currency exchange platform that can be used to process transactions all over the globe. XRP is deducted as a small fee, whenever users make a transaction using Ripple.

#XRP xrp = web.DataReader("XRP-USD", 'yahoo', start, end) # Collects data xrp.reset_index(inplace=True) crypto["XRP"]= xrp["Adj Close"] # 7 day moving average crypto[ 'XRP_7DAY_MA' ] = crypto.XRP.rolling( 7).mean() Dash

Dash is an open-source cryptocurrency. It was forked from the Bitcoin protocol. It was launched in January 2014.

#Dash dash = web.DataReader("DASH-USD", 'yahoo', start, end) # Collects data dash.reset_index(inplace=True) crypto["DASH"]= dash["Adj Close"] # 7 day moving average

crypto[ ‘DASH_7DAY_MA’ ] = crypto.DASH.rolling( 7).mean()

Now, with the data at hand, we format the dates.

#getting the dates crypto.set_index("Date", inplace=True)

Now, let us have a look at the data.


As we can see all the data has been properly extracted.

Now, let us check the correlation between the data. crypto[['BTC','ETH','DOGE','BNB','ADA','XRP','DASH']].corr()

Now, we have some interesting revelations. All the data points have a high correlation with each other. Let us just compare bitcoin to the others, even the lowest correlation with DOGE is 0.237, which is quite a good value. Dash being forked from BTC, has the highest correlation with BTC at 0.77.

Looking at other data points, BNB and XRP have a high correlation of 0.93 which is extremely high. It is as if, they are the same value.

Now let us understand why? Well, it is simple. The crypto market follows trends. When Bitcoin and Dogecoin were rising, other coins also increased in value. This was mainly due to public sentiment regarding crypto. Who doesn’t want to look cool in front of friends saying that they brought cryptocurrency?

And similarly, when the values of BTC and DOGE fell, others also fell. It was like a chain reaction.

Let us look at the correlation heatmap. #heatmap plt.figure(figsize = (10,10)) sns.heatmap(crypto[['BTC','ETH','DOGE','BNB','ADA','XRP','DASH']].corr(),annot=True, cmap='Blues')

The heatmap clearly shows the high correlation between the prices of all cryptocurrencies.

Let us plot the data using Plotly express. fig = px.line(crypto, y=["BTC",'ETH','DOGE','BNB','ADA','XRP','DASH'] )

Well, only the BTC crash in mid-May 2023 is clear. But let us have a look at BTC 7 day moving average values.

fig = px.line(crypto, y=['BTC_7DAY_MA'] )

An interesting thing about Plotly is that we can interact with the Plot and get the exact values, kind of like we can do in Power BI.

Here, it is clearly visible that the BTC price suddenly increased in Feb 2023 after all those tweets and social media buzz. And suddenly in May 2023, everything came crashing.

Let us try Ethereum. fig = px.line(crypto, y=['ETH'] )

And, it is clear that ETH also follows a similar pattern. In April 2023 end, everyone saw the sudden rise in prices of BTC and DOGE and bought ETH. This led to a sudden increase in the price of ETH as well.

Moving Average values: fig = px.line(crypto, y=['ETH_7DAY_MA'] )

The mountain fell down as quickly as it rose. People who bought at the high faced enormous losses.

DOGE: fig = px.line(crypto, y=['DOGE'] )

The rise and fall of DOGE is also interesting. In Jan 2023, DOGE was nothing, and in early May 2023, it had risen a lot. And its fall was also sudden.

Moving Average Values: fig = px.line(crypto, y=['DOGE_7DAY_MA'] )

The code for plotting all the other data is pretty much the same. I will leave a link to the Kaggle notebook where I coded all this in the end.


We now pretty much understand what caused the crash. The entire crypto market seems to related to each other. People see someone buying BTC, they go buy ETH. Someone sells DOGE, they also sell their BTC. It is all interrelated.

The crypto market is highly volatile, various factors lead to the frenzied selloff. One of the largest cryptocurrency exchanges in the world, Coinbase faced service disruptions during this selloff. Many Crypto investors had invested because they thought Tesla and Elon musk was into Bitcoin and thought of it as the next thing in finance and currency.

Many critics have said that this lack of regulation and price manipulation makes Crypto risky for new investors, and many people lost their money this fall.

Code Link: Analyzing the Crypto Crash of May 2023

About me:

Prateek Majumder

Connect with me on Linkedin.

Thank You.

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The 8 Most Promising Cryptocurrency Penny Stocks Set To Explode In 2023

Everyone that has been investing at all has heard about the penny stocks. Even if you are not an investor, you may have watched the movie “Wolf of Wall Street” where the protagonist makes millions of these little beauties.

Categorized by the SEC as an asset that is traded at below $5 per share, they are typicaly referred to in regards to traditional stocks. However, there is now a growing interest in cryptocurrency penny stocks.

This is because as we have seen from the rise of bitcoin, which traded at less than a dollar before blowing up to heights of over $50,000, they can be a very lucrative opportunity if you buy them at the right time.

Today, we will look at 8 penny crypto stocks that are likely to explode in the near future and in so could provide you huge gains in the months and years to come.

One of these is a trading platform with unique features that is taking the market by storm, Dash 2 Trade (D2T). Another is the eco-friendly project, IMPT, and we will explain why this green crypto is the right choice if you a environmentally conscious investor.

While for gamers, we discusss Lucky Block (LBLOCK), which is a crypto gaming platform with great prizes available, and a P2E card game called Calvaria (RIA) which is growing in popularity.

We also will be be entering the metaverse and explain two impressive new metaverse crypto projects. RobotEra (TARO), which is going to let you buy and own virtual land, and Tamadoge (TAMA), which recently live for trading following a very succesful presale.

All these penny stock cryptocurrencies can earn you a nice profit on the side so you can use it for other investments. Let’s dive into them.

The best penny crypto stocks

 The goal is to buy low and sell high, that is why we made a list of the best cryptocurrency penny stocks to can buy now. These are all cryptocurrency penny stocks that have the potential to grow big, because of their community and other factors that we will show you.

The above-mentioned stocks have the potential to grow big, and that is why we made a research and detailed review of them so you can make a decision and start investing.

Are the listed stocks the best cryptocurrency penny stocks to buy in 2023?

The listed penny stocks above are very interesting considering that each of them had reached its high at one time.

They have then slightly declined or some of them even drop to the lowest under $1. They are good penny stocks that have the ability to reach their highs and even above that. But how much will they need to reach the top? That all depends on how the companies do their business in the future.

There are penny stocks that are moving forward and constantly growing. Most of them are still in pre-sale. These are among the best cryptocurrency penny stocks that you should definitely buy in 2023 if you want big gains in 2023!

Dash 2 Trade (D2T)

Dash 2 Trade is the most impressive platform with amazing features where users have access to metric signals and social trading tools. No matter if you are a professional trader or at the beginning of your journey, anyone can be a part of Dash 2 Trade. The taxless D2T token supports an informed trading analytics platform providing crypto traders with in-depth market insights to help create market-beating strategies.

The heart of the Dash 2 Trade platform is its powerful and innovative dashboard. All tools are summed up together into this. You will find metrics, indicators, turbo-charge trading performance, and signals.

You have the option to choose 3 subscription models, and each of them is unique and stands out with different features. Here is a little overview of the features and possibilities:

Free Tier – D2T tokens are not required for this membership. Users will have access to the Dash 2 Trade market which offers tier-one pricing information which all traders should use. The main goal of this subscription is to offer insight into the Dash 2 Trade dashboard.

Premium Tier – all features are accessible which includes access to the quarterly trading competitions, where 5% of subscription fees are allocated to the prize pool. Plus many other features that you should check right now.

The project has now reached its Presale Stage 3 and so far over $5 million has been raised. You should hurry up and grab the opportunity since the price will rise as soon as the Presale Stage 3 is completed.

RobotEra (TARO)

The RobotEra metaverse is a futuristic robot theme where users are represented by a virtual robot that can be customized to your likings. Users will also be able to buy and own virtual real estates and acquire resources from your metaverse land, which you can later use.

There are endless possibilities within the metaverse as you can create your own games without any coding knowledge, due to the user-friendly interface.

The native token of the RobotEra metaverse is TARO which follows the ERC-20 standards. It is currently on presale 1 and you should hurry and purchase this coin  before it enters the presale 2 stage and the price goes up.

Calvaria (RIA)

Calvaria is a new fantasy card game where players can battle against each other and wager against one another in PVP games using the native token $RIA. It really stands out from other P2E games, because it offers a story mode. The project’s mission is to create the first effective ambassador between the “real world” and crypto, achieved by creating a fun and accessible game, available on both mobile app stores and PCs.

The game is designed in such a way that each player can truly own the in-game resources. They can earn these either through playing or investing in the game’s ecosystem. You will have full ownership of everything you earn in the game. Whether it’s NFTs, tokens, skins, potions, and others. (IMPT)

This project has its purpose to reduce carbon emissions that will help our environment. Around thousands of the largest retail brands allocate a specific percentage of sale margin for environmental projects. It is connecting users with various eco-friendly projects that have a mutual goal. According to chúng tôi the carbon offset market will be worth over $700 million by 2027.

The token relies on its blockchain technology, which records transactions and tracks assets in a business network.  IMPT project is listed NOW, and this is your chance to take part in it and have 100x returns.

Tamadoge (TAMA)

Tamadoge is the currency in Tamaverse where you can create, breed, and care for your TAMADOGE pets. You also have the ability to use your pets for battle. It is a deflationary cryptocurrency that was launched recently, in July 2023.

The concept is simple where you have to take care of your Tamadoge, so they can become stronger. If you leave them unattended for too long, they will end up as Tamaghosts.

Tamadoge is using the latest NFT and token standards to bring you a token that can inject life into the Tamadoge pets. They’re working hard to ensure your Tamadoge feels like as much a member of your family.

There will be over 1 billion tokens in circulation with over 400 million unminted and reserved for exchange. There are some facts that you should know about this exciting project. First of all, 50% of tokens will be sold via a public presale.

You can use the token to buy your Tamadoge pets in the Tamaverse. Your pets are mintable and tradable NFTs. Each Tamadoge Pet is minted as a baby, and they have their own stats, strengths, and weaknesses.

We highly recommend you to check out this amazing project, because it has a huge variety of options and benefits.

Lucky ­­­­­­­Block (LBLOCK)

This is probably the best among the penny stocks to buy in 2023. The thing is that Lucky Block is actually a cryptocurrency with exceptional growth potential. This coin can be a great addition to your equity portfolio so you can boost its level of diversification.

Lucky Block is a crypto gaming platform that is hosted on the Binance Smart Chain (BSC). Blockchain technology provides a great and more transparent gaming experience which is using the Lucky Blocks native token, the LBLOCK. It is also an NFT competition platform.

The LBLOCK holders also benefit by receiving a huge yield of over 19% per year. All the mentioned things helped this coin to rise over 3000% after it was listed on PancakeSwap earlier this year. The all-time high was $0.009617. The current price is currently $0.001950.

This is a great opportunity to buy Lucky Block while trading at a discount. Many features and upgrades are coming that will give great benefits to the users and holders. The additional centralized exchange listings and a FIAT ramp are just a few improvements that are coming.  The investors can then use regular currencies to purchase LBLOCK. Their iOS app is currently being reviewed by Apple and will soon hit the App Store. This is going to be convenient for investors as they can use their mobile phones to participate in the lottery games and trading, minting NFTs.

The hype is huge regarding LBLOCK and their Telegram Group is already reached over 50-000 members. All the updates that are going to come can be viewed on the Telegram group. Because the bullish momentum could come soon, that is why you should start investing in this coin.

Zynerba Pharmaceuticals Inc. (ZYNE)

This is a cannabis-related company that exclusively serves the US healthcare sector. Their headquarters is based in Pennsylvania. They are developing formulations that are applied to patients’ skin to provide pain relief. Zygel is one of their famous products which is a patent-protected gel. . The problem with companies that are related to cannabis is that they remain illegal at a federal level.

The Zynerba stock is currently at a price of $1.25 per share which can rise in the common period. It can bring you some nice gain if invested in this penny stock.

Nano Dimension Ltd (NNDM)

Nano Dimensions is a 3D printing specialist that speeds up electronic manufacturing. They are implementing software as well as hardware to achieve this.  The NNDM share is now priced at $3.45. Last year it hit the all-time high of $15.54 and many early investors profited from that jump.

Many hi-tech companies that are new to the market have that effect of getting a high price and then all of a sudden fall down, even below the initial price. The thing with this specific penny stock is that the acquisition of Global Inkjet Systems and Essemtec in the last 12 months did not benefit the company at all. Which resulted in a huge price drop.

Where to buy the penny stocks?

You are probably wondering where to buy the penny stocks. There are many trading apps and platforms that is supporting various stocks as well as cryptocurrencies. You have to check them out in order to find the best stockbroker platform that will satisfy your needs. In terms of design, features and of course price. Many of the platforms have different types of fees, which you need to check. On the other hand, there are platforms where you need to deposit just $1 and start trading.


How To Choose A Cryptocurrency For Investing In 2023?

In the second half of 2023, the digital asset market managed to experience both strong growth and a prolonged correction. Despite this, many investors believe that investing in the crypto industry today still offers good earning opportunities.

However, not all coins are equally promising. For example, some are worth investing in, while others are worth gambling at the online Casino site chúng tôi We suggest analyzing the digital assets available in the market to determine which of them are worthy of investment.

Don’t ignore capitalization leaders. The longer a cryptocurrency is at the top – the more supporters it has. In addition, a high level of capitalization keeps the volatility of the coin in check.

A cryptoproject has an active product and/or an active user base that increases the value of its digital asset.

It is important to research the legality of the cryptocurrency of interest. For example, investors in XRP coins of California startup Ripple suffered serious losses due to a conflict between representatives of the project and the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in late 2023. Regulators had been aware of the claims against the platform for several years before the proceedings began.

It is also necessary to carefully study the rate behavior of the cryptocurrency of interest and its reaction to certain events. It is not superfluous to analyze the opinions of well-known analysts about the future of digital assets.

There are several cryptocurrencies that can be called the leaders of investors’ choice. We suggest getting acquainted with them in more detail.

Bitcoin is the first cryptocurrency. Its creator – a certain Satoshi Nakamoto – became the founder of the whole direction of new financial instruments.

As of the end of July 2023, Bitcoin is the most capitalized coin. Because of its long history, many people associate BTC with the word “cryptocurrency”. This is largely why the health and behavior of bitcoin determine the position of other digital assets.

According to a forecasting model developed by PlanB, a popular analyst in the cryptocurrency community, BTC could break through the $100k level during 2023.

By comparison, as of July 21, 2023, the coin is trading at $30k.

Many positive predictions about bitcoin are backed up by statistics about the cryptocurrency’s rate movement over the past 9 years.

Experienced investors warn that investing in BTC may not yield results in the short term. That said, over time, as bitcoin’s movement history shows, the cryptocurrency lives up to the trust of buyers.

Ethereum is the second most capitalized cryptocurrency. At the moment the developers of the project are preparing to improve its technical component – to transfer the coin from PoW to PoS-mining algorithm. The changes will increase the environmental friendliness of ETH, making the cryptocurrency more convenient and faster.

Against the backdrop of the upcoming upgrades, Ethereum is able to continue its positive movement. At the moment, ETH is largely pressured by the negative dynamics of bitcoin (the capitalization leader). With BTC on the rise, Ethereum will also be able to continue its positive movement.

Cardano is a decentralized system that, according to its developers, could surpass Ethereum in the future. With the Shelley update implemented in 2023 and the activation of the Delegated Proof-of-Stake (dPoS) consensus algorithm, the developers have opened the door for ADA investors to engage in stealing. This term refers to the deliberate holding of cryptocurrency in a wallet for the purpose of earning money.

Despite the fact that Cardano offers not to have the highest percentage of earnings on stacking, the positive movement of the rate of ADA, amid the constant work of the project team on its technical improvement, allows recommending the coin to investors.

Uni is the token of the popular decentralized digital asset exchange Uniswap. The platform allows earning from investments in DeFi-protocols and coin price movements.

Uniswap is an example of a cryptocurrency that has earned the attention of investors due to the success of the project, the ecosystem with which it conducts transactions. It is possible that Umi will continue to grow amid the hype around DeFi and the popularity of the exchange’s instruments.

UMI is a cryptocurrency of the popular Roy Club investment platform. The developers of the project offer market participants tools to earn up to 40% on digital asset stacking (intentional holding of coins in the account).

Unlike all other cryptocurrencies from the rating, UMI allows you to passively earn on stacking (multiplication of coins). At the same time, the developers of the platform provide security guarantees, which increases the attractiveness of the digital asset.

Investing in UMI, unlike other coins, does not require special knowledge and skills. Also, an investor will not have to wait for the right moment to make a profitable purchase. You can start multiplying coins with UMI in a few minutes after registration.

There are many different offers on the market for investors who want to make money from cryptocurrencies. For example, traders who are willing to take risks for the sake of good profits will suit bitcoin. Those who are interested in income on the promising high-tech coin should choose UMI.

Loki May Prove Evolution Of All Complex

Loki may prove evolution of all complex-celled life

A life form called Lokiarchaeota, or “Loki” for short, may prove to be the missing link between simple and complex-cell organisms here on Earth. The discovery of Loki could have major implications for everyone from scientists to text-book writers – not to mention those interested in disproving humanity’s evolution from single-celled organisms. Loki was discovered near the hostile underwater environment called Loki’s Castle, located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between Norway and Greenland, over 2,000 meters below the surface of the water. Loki looks like the Norse god-like character Loki too, in an abstract sort of way.

A new microbe has been discovered. This microbe could very well be the missing link between basic and complex life. The connector between life with simple microbes and those with complex cells.

In short – this may be another extremely important proof of evolution of humans from goop.

Archaea were discovered in the 1970s (by biologist Carl Woese) as being microorganisms with simple, small cells that, besides their cells, more closely related to organisms with complex cell types than they did other simple-celled organisms.

Those with complex cells are called eukaryotes.

But something was missing. There wasn’t an organism that bridged the gap.

Now there may well be.

Above: Loki’s Castle (Credit: Center for Geobiology/U. of Bergen), first reported in July of 2008.

“The site where Loki [was discovered] is heavily influenced by volcanic activity, but actually quite low in temperature,” according to Steffen Jørgensen from the University of Bergen in Norway. Jørgensen was one of several researchers involved in taking samples at the location Loki was located.

In these extreme environments, scientists occasionally discover oddities they’d have found in no other place on Earth.

“Extreme environments generally contain a lot of unknown microorganisms,” said Jimmy Saw, “which we refer to as microbial dark matter.” Saw is co-load author on the paper which has been published this week. Saw is also a researcher at the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology at Uppsala University.

“The puzzle of the origin of the eukaryotic cell is extremely complicated, as many pieces are still missing,” said Thijs Ettema at the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, leader of the scientific team that carried out this study.

Above: “Image of a hydrothermal vent field along the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge, close to where ‘Loki’ was found in marine sediments. The hydrothermal vent system was discovered by researchers from the Centre for Geobiology at University of Bergen (Norway).” VIA Centre for Geobiology (University of Bergen, Norway) by R.B. Pedersen.

“We hoped that Loki would reveal a few more pieces of the puzzle, but when we obtained the first results, we couldn’t believe our eyes. The data simply looked spectacular”

“By studying its genome,” continued Thijs Ettema, “we found that Loki represents an intermediate form in-between the simple cells of microbes, and the complex cell types of eukaryotes.”

Results in the study published this week suggest that their eukaryotic host evolved from what they call “a bona fide archaeon.” They show that this ancestor of the current form had many components that then went on to underpin more evolved eukaryote-specific features.

The host, therefor, had what this team of researchers call “a rich genomic ‘starter-kit’ to support the increase in the cellular and genomic complexity that is characteristic of eukaryotes.”

Additional information can be found in the paper “Complex archaea that bridge the gap between prokaryotes and eukaryotes” published this week in Nature (2023). Find this paper under code doi:10.1038/nature14447 with authors Anja Spang, Jimmy H. Saw, Steffen L. Jørgensen, Katarzyna Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, Joran Martijn, Anders E. Lind, Roel van Eijk, Christa Schleper, Lionel Guy, and Thijs J.G. Ettema.

The Top 5G Phones Of 2023

There are 5G phones available in the US. But do you really need one? Here’s what you should know if you are looking for a phone capable of connecting to the latest cellular networks.

5G is now available “nationwide.” T-Mobile, Verizon, and AT&T all claim 5G is faster, stronger and more reliable. To get on board, you will need a 5G smartphone. T-Mobile’s 5G mid-band network is making a huge difference in America’s cities, suburbs and exurbs.

We’ve compiled a list of our top 5G smartphones so far this year. You can expect 5G on any new flagship or near-flagship smartphone you purchase in 2023. You can find everything you need about purchasing a 5G smartphone in this article.

Iphone 13 : 

The iPhone 13 offers similar 5G signal strength as the iPhone 12 line but has a much longer battery life so that you don’t have to deal anymore with that “turn 5G on to save battery” sillyness.

Who is it for?

This model is for the majority of iPhone owners. The base iPhone 13 delivers the right performance for the right price.


Battery life is long

Smooth, fast performance

The camera makes it simple to take great photos


The iPhone 13 is not much better than the iPhone 12.

Samsung Galaxy S22+ 128GB Unlocked Phone (Phantom Black)

Samsung Galaxy S22

The Galaxy S22+, and the S22 Ultra, have significantly higher Low Band 4G/5G performance than previous year’s phones. They will keep your connected.

Who is it for?

The popular Galaxy S22+  has all 5G bands on every carrier. It’s also less expensive than the S22 Ultra. This is the simple answer I give to people who ask me if they need a phone that has good cellular reception.


Top-of-the-line performance

Excellent reception on cell phones

True 3x zoom camera


Sometimes photos can appear a bit washed-out

Speed doesn’t matter if you charge at 45W

5G Google pixel

Although the Google Pixel 6 Pro does not have a class-leading 5G reception it is a truly outstanding phone. Google’s Pixel software runs faster, is smoother, and offers better support than any other Android version. The Pixel 6 Pro also boasts an AI-powered camera stack.

Who is it for?

Pixel 6 Pro is designed for those who are looking for software elegance and a fast, responsive camera. This is enough for the 5G.


Amazing battery life

Exclusive features for Pixels that are intuitive

Excellent durability

Solid connectivity


Launched fast wireless charging is not possible

Some features of the camera are difficult to use

Iphone Pro Max

The iOS platform is a popular choice for professional content creators. It has the best third party camera software, the best video editing software, as well as the ability to get updates to social media software faster than Android phones. It integrates well with Macs that these creators may also own. If you’re at the right place, 5G allows photos and videos to upload at many times the speed of 4G.

Who is it for?

The 13 Pro Max is designed for those who plan to take many photos or videos with the iPhone. The Pro Max has a bigger screen and better cameras than the iPhone 13 base model. This phone has a super-long battery life, which is the longest we have ever seen on an iPhone. You can also record for quite a while.


Excellent cameras

Battery life is extremely long

Beautiful, buttery-smooth screen


Heavy and big

Cameras aren’t a significant improvement over the previous model.

We chose it

The iPhone 12 mini would not have made it onto this list due to the excessive power consumption for 5G. The iPhone 13 mini is not affected by this. It has an improved modem that allows it to get decent battery life while still maintaining 5G connectivity. This also means it has better reception and speeds that the smaller iPhone SE. Even though it is a tiny 5G iPhone, the device is still functional.

Who is it for?

People with smaller hands and pockets as well as those who don’t want their phone to be a giant portal into the unknown.


The most powerful small smartphone

Beautiful construction

Battery life is longer than the iPhone 12 mini


iPhone 13 family has the shortest battery life

OnePlus 10 T

This phone is the only one that has beat the Galaxy S22 series so far in 5G. Qualcomm is partially to blame, but OnePlus claims that the device has its own antenna technology which enables the best antenna performance regardless of how the phone is held (or whether it’s in your pocket or bag). The OnePlus 10T 5G device is only available on T-Mobile and Verizon. It does not work with AT&T.

Who is it for?


A powerful processor

Excellent reception on cell phones

The fastest wired charging for any US phone


The camera quality is not as good as flagships

No wireless charging support

The current Android skin is clunky and overbearing.

Samsung Galaxy S22

There aren’t many options for premium, small 5g phones. This is something I have always regretted. Although the Galaxy S22 isn’t a small phone, it’s small enough to be able to deliver class-leading performance. Its 5G reception is comparable to larger phones.

Who is it for?

The Galaxy S22 is a small Android phone that you can use for a lot of things, including speed and reception.


High signal strength

Premium power

True 3x zoom camera

Design and build quality are top-of-the-line


Battery life is very short


S22 Ultra

The Galaxy S22+, S22 Ultra and Galaxy S22+ are low-signal beasts with superior 5G performance than the Galaxy and iPhone models. They are far more capable than any other cellular device on the list, with the exception of the OnePlus 10T. The S22 Ultra’s main selling points are the 10x optical zoom camera, which can be extended to 100x with digital zoom, and the built-in S Pen stylus. The S22+ does not have these features.

It’s for Whom?

This guide is intended for those who intend to use the super zoom camera and S Pen. It is possible to draw a connection between people who take photos often and those who need better 5G connectivity. The bottom line is that both the S22+ Ultra and S22 Ultra have exceptional 5G performance. Your decision about which one to choose will depend on the importance of the zoom camera.


S Pen integration

Battery life is long

Bright screen

Excellent reception even in low-signal environments


Very large


Easy back scratches

Camera improvements are few compared to predecessors

Galaxy A53

The Galaxy A53 is a fine midrange phone and often gets discounts. Its 5G signal strength performance was better than the Googlepixel 6a during testing. You also get both sub-6 and millimeter wave 5G, which is what all US carriers offer. The Pixel 6a is our preferred phone for many reasons. However, this phone has better 5G.

Who is it for?

For those who want the Galaxy S22+ but don’t have the budget, the Galaxy A53 is the best phone.


Beautiful screen

Versatile cameras

Battery life is long


Performance is average.

Wireless charging is not supported

Buying Guide: Best 5G Phones in 2023

Are You Going to Need a 5G Smartphone in 2023?

Although the 5G situation in America is confusing at the moment, there is one way to make sense of it. 5G must run on a wider range of bands in order to achieve a faster speed than 4G.

As they roll out 3.45GHz and C-band, expect to see improved mid-band coverage from AT&T and Verizon. To benefit from new 5G performaces, your phone must support C-band.

The Best Ice Skates Of 2023

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Written By Julian Vittorio

Updated Dec 27, 2023 8:49 AM

Evidence suggests that the notion of ice skates skimming across frozen ponds or lakes first occurred to the people of Finland more than 4,000 years ago. Since then, ice skating has evolved from a practical means of traversing icy terrain to a leisurely pastime to a professional sport (and the foundation of yet another professional sport). As the activity itself has changed and matured, so have the skates themselves. From rickety old strap-on blades to state-of-the-art high-performance skates, the range of options fits, and purposes are pretty vast. No matter what you intend to do once you’re on the ice, there is a skate to suit your needs.

Finding the best ice skates is similar to shopping for any kind of specialized sports equipment. You have to know your intended use: Are you a speed skater, a figure skater, a hockey player, or just a recreational skater? You also have to understand how skates fit. It’s not the same as shopping for a pair of sneakers or work boots, so it’s important to grasp the intricacies of skate design and intention because it could mean the difference between a smooth trip around the rink and a painful round of crippling foot torture. The best ice skates are comfortable, provide great ankle support, and make ice skating as smooth as … ice.

How we chose the best ice skates

We’ve previously covered the best rollerblades, and they both pack plenty of similarities. In fact, picking up a pair of rollerblades can help you become a better ice skater. There are differences between inline skating versus ice skating, but they’re subtle. Getting a proper pair of ice skates that fit correctly is important for safety—no one wants a broken ankle on the ice. To find the best ice skates, we looked at peer suggestions, critical reviews, real-world user recommendations, performed personal testing, and conducted heavy research into everything from minor material details to overall impressions. You only deserve the best when fulfilling your Miracle on Ice or Ice Princess dreams.

The best ice skates: Reviews & Recommendations

The best ice skates have major support and comfort, without needing anything high-end or performance-driven. A simple pair of skates without bells and whistles—so long as they’re well-constructed—will get you out on the ice in no time. Here are the best ice skates we’ve found.

Best overall: American Athletic Ice Skates

Why it made the cut: A comfortable skate with lots of ankle support and padding for peak performance.


Material: Leather

Skill level: Instructional; higher-level recreational

Blade: Hollow ground nickel plated steel blade

Lining: Leather


Good for multiple skill levels

Professional-style boot



Runs large

If you’re just getting into skating, or you’re at the frozen pond more than usual, these skates are for you. They have some important features to look for: they’re comfortable, include multi-layered ankle support, and full-quarter padding for comfort. You’ll look like a legit member of the U.S. Skating Team thanks to the professional-style boot. A form-fitting padded tongue prevents injury and makes your feet feel cozy and snug. These skates are also available in men’s sizing.

Best for figure skating: Jackson Ultima Excel Women’s Figure Skate

Why it made the cut: Land your toe loops in style with these durable skates that have light support—perfect for figure skating lessons.


Material: Vinyl

Skill level: Beginner

Blade: Ultima Mark II

Lining: Fabric


Flex notch for flexibility

Quality blade

Vinyl is durable and long-lasting


Runs small

With their foam reinforced liner and sturdy Ultima Mark II blades, the Jackson Ultima skates deliver comfort and performance. Their “Heat Moldable Fit System” ensures that the skates break in quickly and conform to your feet, while the vinyl-coated boot is designed to be durable and long-lasting. They are just what you’re looking for—great-looking skates with high-performance construction.

Best for ice hockey: CCM Super Tacks 9360

Why it made the cut: The right amount of stiffness combined with mold-to-your-foot comfort equals a pair of durable skates that will take you from practice to scrimmage.


Material: High-level plastic, felt

Skill level: Beginner to intermediate

Blade: Stainless steel CCM Speedblade

Lining: Brushed microfiber




Perfect amount of stiffness


Size 1.5 sizes lower than regular shoes

Blade is non-replaceable

CCM Super Tacks have been a hockey player staple for years, and for good reason. Tough, durable, and designed to mold to your foot, they’re like a good pair of leather boots that only get better over time. Featuring just the right amount of stiffness to provide a solid skating experience, the Tacks also have a strong microfiber liner that can stand up to long-term intense use. An overall great option for hockey players of any level.

Best for kids: Lake Placid Nitro 8.8

Why it made the cut: An adjustable skate that grows with your burgeoning NHL star, with closures that are easy enough for them to use.


Material: Plastic

Skill level: Young beginner

Blade: Stainless steel

Lining: Brushed fabric


Adjusts for growing feet

Closure is easy for children to use

Washable inner liner


Skate guards come loose compared to other children’s skates

The Lake Placid Nitros make for the best ice skates for kids for two key reasons: The adjustable straps make them easy for younger kids to take on and off without having to deal with thick laces, and the molded boots are flexible enough to last for a range of sizes (the Medium, for example, fits shoe sizes 1 to 4). Having a sturdy pair of skates they won’t immediately outgrow is a huge plus (the washable inner liner helps, too).

Best for beginners: Botas Attack 181

Why it made the cut: It’s never too late to start a new hobby—and these beginner-friendly skates make it easy to pick up ice skating.


Material: Plastic

Skill level: Adult beginner, intermediate

Blade: Stainless steel

Lining: Brushed fabric


Wide variety of sizes


Durable and reliable


No wide sizes available

As the best ice skates for beginners, the Botas Attack 181 come in a wide variety of sizes, from children to adult, and offer durable, reliable construction for first-timers. A reinforced plastic tip protects toes against impact and the low-profile sole is designed with integrated “Clima Air” ventilation, which makes them breathable and keeps them drier during long-term use. The skates are also lightweight and well-padded for extra comfort.

Best budget: DUWIN Adjustable Ice Skates

Why it made the cut: You don’t have to break your budget in order to break some moves on the ice.


Material: PVC leather, nylon

Skill level: Beginner to intermediate

Blade: Stainless steel

Lining: Brushed fabric


Extra ankle padding


Moisture-resistant lining


Not a wide range of men’s sizing

The DUWIN skates have a reinforced outsole that helps with stability, as well as durable stainless steel blades, extra ankle padding, and firm heel support. Lightweight and featuring a moisture-resistant lining, these are the best ice skates at a price that doesn’t require a huge investment. And, they’re adjustable, meaning they can grow with you.

What to consider when buying the best ice skates

Ice skating is one of those activities that seems pretty straightforward but actually reveals itself to have a lot of layers and specificities the more you dig into it. When shopping for the best ice skates, you need to consider things like purpose (Are you figure skating? Playing ice hockey? Just recreationally spinning around the rink?) experience level, and comfort. Here’s a good place to get started.

Are you looking to take up figure skating?

The most important thing to consider when shopping for figure skates is fit. It will mean the difference between how well you maneuver around the ice, and how comfortable you’ll feel doing it. The general rule of thumb is that you should size down one and a half sizes from your shoe size. But since sizing can vary from brand to brand, it’s probably best to measure your foot.

The easiest way to measure your foot in order to find the right size skate is to use a blank piece of paper, a hard surface, and either a soft bit of measuring tape or a string. Place the paper against the wall. Stand on the paper with your heel against the wall, and then make a mark indicating the longest part of your foot. Measure from the end of the paper (where the wall was) to the mark—and this is your length measurement. Use a piece of string or a soft measuring tape to measure the width of your foot by wrapping it around the widest part (the ball of your foot). This will give you your foot’s circumference. Once you know your numbers, finding the right fit is easy.

Are you looking to play some hockey?

The fastest game on ice has changed over the years, but one thing remains consistent: Skating wins games. Whether it’s the speedy center scoring highlight-reel goals, the steady-on-his-feet defenseman shutting down the other team, or the sure-footed goalie making jaw-dropping saves, you need to be comfortable on blades to survive on the ice.

There are basically two things to consider when shopping for ice hockey skates: fit and purpose. Different manufacturers offer different options—from standard to wide fits—but each brand is unique, so don’t assume that if you wear one size in one brand you’ll automatically wear that size in another. A big part of fit is determined by the lacing system, as you want the boot to be as snug as possible. If your foot slips inside the boot, you won’t have good control of your edges. Many skates feature special materials on the tongue, sometimes called a “bite bar,” to lock the laces in place and keep them from loosening. The placement of padding inside the boot also helps achieve a snug fit without creating discomfort. Beyond that, consider if you’re a once-in-a-while rec player or a serious organized team player. This will determine whether or not you can handle a stiffer boot construction or might be in the market for a lighter (and less exhausting) skate.

Are you trying to get your kids into ice skating?

Ice skating can be a great recreational activity for kids, but getting them used to the ice takes a little more than just finding a pair of proper fitting skates. It takes a lot of (sometimes literal) hand-holding, and it helps if you have some comfort on skates yourself. It’s not unlike learning to ride a bike, and similarly, once they get the hang of it it’s a skill they’ll have for life.

In addition to a good pair of skates, kids should hit the ice with some kind of head protection (a full hockey helmet isn’t necessary, you can also use a bike helmet) and clothes that offer warmth, extra padding, and resistance to wetness. Consider busting out the snow pants. And don’t think that, as a parent, you can hop out on the ice in sneakers and guide your child around the rink. There’s a reason why some skating comfort is important—sneakers or shoes on the ice will make you more of a liability than a help.

Are you a first-time ice skater yourself?

As we mentioned in reference to kids’ skates, it’s really difficult to teach the little ones if you can’t skate yourself. So if you’re looking to add ice skating to your list of skills, there are easy and comfortable options available. It’s not even all that necessary to specialize when looking for a first pair—you just want to have something that provides adequate support (especially around the ankles) and some durability.

Even if you have no intention of putting a stick in your hands, hockey skates are a good option for newcomers because they tend to be constructed a bit wider than figure skates, which gives you more of a sturdy feel on your feet. The blades are slightly thicker, too, which give you a bit more surface area and can help with balance. They are also designed to accommodate more of a “side-to-side” skating motion as opposed to the more “straight and narrow” figure skating style, which most people find more natural.


You don’t have to break the bank to get started ice skating, but you also have to be wary of going too cheap. All plastic-molded skates, for example, may be available at bargain-basement prices, but you’ll soon understand why when you experience their unforgiving rigidity (and the blisters that result). Cold temperatures and constant pressure also make such skate styles susceptible to cracking and splintering—the last thing you want to happen is to lose a blade in mid-turn.


Ice skating is both a casual recreational activity and the foundation of very specialized activities and sports, so there are a lot of options out there. In general, the best ice skates will provide ample ankle support, have the ability to mold and “give” around your foot through repeated use, and provide a sense of stability. Comfort level and style is a personal preference, but be sure you invest in something that fits your foot well as most of the issues people tend to run into when it comes to learning to skate is foot pain and discomfort—mostly from ill-fitting skates.

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