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Here are Machine Learning interview questions and answers for fresher as well as experienced candidates to get their dream job.

1) What is Machine learning?

Machine learning is a branch of computer science which deals with system programming in order to automatically learn and improve with experience. For example: Robots are programed so that they can perform the task based on data they gather from sensors. It automatically learns programs from data.

2) Mention the difference between Data Mining and Machine learning?

Machine learning relates with the study, design and development of the algorithms that give computers the capability to learn without being explicitly programmed. While, data mining can be defined as the process in which the unstructured data tries to extract knowledge or unknown interesting patterns. During this process machine, learning algorithms are used.

3) What is ‘Overfitting’ in Machine learning?

In machine learning, when a statistical model describes random error or noise instead of underlying relationship ‘overfitting’ occurs. When a model is excessively complex, overfitting is normally observed, because of having too many parameters with respect to the number of training data types. The model exhibits poor performance which has been overfit.

4) Why overfitting happens?

The possibility of overfitting exists as the criteria used for training the model is not the same as the criteria used to judge the efficacy of a model.

5) How can you avoid overfitting?

By using a lot of data overfitting can be avoided, overfitting happens relatively as you have a small dataset, and you try to learn from it. But if you have a small database and you are forced to come with a model based on that. In such situation, you can use a technique known as cross validation. In this method the dataset splits into two section, testing and training datasets, the testing dataset will only test the model while, in training dataset, the datapoints will come up with the model.

In this technique, a model is usually given a dataset of a known data on which training (training data set) is run and a dataset of unknown data against which the model is tested. The idea of cross validation is to define a dataset to “test” the model in the training phase.

6) What is inductive machine learning?

The inductive machine learning involves the process of learning by examples, where a system, from a set of observed instances tries to induce a general rule.

7) What are the five popular algorithms of Machine Learning?

Decision Trees

Neural Networks (back propagation)

Probabilistic networks

Nearest Neighbor

Support vector machines

8) What are the different Algorithm techniques in Machine Learning?

The different types of techniques in Machine Learning are

Supervised Learning

Unsupervised Learning

Semi-supervised Learning

Reinforcement Learning

Transduction

Learning to Learn

9) What are the three stages to build the hypotheses or model in machine learning?

Model building

Model testing

Applying the model

10) What is the standard approach to supervised learning?

The standard approach to supervised learning is to split the set of example into the training set and the test.

11) What is ‘Training set’ and ‘Test set’?

In various areas of information science like machine learning, a set of data is used to discover the potentially predictive relationship known as ‘Training Set’. Training set is an examples given to the learner, while Test set is used to test the accuracy of the hypotheses generated by the learner, and it is the set of example held back from the learner. Training set are distinct from Test set.

12) List down various approaches for machine learning?

The different approaches in Machine Learning are

Concept Vs Classification Learning

Symbolic Vs Statistical Learning

Inductive Vs Analytical Learning

13) What is not Machine Learning?

Artificial Intelligence

Rule based inference

14) Explain what is the function of ‘Unsupervised Learning’?

Find clusters of the data

Find low-dimensional representations of the data

Find interesting directions in data

Interesting coordinates and correlations

Find novel observations/ database cleaning

15) Explain what is the function of ‘Supervised Learning’?

Classifications

Speech recognition

Regression

Predict time series

Annotate strings

16) What is algorithm independent machine learning?

Machine learning in where mathematical foundations is independent of any particular classifier or learning algorithm is referred as algorithm independent machine learning?

17) What is the difference between artificial learning and machine learning?

Designing and developing algorithms according to the behaviours based on empirical data are known as Machine Learning. While artificial intelligence in addition to machine learning, it also covers other aspects like knowledge representation, natural language processing, planning, robotics etc.

18) What is classifier in machine learning?

A classifier in a Machine Learning is a system that inputs a vector of discrete or continuous feature values and outputs a single discrete value, the class.

20) In what areas Pattern Recognition is used?

Pattern Recognition can be used in

Computer Vision

Speech Recognition

Data Mining

Statistics

Informal Retrieval

Bio-Informatics

21) What is Genetic Programming?

Genetic programming is one of the two techniques used in machine learning. The model is based on the testing and selecting the best choice among a set of results.

22) What is Inductive Logic Programming in Machine Learning?

Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) is a subfield of machine learning which uses logical programming representing background knowledge and examples.

23) What is Model Selection in Machine Learning?

The process of selecting models among different mathematical models, which are used to describe the same data set is known as Model Selection. Model selection is applied to the fields of statistics, machine learning and data mining.

24) What are the two methods used for the calibration in Supervised Learning?

The two methods used for predicting good probabilities in Supervised Learning are

Platt Calibration

Isotonic Regression

These methods are designed for binary classification, and it is not trivial.

25) Which method is frequently used to prevent overfitting?

When there is sufficient data ‘Isotonic Regression’ is used to prevent an overfitting issue.

26) What is the difference between heuristic for rule learning and heuristics for decision trees?

The difference is that the heuristics for decision trees evaluate the average quality of a number of disjointed sets while rule learners only evaluate the quality of the set of instances that is covered with the candidate rule.

27) What is Perceptron in Machine Learning?

In Machine Learning, Perceptron is a supervised learning algorithm for binary classifiers where a binary classifier is a deciding function of whether an input represents a vector or a number.

28) Explain the two components of Bayesian logic program?

Bayesian logic program consists of two components. The first component is a logical one ; it consists of a set of Bayesian Clauses, which captures the qualitative structure of the domain. The second component is a quantitative one, it encodes the quantitative information about the domain.

29) What are Bayesian Networks (BN)?

Bayesian Network is used to represent the graphical model for probability relationship among a set of variables.

30) Why instance based learning algorithm sometimes referred as Lazy learning algorithm?

Instance based learning algorithm is also referred as Lazy learning algorithm as they delay the induction or generalization process until classification is performed.

31) What are the two classification methods that SVM ( Support Vector Machine) can handle?

Combining binary classifiers

Modifying binary to incorporate multiclass learning

32) What is ensemble learning?

To solve a particular computational program, multiple models such as classifiers or experts are strategically generated and combined. This process is known as ensemble learning.

33) Why ensemble learning is used?

Ensemble learning is used to improve the classification, prediction, function approximation etc of a model.

34) When to use ensemble learning?

35) What are the two paradigms of ensemble methods?

The two paradigms of ensemble methods are

Sequential ensemble methods

Parallel ensemble methods

36) What is the general principle of an ensemble method and what is bagging and boosting in ensemble method?

The general principle of an ensemble method is to combine the predictions of several models built with a given learning algorithm in order to improve robustness over a single model. Bagging is a method in ensemble for improving unstable estimation or classification schemes. While boosting method are used sequentially to reduce the bias of the combined model. Boosting and Bagging both can reduce errors by reducing the variance term.

37) What is bias-variance decomposition of classification error in ensemble method?

The expected error of a learning algorithm can be decomposed into bias and variance. A bias term measures how closely the average classifier produced by the learning algorithm matches the target function. The variance term measures how much the learning algorithm’s prediction fluctuates for different training sets.

38) What is an Incremental Learning algorithm in ensemble?

Incremental learning method is the ability of an algorithm to learn from new data that may be available after classifier has already been generated from already available dataset.

39) What is PCA, KPCA and ICA used for?

PCA (Principal Components Analysis), KPCA ( Kernel based Principal Component Analysis) and ICA ( Independent Component Analysis) are important feature extraction techniques used for dimensionality reduction.

40) What is dimension reduction in Machine Learning?

In Machine Learning and statistics, dimension reduction is the process of reducing the number of random variables under considerations and can be divided into feature selection and feature extraction.

41) What are support vector machines?

Support vector machines are supervised learning algorithms used for classification and regression analysis.

42) What are the components of relational evaluation techniques?

The important components of relational evaluation techniques are

Data Acquisition

Ground Truth Acquisition

Cross Validation Technique

Query Type

Scoring Metric

Significance Test

43) What are the different methods for Sequential Supervised Learning?

The different methods to solve Sequential Supervised Learning problems are

Sliding-window methods

Recurrent sliding windows

Hidden Markow models

Maximum entropy Markow models

Conditional random fields

Graph transformer networks

44) What are the areas in robotics and information processing where sequential prediction problem arises?

The areas in robotics and information processing where sequential prediction problem arises are

Imitation Learning

Structured prediction

Model based reinforcement learning

45) What is batch statistical learning?

Statistical learning techniques allow learning a function or predictor from a set of observed data that can make predictions about unseen or future data. These techniques provide guarantees on the performance of the learned predictor on the future unseen data based on a statistical assumption on the data generating process.

46) What is PAC Learning?

PAC (Probably Approximately Correct) learning is a learning framework that has been introduced to analyze learning algorithms and their statistical efficiency.

47) What are the different categories you can categorized the sequence learning process?

Sequence prediction

Sequence generation

Sequence recognition

Sequential decision

48) What is sequence learning?

Sequence learning is a method of teaching and learning in a logical manner.

49) What are two techniques of Machine Learning?

The two techniques of Machine Learning are

Genetic Programming

Inductive Learning

50) Give a popular application of machine learning that you see on day to day basis?

The recommendation engine implemented by major ecommerce websites uses Machine Learning.

These interview questions will also help in your viva(orals)

You're reading 50 Machine Learning Interview Questions And Answers (2023)

50+ Top Automation Testing Interview Questions And Answers

1) What is Automation testing?

Here are Automation Testing interview questions and answers for fresher and experienced candidates to get their dream job.

Automation Testing uses an automation tool to execute test cases. The main goal of Automation Testing is to reduce the number of test cases to be run manually and not eliminate Manual Testing.

2) When will you automate a test?

Automation is preferred in the following cases

Repetitive Tasks.

Regression Testing

Smoke and Sanity Tests.

Test with multiple data sets.

Testing is not recommended for one-off test cases. Usually, the decision on which test cases to automate is based on the ROI (Return on Investment). The more times the automated test is executed, the better the ROI.

3) When will you not Automate testing?

One should not automate in the following cases

When the Application Under Test changes frequently

One-time test cases

Adhoc – Random Testing

Exploratory Testing

Usability tests that generally need manual intervention to check the test results

Test cases with detailed setup requirements to be done before each execution

Test cases that return unpredicted test results

Exclude unplanned test case

4) What are the steps involved in the Automation Process?

In the automation process, the steps involved are

Selecting the Test tool

Define the scope of automation

Planning, design, and development

Test execution

Maintenance

5) What are the points covered while planning the phase of automation?

During the planning phase of automation, things that must be taken into concern are:

Selection of the “right” Automation tool

Selection Automation Framework, if any.

List of in-scope and out-of-scope items for automation.

Test Environment Setup.

Preparing Gantt Chart of Project timelines for test script development & execution.

Identify Test Deliverables.

6) In what condition you can’t use automation testing for the Agile method?

Automation testing is not helpful for agile methods in the following conditions:

When user stories are constantly changing

When an exhaustive level of documentation is required in Agile.

Only suitable for regression tests during agile testing, like continuous integration.

Learn more about Agile Testing.

7) What is a test script?

A test script is a code to perform a set of instructions on an application. It is used to verify whether the application is functioning as per the software requirements.

When you run your script, it gives the test results as a pass or fails, which is determined by whether the application works as per the expectations.

8) How to select a good test automation tool?

Wide Test Environment support

Easy to use

Good debugging facility

Robust object identification

Record and Playback

Supports common programming languages for test script creation, for example, Java

Image testing abilities

Testing of database

Parameterization

Support multiple automation frameworks

Type of support is available for the tools like documentation, tutorials, training, etc

Cost and budget

Good reporting system

9) Can you tell me some good coding practices while automation?

Here are good automation practices:

You should identify the reusable methods and write them in a separate file.

Must follow the language-specific coding conventions.

Store the test data in a separate file.

Run your scripts regularly.

10) What is a Modular Testing framework?

Modular Testing framework is built on the concept of abstraction. In this type of framework, the tester creates scripts for all the application modules under test, and then these scripts are combined in a hierarchical order to create test cases.

11) Data-Driven Testing framework

In Data driven testing framework, the input and expected output data corresponding to the input data is stored in a file or database.

The automated script runs the same test steps for multiple data sets. It also allows you to run multiple test cases where only the input data differs, but the steps of execution remain the same.

12) What version control systems do you use?

We use GitHub. Version control helps you to track code changes. It controls the test script source code with a recorded history of changes to simplify the modification process. You may also revert to previous code versions if you make a mistake.

13) What are XPath Axes? Name some of them.

XPath is a syntax that manipulates XML (Extensible Markup Language) data. They help to locate nodes related to those on the tree. Some important XPath Axes are ancestor, child, namespace, parent, etc.

14) How can you speed up an auto test suite?

Applications that require UI testing that interacts with multiple elements can slow down the testing process. It’s better to create a simple test script that speeds up test execution.

15) Is documentation necessary in Automation Testing?

Documentation plays a vital role in Test Automation. You should document all the methods and procedures to ensure their repeatability. Test specifications, designs, code changes, test cases, automation plans, bug reports

16) What types of frameworks are used in software automation testing?

Four types of frameworks used are

Data-driven automation framework

Keyword-driven automation framework

Modular automation framework

Hybrid automation framework

Learn more about automation frameworks

17) Is it possible to achieve 100% automation?

No, it is not possible to automate everything. Achieving 100% automation is difficult as there are some scenarios where a registration page has a captcha or some test cases we don’t execute often. Moreover, automating these test cases will not add value to the automation or bring positive ROI.

18) What is the average number of test cases you have automated per day?

The answer depends on the length and complexity of the test scenario. Generally, a QA tester can automate 2-4 test scenarios daily when the complexity is limited. However, sometimes it might reduce to 1-2 when the complexity is high.

19) What is the scripting standard while performing automation testing?

While writing the scripts for automation, you must consider the following things:

Uniform naming convention.

Adequate indentation.

Robust error handling and recovery scenario.

Use of Frameworks wherever possible.

20) What are the most popular tools for automation testing?

The most popular test tool for automation testing are:

Selenium

UFT.

Rational Robot.

Here is a complete list of automation testing tools.

21) How can you measure the success of automation testing?

Following criteria can map the success of automation testing:

Defect Detection Ratio

Automation execution time and time savings to release the product

Reduction in Labour & other costs

Manual testing requires more time and more resources.

Inaccuracy

Executing the same test case repeatedly is error-prone and tedious.

It is impractical to do manual testing on very large and time-bound projects.

23) What are the differences between open-source tools, vendor tools, & in-house tools in automation testing?

Here are the differences between all:

Open-Source Tools: They are free tools with source code available on the internet. Example: Selenium

Vendor Tools: These testing tools are developed by companies, and you need to purchase their licenses. Example: Microfocus UFT.

In-house Tools: It is built by companies for their use.

24) What are the Prerequisites of Automation Testing?

A few important pre-requisites of Automation Testing are:

A stable build

Functionalities to be tested

Test cases for automated Testing

25) Can you do automation without a framework?

Frameworks are guidelines and not mandatory to create and execute automation scripts. So, yes, we can automate without a framework. Enhancing and maintaining test scripts would be easy if we created and followed a framework.

26) Tell me what you know about Selenium

Selenium is a free (open source) test automation suite. It is used to automate Web and Mobile environments. It consists of the following.

Selenium IDE (Browser Addon–Record and Playback Tool)

Selenium WebDriver

Selenium Grid (Distributed Testing)

Selenium supports scripting in languages like Java, C#, Python, Ruby, PHP, Perl, and JavaScript.

27) Tell me about QTP

QTP (Quick Test Professional) is now known as Microfocus UFT. It is a commercial automation tool and supports an extensive range of test environments: Web, Desktop, SAP, Delphi, Net, ActiveX, Flex, Java, Oracle, Mobile, PeopleSoft, PowerBuilder, Siebel, Stingray, and Visual Basic, amongst others.

The scripting language is VBScript. The tool gels well with ALM (Test Management Tool) and LoadRunner (Performance Testing Tool).

Salient features of QTP include Business Process Testing, keyword-driven framework, XML support, robust checkpoints, and test results.

28) What is SikuliX?

SikuliX is a tool that uses the “Visual Image Match” method to automate the graphical user interface. All the web elements in SikuliX should be taken as an image and stored inside the project.

SikuliX is comprised of

SikuliX Script

Visual Scripting API for Jython

SikuliX IDE

Practical uses of SikuliX are:

It can automate window-based applications and anything you see on screen without using internal API support.

It provides a simple API.

It can be easily linked with tools like Selenium.

Web applications can be automated.

SikuliX offers extensive support to automate flash objects.

It can work on any technology chúng tôi Java.

29) Mention what the difference between Selenium and SikuliX is?

SikuliX Selenium

It provides extensive support to automate flash objects It cannot automate flash objects like video players or audio players.

It has a simple API It has got complicated API

It uses a visual match to find elements on the screen. So, we can automate anything we see on the screen. It uses CSS, ID, locators, and other selected to identify GUI elements

It can automate the web as well as windows application It can automate only web applications

30) What are the attributes of a good automation framework?

Here are some important attributes of a good automation framework:

Modular: It is a framework that should be adaptable to change. So that testers should be able to modify the scripts as per the environment.

Reusable: It should be reusable so that methods or utilities should be written in a common file accessible to all the scripts.

Consistent: It should be written in a consistent format.

Independent: The automation scripts should be written in such a way that they are independent of each other.

Integration: Automation Framework should be developed in such a way that it is easy to integrate with other applications.

31) What is Cross-Browser Testing?

It is a subset of browser automation testing that helps you ensure that the online application operates correctly across different browsers. Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Microsoft Edge, Safari, etc.

The main aim of cross-browser testing is to check that your website or web app works correctly on different combinations of browsers and OS.

32) Which Testing can be done using the Selenium Framework?

You can use a Selenium framework for the following testing:

Load testing of web applications.

Regression testing of web applications.

Functional testing of web applications.

33) Is Automation testing white box testing or black box testing?

Automation testing is primarily black box testing.

34) What keyword is used to fetch the URL of the current page in Selenium?

Selenium WebDriver can help you find the current URL of a page with the getcurrentURL(). This method will find the URL of the open applications and result in a string.

35) Where will you maintain information like URL, login, and password?

URL, login, and password are important information used very often and change frequently. They should always be maintained in a separate file. If not done, then the automation tester must change it in every file with its reference.

36) What are the Extensions and Test Assets of QTP?

Some Important Test Assets and extensions of QTP are:

Results .xml

Recovery scenario .qrs

Test batch runner .mtb

Shared object repository .tsr

Local object repository .mtr

Test file .mts

Function library .qfl

37) What are the differences between manual testing and automation testing?

Here are some major differences between manual and automation testing:

Parameters Manual Testing Automation Testing

Time consumption More Less

STLC Follow manually Follows using tool

Cos Less expensive Expensive

Reliability Less Reliable Highly Reliable

Quality Low High

Skill Set Less skill set required High skill set is required.

38) What are the essential modules of an automation testing framework?

Here are some essential modules of the automation testing framework:

Test Assertion Tool: This testing tool will provide assert statements for assessing the expected values in the application under test. For Example, Junit, TestNG, Junit, etc.

Data Setup: Ensures that each test case takes the test data from the database, a file, or embedded in the test script.

Build Management Tool: The framework requires to be built and deployed to create test scripts.

Continuous integration tool: They are required to integrate and deploy the changes done in the framework at each iteration.

Reporting tool: It helps to generate a readable report after the test cases for a better view of the steps, failures, and results.

Logging tool: They help in better debugging of the error and bugs.

39) What is Cucumber? 40) What is Test Complete?

TestComplete is an automated UI testing tool for desktop applications, web, mobile, etc. It offers the flexibility to record a test case on one browser and run it on multiple browsers, thus supporting cross browsers testing.

41) What is Cypress?

Cypress is an open-source testing framework. It is developed in JavaScript and has lately gained popularity because of its simplicity and extensive capabilities that enable browser testing, and user manuals should be thoroughly documented.

42) How can you handle the alert popups in Selenium WebDriver?

Selenium gives alerts if there are issues while you test. The pop-up interface allows you to handle the alert by switching the control to the pop-up, pressing the OK or Cancel buttons, and turning back to the source page screen.

String srcPage = driver.getWindowHandle(); Alert pop = driver.switchTo().alert(); 43) What is a Hybrid Testing framework?

The Hybrid Testing framework develops the test cases from modular scripts by combining them in the modular testing framework.

44) Write steps to automate primary “login” functionality test cases for an application?

Here are the steps to automate basic login functionality:

Step 1) Understand the project requirement.

Step 2) Identify the Test scenarios

Step 3) Prepare a data input file with the data corresponding to each scenario

Step 4) Launch the tool from the program.

Step 5) Identify the username, password, and login buttons.

Step 6) Verify that the error message for negative scenarios is the same as the success message for positive test -scenarios.

These interview questions will also help in your viva(orals)

Top 27 Sdlc Interview Questions And Answers (2023)

1) What Is SDLC?

Here are SDLC interview questions and answers for fresher as well as experienced candidates to get their dream job.

SDLC is an abbreviation of Software Development Life Cycle. SDLC is series of steps that offers a defined model for the development and lifecycle management of an application.

2) Name five Models used in SDLC

Waterfall model

Rapid Application Development(RAD) model

Agile model

Iterative model

Spiral model

3) Explain Phases of the waterfall model

Following are the different Waterfall Model phases:

Requirements gathering

Design

Development

Testing

Implementation & Maintenance

4) States the importance of Design phase?

5) What are the tasks performed in Coding phase?

In the coding phase, the design document is converted into an executable programming language. The output of the coding stage is the source code which can act as input for testing and maintenance phase.

6) What is feasibility study?

Feasibility allows assessing how viable software project development will be for any organization. The software analyst does the complete study to understand the operational, economic, and technical feasibility of any project.

7) What are the Maturity levels in CMM?

Capability Maturity Model is a benchmark for analyzing the maturity of an organization’s software development process. It is a technique which is used to refine a company’s software development process. It is using to assess any company against a scale of five different levels of levels based on their Key Process Areas. It tells about the maturity of the company based on the project the company is dealing with and the clients.

Initial, Managed, Defined, Quantitatively Managed and Optimizing are five levels which determine CMM levels of any company.

8) Give some benefits of using V model?

Simple and easy to use.

Each phase has specific

V model is more successful because of the early development of test plans. This reduces the cost of bug fixes

Works most effective with small projects where requirements are small

9) What is the ‘scope’ of a project?

The scope of the project is nothing but, the goals, objectives, and expectations of the project. Software scope is a well-defined boundary, which includes all the process which are performed to develop and deliver the software product. The software scope consists of all functionalities and artifacts to be delivered to the software system. The software scope also helps to identifies what the system will do and what it will not do.

10) According to you, when should users be trained on a new system?

During the implementation phase

11) Name the phase where the performance of the new system monitored?

12) What is a computer-based information system?

It is a system in which computers perform some procedures.

13) Explain Low Level Or Detailed Design concerning SDLC

In Low-Level Design, High-Level Design is broken down into modules and programs. Logic design is developed for every program, and it will be documented as program specifications.

14) What is the use of JAD session?

JAD (Joint Application Design) session is used to gain data and information about the system

15) State the Difference Between SDLC And Stlc

SDLC involves the complete Verification and Validation of a Project. SDLC stage requires business requirement analysis, design, Development Process, Testing Process, and Maintenance.

Whereas STLC involves only Validation.

16) Who are the people involved in the phases of Waterfall Model

The people involved in the waterfall model depend upon the structure of the organization. Here, are professionals who are generally involved

Business analyst

Technical Manager or Senior Developers

Technical Lead or System Architect in Design Phase

Developers in Coding phase.

Testers in Testing Phase.

Project Manager, and Maintenance Team in the Maintenance phase

17) What is level-0 DFD?

Highest abstraction level is called Level 0 DFD (Data Flow Diagram). It is also is known as context level DFD. It gives specifications about the entire information system as one diagram which has all the details about the system.

18) Explain the team Requirement Gathering concerning SDLC

Requirement Gathering is an important SDLC phase. In this stage business requirements are gathered. The schedule and cost of the project also analyse in this phase.

19) Briefly explain Testing Phase

Different testing methodologies are practiced detecting the software bugs, which happen to take birth during the previous phases. Today, there are many types o testing tools, and methodologies are available. Few firs are also building their testing tools, which are custom made as per the need or their organizations.

20) What are problems faced in the waterfall model?

Some of the common problems face in waterfall model are

Waterfall model is not ideal for complex projects where requirements are not clear

It needs lots of time to complete every stage

There are certain bugs which never rectified in this model

21) What is the details study of the existing system is called?

The detailed study of the existing system is called System analysis

22) What is the main aim of prototyping aim?

Prototyping offers mini-model of the proposed system

23) In which step of SDLC project early termination could be done?

In the SDLC process, project termination can be performed in the feasibility study phase.

24) According to you which is most creative and challenging phase of system life cycle?

The design is one of the most challenging phases of the SDLC lifecycle.

25) Name the type of feasibility where the cost saving and additional profits will exceed the investment required.

It is known as Economic Feasibility

26) Can bug fixes also include software maintenance?

Yes, bug fixes stage also includes software maintenance

27) Cost of error correction is least in which stage of SDCL life cycle?

Cost of error correction is very less at the early stage of requirement analysis.

These interview questions will also help in your viva(orals)

Top Cloud Engineer Interview Questions And Answers In 2023

blog / Technology Top Cloud Engineer Interview Questions and Answers in 2023

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With cloud computing becoming an integral part of the digital world, cloud engineer careers are in more demand than ever before. There are currently 145,000+ job openings for cloud engineers in the U.S. with the national average remuneration standing at $113,260 per year. Hence, knowing how to answer the most frequently asked cloud engineer interview questions will improve the odds of succeeding in an interview for the role. 

In this article, we have compiled a list of the most widely encountered interview questions for cloud engineers along with some sample responses to help professionals prepare. 

Basic Cloud Engineer Interview Questions 1. What is Cloud? List Some Different Versions of Cloud.

The term ‘cloud’ refers to a collaboration between networks, hardware, services, storage, and interfaces utilized for provident commuting as a service. It includes three users—end users, cloud service providers, and business management users. 

The various cloud versions are ulti-cloud, public cloud, private cloud, and hybrid cloud. 

2. What is the Meaning of Function as Service?

Function as a Service (FaaS) provides users a platform where they can develop, administer, and run their cloud applications without having to worry about infrastructure maintenance.

3. What are the Main Components of the Cloud Ecosystem?

The following are the main components of the cloud ecosystem that define how you view cloud architecture: cloud consumers, direct customers, and cloud service providers. 

ALSO READ: How to Become a Cloud Engineer: The Ultimate Career Guide

Intermediate Cloud Engineer Interview Questions

Following some knowledge of the basics, let us move on to the intermediate-level cloud engineer interview questions. 

1. What is the Meaning of AMI and How is it Implemented?

Amazon machine image or AMI is a replication of the root file system. It offers the details necessary for launching an instance. From a single AMI, multiple instances can share the same configuration.

When it comes to launching instances with various specifications, it is necessary to launch various AMIs as well. In the case of instance-store-backed AMIs, it comprises one or more EBS volume snapshots and a template for the instance’s root volume. 

The permissions it launches decides which one of the Amazon Web Services (AWS) accounts can use the AMI for launching instances. Additionally, AMIs need block device mapping for defining the volumes in the correct sequence and connecting them to the instances when they are launched.

2. What are Serverless Components in Cloud Computing?

Serverless components in cloud computing make it possible to develop applications without having to deal with the hassle of managing the infrastructure. As a result, the user is able to write code without logging into the server. 

Virtual machines and container management are handled by serverless machines. These parts also control other aspects, such as multithreading and hardware allocation. 

3. Sample Cloud Engineer Interview Questions for Mid-Level Executives

What is the full form of EUCALYPTUS and what does it do in cloud computing? 

How do the cloud and conventional data centers differ?

What is edge computing? 

What are the various implementations of the cloud computing data center?

What are the benefits and drawbacks of serverless computing?

What are some of the cloud-enabling technologies? 

Why microservices are essential for a true cloud system 

What is the cloud usage monitor? 

What functions do APIs provide in cloud services?

What are the key cloud computing metrics?

What are the Advanced Cloud Engineer Interview Questions?

1. Describe the Cloud Computing Architecture.

Cloud computing architecture includes the parts of a cloud model that fit together from an architectural standpoint. The model comprises the cloud consumer, cloud provider, and the cloud auditor. 

The cloud service consumer is a representation of the various types of uses of cloud services. Regardless of what the requirements are of a particular constituent, it is crucial to combine the appropriate services that can assist both internal and external users. 

Cloud providers should be able to make services easily available in order to accommodate changing company needs This includes the on-premises computing model-based services, infrastructure, middleware, and applications. 

Cloud auditors offer oversight by an internal or external group which ensures that the consumer group meets its obligations.

2. Who are the Cloud Service Providers in a Cloud Ecosystem?

Commercial vendors or businesses that develop their own cloud capabilities are known as cloud service providers. The commercial vendors sell their services to cloud consumers. Alternatively, a business may choose to offer internal cloud services to its own partners, workers, and clients as a service or as a profit center. For such environments, cloud service providers also create applications or services. 

3. What are Microservices?

Microservices is the process of developing applications using code that is independent of one another and from the underlying platform on which it is being developed. Once developed, each microservice runs a distinct process and interacts via clear, standardized APIs. These services are described as a catalog so that developers may quickly find the appropriate service and comprehend the governance guidelines for usage. 

4. Why are Microservices Important for a True Cloud Environment?

a. Each microservice is designed to fulfill a specific and limited purpose, and hence application development becomes simplified. Small development teams can then concentrate on creating the code for some of the precisely specified functions. 

b. Code changes become smaller and less complex when compared to a complex integrated application. It will be simpler and quicker to make modifications, whether to patch a bug or upgrade a service to meet new requirements.

c. Scalability, which enables fast deployment of an additional instance of a service or changes that service as needs evolve.

d. Microservices undergo extensive testing and validation. Developers can assume the integrity of new apps without continuous testing when they make use of existing microservices.

5. What is the Cloud Usage Monitor?

The cloud usage monitor is an autonomous lightweight software application that is responsible for gathering and processing the IT resource utilization data. 

Cloud usage monitors may exist in various formats depending on the kind of usage metrics these are designed to gather and how the usage data needs to be collected. 

The three typical agent-based implementation formats are: monitoring agent, resource agent, and polling agent.

6. How Does the Monitoring Agent Monitor Cloud Usage?

A monitoring agent is a service agent that exists as an intermediate and an event-driven application that resides alongside the current communication channels. It examines and transparently monitors data flows. The monitoring agent is frequently used to gauge message metrics as well as network traffic.

7. How Does the Polling Agent Monitor Cloud Usage?

A polling agent is a processing component that collects information about how cloud services are used by polling IT resources. The polling agent has also been used to promptly track the uptime and downtime of IT resources. 

8. Sample Cloud Engineer Interview Questions for Experienced Developers

What are cloud-native applications?

How does the resource agent monitor cloud usage?

What is an API gateway?

What does ‘containers as a service’ (CaaS) refer to?

What do you mean by encapsulation in cloud computing?

What do you mean by rate limiting in cloud computing?

What are the different data centers deployed for cloud computing?

What are containerized data centers? 

What are low-density data centers?

How does resource replication take place in cloud computing? 

ALSO READ: What a Good Cloud Engineer’s Salary Package Should be and Why

Learn Online from the Best

While gearing up for a cloud engineer interview, aspirants must remember that top organizations now look for engineers with experience in Linux, OpenStack, Amazon Web Services, Google Compute Engine, and Microsoft Azure. Additionally, having knowledge of DevOps, APIs, and NoSQL improves the chances of landing your dream job. Explore Emeritus’ wide range of online technology courses to become a full-stack developer and stay at the top of your field! 

By Rupam Deb

Write to us at [email protected]

Top 10 Jmeter Interview Questions And Answers

Introduction To JMeter Interview Questions And Answers

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

This article contains the top 10 most frequently asked JMeter interview questions and answers. This will help the candidate to succeed in the interview.

Part 1 – Basic JMeter interview questions with answers 1. What is the use of the regular expression in JMeter?

Regular expressions in JMeter extract some values dynamically from the response. The values act as the intermediate results in subsequent requests to the server or save them for reporting purposes. Both pre-processors and post-processors use regular expressions.

2. Explain the flow of the Test script recorder.

HTTP(s) Test Script Recorder records all the HTTP(s) requests going to the server from the application. The following changes are made in the JMeter application to make it work.

Enter the port number to start your proxy server.

Select a workbench or add a recording controller in the test plan and select the same target for storing all recordings in one place.

Start the proxy server.

Configure the browser with manual proxy settings with port numbers the same as in the test script recorder.

Let us move to the next JMeter Interview Questions.

3. Can we run selenium scripts on JMeter? If yes, how?

Answer:

4. What are the roles of the listeners in the JMeter?

The role of the listeners in the JMeter is to save the outcomes of the test after viewing the same. They are very useful in tabular and graphical analysis of the outcomes. Commonly used listeners are the aggregate graph, view results tree, an aggregate report.

5. What are the main parts of the thread group?

The main parts of the thread group in the JMeter are a controller, sampler, assertion, configuration elements, and listeners. The detailed description is as follows:

Controller: It controls the flow of the thread group.

Sampler: It sends different requests to the server.

Assertion: This is responsible for time management as it checks whether the response is there for a request within a specific time.

Configuration elements: It manages the information related to the requests integrated with the samplers.

Listener: It saves the final output of the task.

Part 2 – JMeter Interview Questions (Advanced) 6. What is a Post-processor in JMeter?

The post-processor in the JMeter is used after the accomplishment of the sampler request. That is, it takes any action in response to a request. It is simple to use to extract values from the sampler response.

7. Explain the execution order of the test elements.

Configuration elements

Pre-processors

Timers

Samplers

Post-processors

Assertions

Listeners

8. How to manage cookies and sessions in the JMeter?

We can manage cookies and sessions in the JMeter by using config elements such as HTTP cache manager which can clear the cookies in every iteration and allows users to add user-defined cookies. It also helps to clear the cache as per user requirements in the load tests, and it limits the number of elements that can be stored in the cache. These config elements can be attached to the listener.

9. What is the purpose of a workbench in JMeter?

The workbench is a storage area for storing and adding the components to the test plan as needed. The components of the workbench with the test plan are temporarily saved. It has to save as test fragments. The HTTP request test script recorder is the essential part of the workbench for storing HTTP request recordings, which later measures the performance.

10. What are the types of controllers in the JMeter?

Controllers in the JMeter control the flow of the request. Some of the controllers in the JMeter are as below:

While controller

Recording controller

Transaction controller

Simple controller

Loop controller and

Module controller

IF controller

Finally, it’s an overview of JMeter and the most frequently asked topics in the interviews. I suggest you go through the remaining concepts in addition to this article to clear the interview 100 percent. All the best for your interview.

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Top 10 Java Servlet Interview Questions And Answers {Updated For 2023}

Introduction to Java Servlet Interview Questions and Answers

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

Now, if you are looking for a job that is related to Java Servlet then you need to prepare for the 2023 Java Servlet Interview Questions. It is true that every interview is different as per the different job profiles. Here, we have prepared the important Java Servlet Interview Questions and Answers which will help you get success in your interview.

In this 2023 Java Servlet Interview Questions article, we shall present 10 most important and frequently asked Java Servlet interview questions. These 2023 Java Servlet interview questions are divided into two parts are as follows:

Part 1 – Java Servlet Interview Questions (Basic)

This first part covers basic Interview Questions and Answers.

Q1. What is a Java Servlet?

A Java Servlet is a web component in which its lifecycle is managed by a servlet container present in a web server. A Servlet is nothing but a simple Java class that extends the features of a Servlet interface by implementing the Java Servlet API by conforming and complying with the Java EE standards. A servlet could establish communication in the form of a client-server protocol. A Servlet is a javax. servlet package which can be used by adding as a dependency or in a library to utilize its functionalities or features.

Q2. What are the features of Servlet?

This is the basic Interview Questions asked in an interview. The different features of a Servlet are –

It has a dependency on the Java Standard Edition version 5 i.e., J2SE 5.0.

It supports annotations features that reduce the code complexity and enables loose coupling in code.

It helps in loading the class using chúng tôi i.e. called Deployment Descriptor.

It is portable and easy to use and implement.

It is robust, efficient and scalable.

It has different features such as exception handling, garbage collection, security mechanism, etc.,

It is less prone to memory leaks and memory management faults.

Q3. What are the different phases of Java Servlet Life Cycle?

Initialization: In this stage, init() method of the servlet will be called and executed to initialize the servlet.

Service: In this stage, the service() method of the servlet is called to process the request and return the response to the client through a web server.

Destroy: In this stage, the destroy() method is called, which is the last phase of the Servlet where the servlet instance or the object will be destroyed and finally it will be garbage collected.

Q4. What are the different functionalities of the Servlet Container?

This is the basic Java Servlet Interview Questions asked in an interview. The below is the list of few functionalities of Servlet Container but are not exhausted :

It handles the life cycle management of a servlet.

It supports the communication mechanism between a web browser and the servlet.

It supports multithreading which in turn supports in the execution of the multiple servlets.

It has declarative inbuilt security features, JSP (Java Server pages) support.

It implements java enterprise architecture.

It supports concurrency, security, transaction, deployment, lifecycle management, automatic garbage collection, and a few other services.

Q5. Explain the architecture of the Servlet Life Cycle? Part 2 – Java Servlet Interview Questions (Advanced) Q6. What is HTTP Servlet? Q7. What is a Servlet Filter?

A Servlet Filter is used to filter the requests and responses of the client in a Servlet Container. This can be implemented by using filter elements in the Deployment Descriptor i.e., chúng tôi of the web application. It also performs some form of post-processing after filtering the request of the client. Servlet filters are portable and can be easily integrated with the Servlet components which are a kind of pluggable. Filters can be in multiple numbers with to filter the servlet requests and responses. The Servlet Filter lifecycle method are init(), doFilter() and destroy() which are similar to Servlet except the Service() method where the servlet will be initialized, performs filtering operations and destroys the filter instance or object.

Q8. What are the different Servlet Filters?

The different Servlet filters available are Data compression Filters, Authentication Filters, Filters which triggers the resources access events, Encryption Filters, Logging, Auditing Filters, Tokenizing Filters, and  Image Conversion Filters.

Q9. What is a Session in Servlet?

This is the popular Java Servlet Interview Questions asked in an interview. A Session is a period of an interval in which the state of the Servlet is maintained in the Servlet Container. This process is called Session Management in the Servlet. Session tracking can also be maintained in Servlet by tracking the state of a user. As HTTP Servlet is stateless, Session can be used along with HttpServlet to maintain HTTP Session.

Q10. What are the different protocols supported by HttpServlet?

The different protocols supported by HTTPServlet are HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol)and HTTPS (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure).

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