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Introduction to Computer Science Interview Questions and Answers

So you have finally found your dream job in Computer Science but are wondering how to crack the 2023 Computer Science interview and what could be the probable Computer Science Interview Questions. Every Computer Science interview is different, and the job scope is different too. Keeping this in mind, we have designed the most common  Computer Science interview Questions and answers to help you get success in your interview.

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Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

1. What is a file?

A file is a named location that stores data or information permanently. A file is always stored inside a storage device using a file name (e.g., STUDENT.MARKS). A file name typically has a primary and secondary name separated by a “.” (DOT).

2. What is a class?

A class is a blueprint from which objects are created. A class contains methods and variables associated with an instance of a class.

3. What is an object?


4. What is a constructor?

A constructor is a method used to create an Object of a class. There are two types of constructor Default & Parameterized constructor.

5. What is the different OOPS principle?

The basic OOPS principle are as follows,





6. What is inheritance?


7. What is polymorphism?

Polymorphism is the ability of an object to take on multiple forms. Polymorphism is commonly used in OOP when a parent class reference refers to a child class object.

8. What are the instance and class variables?


9. Compare the method and constructor?

Method: Used to perform some function or operation.

Method: Has a return type.

10. What is a singleton class? 11. What are the steps for creating the object?

Abc a= new Abc();

12. What is the different type of access modifiers?

• Protected – Visible to package and subclass.

13. Which is the highest operator precedence in Java

The operator with the highest preference is the Postfix operator, i.e. () [].

14. What is an array?

The array is a container with a fixed number of similar data types.

15. What is the difference between equals() and method and == operator?

The equals() is a method that matches the content of the strings, whereas == is an operator and matches the object or reference of the strings.

16. Is string class final?


17. What is a wrapper class?

To access the primitive data type as an object, we use the wrapper class. They are the following:-

Primitive Type Wrapper class

boolean Boolean

char Character

byte Byte

short Short

int Integer

long Long

float Float

double Double

18. What is the difference between overloading and overriding? 19. What are multiple inheritances in Java?

Java supports multiple inheritances, i.e., the ability of a class to implement more than one Interface. A class can implement multiple Interfaces but cannot extend multiple classes.

20. What is a stream?

Output Stream: Used to write data into a destination.

21. What is a Character stream?

Java Character stream is used to perform input and output for 16-bit Unicode. The main classes users are FileReader and FileWriter, which internally uses FileInputStream and FileOutputStream, so the basic difference is that FileReader and FileWriter read and write two bites at a time, respectively.

22. What is a Byte stream?

The main classes related to byte streams are FileInputStream and FileOutputStream.

23. What is an Interface?

The Interface is a reference type in Java, similar to the class, but it’s a collection of abstract methods. A class can implement multiple interfaces.

24. What is the difference between class and Interface?

Below are the difference between Interface and class:-

The Interface cannot be instantiated.

An interface doesn’t have any constructors.

The Interface only has abstract methods.

A class implements an interface and extends a class.

An interface can extend multiple interfaces.

25. What is an abstract class?

A class that contains the abstract keyword in a declaration is called an abstract class. The properties of the abstract class are as follows:-

Abstract classes may or may not contain abstract methods, but if a class has at least one abstract method, it must be declared abstract.

The abstract class cannot be instantiated.

To use an abstract class, we have to inherit it from another class.

If we inherit an abstract class, we must provide implementations for all its abstract methods.

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This has been a comprehensive guide to the Computer Science Interview Questions and answers so that the candidate can crack down on these Computer Science Interview Questions easily. This article consists of all the top Computer Science Interview Questions and Answers. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –

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Top 10 Essential Google Analytics Interview Questions {Updated For 2023}

Introduction to Google Analytics Interview Questions and Answers

Hadoop, Data Science, Statistics & others

Attracting new visitors to the webpage.

Retain customers who are already using the goods and services through the website.

Increasing the dollar value/revenue for the business.

Web analytics is the core part of CRM(Customer relationship management). Here, the analysis will ease the business to understand why a given customer will revisit the website or repurchase the product. This will help to observe the customers by Geo, which can ultimately help an organization redirect their market strategies.

Google Analytics provides two types of services:

Free service

Paid service

As paid service is mostly expensive, most website owners prefer to use the free service for search engine optimization.

Now, if you are looking for a job related to Google Analytics, you need to prepare for the 2023 Google Analytics Interview Questions. Every interview is indeed different as per the different job profiles. Here, we have prepared the important Google analytics Interview Questions and Answers, which will help you succeed in your interview.

Below are the 10 important 2023 Google analytics interview questions and answers that are frequently asked in an interview. These questions are divided into two parts are as follows:

Part 1 – Google analytics Interview Questions (Basic)

This first part covers basic Google analytics Interview Questions and Answers.

Q1. What are Google Analytics and its key benefits?

Google Analytics is a web analytics tool by Google. This helps understand the data traffic on a website so that the website could be optimized and visitors’ experience could be enhanced. Statistics of website traffic will be presented in the form of a scorecard, tables and other graphs, which will give you actionable insights.

Key benefits are:

It helps you understand customers by Geo. Geo brings you the most customers.

It helps you segment the business in a more optimized way.

It helps in understanding the behaviours of which term bringing more traffic to the website.

It helps understand the visitor’s arrival to your website through some other website or the search engine.

Q2. Role of KPI in Google Analytics? Q3. What is a Cohort in Google Analytics?

Cohort refers to customers who share the same characteristics as they have the same bought the same kind of products; they have the same purchase date, etc. It helps an organization to analyze group-wise behaviour by their metrics and revenue.

Q4. Does Google Analytics support real-time data?

Yes. With Google Analytics, we can observe the present traffic to a webpage. It can update data traffic, insights, and reactions on your web page for every moment. This can help the organization drive the promotional campaign on Twitter or any other public website.

Q5. Explain A/B testing in terms of Google Analytics.

A/B testing is a great way to identify and fix the improvements that can significantly impact your online success.

So, the decision made here is not based on intuition. Instead, it’s a fact-based decision.

This uses this A/B testing to improvise on the website content management.

Part 2 – Google analytics Interview Questions (Advanced) Q6. What do you know about the bounce rate? What’s the optimal value of the bounce rate for a website?

The bounce rate measures the number of customers who leave the website without visiting any other page. The higher the bounce rate, the negative is the response of customers.

It focuses on two things: The bounce rate of a webpage & the Bounce rate of a website.

A 30% bounce rate is considered normal. 30% to 70% is slightly worrisome. Above 70% means people are not sticking to your website, and you need to optimize your website immediately.

A high bounce rate can bring a conclusion, which is as follows:

Page quality is not that good to engage people on the website.

Purpose of a page not matching with the demand of the audience.

Visitors have not found the extent of the information that they were looking for.

Q7. Can you explain events in Google Analytics?

This is the most popular question asked in an interview. An event is a word referred to for collecting the interaction with the web page or screen load.


Flash elements

Video plays etc.

The event has 4 components:





Q8. Explain the terms: Dimensions & Metrics in Google Analytics.

The basic unit of any analytical report is comprising of dimensions and metrics.

To represent a table, dimensions are arranged in rows, and metrics are arranged in columns.

Dimensions are the data that is attributed, such as city, browser, product type, geo, country, etc. Metrics are quantitative measurement such as bounce rate, session duration, number of events, etc.

Q9. What is CTR, Session?

A set of activities that takes place on your webpage within a time frame. A single session may contain multiple page views on a website. The default time frame session expiry for Google Analytics is 30 minutes(because of inactivity) or midnight.

Q10. How to identify the top or popular pages on my website in Google Analytics?

To identify the topmost pages of a website, you need to go to google analytics’s behaviour section. By default, the top 10 trending pages of the website will be showcased.

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Top 10 Java Servlet Interview Questions And Answers {Updated For 2023}

Introduction to Java Servlet Interview Questions and Answers

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

Now, if you are looking for a job that is related to Java Servlet then you need to prepare for the 2023 Java Servlet Interview Questions. It is true that every interview is different as per the different job profiles. Here, we have prepared the important Java Servlet Interview Questions and Answers which will help you get success in your interview.

In this 2023 Java Servlet Interview Questions article, we shall present 10 most important and frequently asked Java Servlet interview questions. These 2023 Java Servlet interview questions are divided into two parts are as follows:

Part 1 – Java Servlet Interview Questions (Basic)

This first part covers basic Interview Questions and Answers.

Q1. What is a Java Servlet?

A Java Servlet is a web component in which its lifecycle is managed by a servlet container present in a web server. A Servlet is nothing but a simple Java class that extends the features of a Servlet interface by implementing the Java Servlet API by conforming and complying with the Java EE standards. A servlet could establish communication in the form of a client-server protocol. A Servlet is a javax. servlet package which can be used by adding as a dependency or in a library to utilize its functionalities or features.

Q2. What are the features of Servlet?

This is the basic Interview Questions asked in an interview. The different features of a Servlet are –

It has a dependency on the Java Standard Edition version 5 i.e., J2SE 5.0.

It supports annotations features that reduce the code complexity and enables loose coupling in code.

It helps in loading the class using chúng tôi i.e. called Deployment Descriptor.

It is portable and easy to use and implement.

It is robust, efficient and scalable.

It has different features such as exception handling, garbage collection, security mechanism, etc.,

It is less prone to memory leaks and memory management faults.

Q3. What are the different phases of Java Servlet Life Cycle?

Initialization: In this stage, init() method of the servlet will be called and executed to initialize the servlet.

Service: In this stage, the service() method of the servlet is called to process the request and return the response to the client through a web server.

Destroy: In this stage, the destroy() method is called, which is the last phase of the Servlet where the servlet instance or the object will be destroyed and finally it will be garbage collected.

Q4. What are the different functionalities of the Servlet Container?

This is the basic Java Servlet Interview Questions asked in an interview. The below is the list of few functionalities of Servlet Container but are not exhausted :

It handles the life cycle management of a servlet.

It supports the communication mechanism between a web browser and the servlet.

It supports multithreading which in turn supports in the execution of the multiple servlets.

It has declarative inbuilt security features, JSP (Java Server pages) support.

It implements java enterprise architecture.

It supports concurrency, security, transaction, deployment, lifecycle management, automatic garbage collection, and a few other services.

Q5. Explain the architecture of the Servlet Life Cycle? Part 2 – Java Servlet Interview Questions (Advanced) Q6. What is HTTP Servlet? Q7. What is a Servlet Filter?

A Servlet Filter is used to filter the requests and responses of the client in a Servlet Container. This can be implemented by using filter elements in the Deployment Descriptor i.e., chúng tôi of the web application. It also performs some form of post-processing after filtering the request of the client. Servlet filters are portable and can be easily integrated with the Servlet components which are a kind of pluggable. Filters can be in multiple numbers with to filter the servlet requests and responses. The Servlet Filter lifecycle method are init(), doFilter() and destroy() which are similar to Servlet except the Service() method where the servlet will be initialized, performs filtering operations and destroys the filter instance or object.

Q8. What are the different Servlet Filters?

The different Servlet filters available are Data compression Filters, Authentication Filters, Filters which triggers the resources access events, Encryption Filters, Logging, Auditing Filters, Tokenizing Filters, and  Image Conversion Filters.

Q9. What is a Session in Servlet?

This is the popular Java Servlet Interview Questions asked in an interview. A Session is a period of an interval in which the state of the Servlet is maintained in the Servlet Container. This process is called Session Management in the Servlet. Session tracking can also be maintained in Servlet by tracking the state of a user. As HTTP Servlet is stateless, Session can be used along with HttpServlet to maintain HTTP Session.

Q10. What are the different protocols supported by HttpServlet?

The different protocols supported by HTTPServlet are HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol)and HTTPS (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure).

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Top 10 Java Testing Interview Questions And Answers {Updated For 2023}

Introduction To Java Testing Interview Questions And Answers

Due to its platform-independent nature, nowadays Java is mainly used in all kinds of daily life applications such as Windows-based Application, Complex Web Applications, Mobile Applications (Android), ATM Machines, Servers, Kernel Level Applications and so on. Java is a high-level language Software Engineer who uses Java to build many frameworks related to testing automation.

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Below are the 10 important 2023 Java Testing Interview Questions and Answers:

To start knowing about Java, we also can get to know about the concept of Object-Oriented Programming, Class and its accessible Objects, Encapsulation, Polymorphism, Inheritance, Interface, Abstract Class, Java Threading, Collection Framework and so on. Before starting to know about Java, we need to know about JVM (Java Virtual Machine), JRE (Java Runtime Environment) and JDK (Java Development Kit). When we install JRE or JDK in our System to run Java, JVM also gets installed. JVM contains Java Compiler with it that compiles the Java classes that mean .java files to Byte Code Converted files that mean .class files. These .class files are platform-independent in nature.

Java has been designed by James Gosling and developed by Sun Microsystems but now by Oracle Corporation. To run Java in the System on Java Runtime Environment needs to be installed in the target System. Most of the Automation systems use Java as their development language. One of the Java Automation testing tools is known as Selenium Automation Testing. Unit tests also performed in Java using JUnit. Developers can write application-specific Junit test cases using Java. There are different types of automation frameworks available like Hybrid Testing Framework, Data-Driven Testing Framework, Keyword Driven Testing Framework, Modular Testing Framework, and Behavior-Driven Development Framework and so on.

Finally, it comes to know that Java is an Object-Oriented Programming Language that provides all kinds of solutions in real life. It provides a solution to build applications for Desktop, Web, Mobile and also helps to create Kernel level applications, Servers and so on. Not only this, but it also provided solutions to write down the various test cases using JUnit. And to execute or perform those test cases, many Java-based Automation testing tools are available like Selenium, QTP (Quick Test Professional) and so on.

If you are looking for a job that is related to Java Testing, you need to prepare for the 2023 Java Testing Interview Questions. Though every interview is different and the scope of a job is also different, we can help you out with the top Java Testing Interview Questions with answers, which will help you take the leap and get your success in your interview. These questions are divided into parts are as follows:

Part 1 – Java Testing Interview Questions (Basic)

This first part covers basic Java Testing Interview Questions and Answers

1. What do you know about Framework?

The framework is nothing but a set of rules that we must follow in a systematic way to achieve the desired goal. In Java, there are many frameworks available, such as MVC Frameworks, to develop applications, build up the unit test cases, and perform the automation testing.

2. What is the Test Automation Frameworks?

There are the basic Java Testing Interview Questions asked in an interview. Below are some popular Test Automation Frameworks:

Modular Testing Framework.

Keyword Driven Testing Framework.

Hybrid Testing Framework.

Data-Driven Testing Framework.

3. Why did you want to use Framework?

In Test Automation Framework, we need to handle many files. To organize those files and systemically complete all tasks and achieve the goal successfully, we have to support any Framework.

Let us move to the next Java Testing Interview Questions.

Automation Testing is faster and better than Manual Testing. So using Test Automation Framework, it saves time as well as money.

In Automation Testing, the probability of getting work test results after execution of any test cases is very low compared to Manual Testing. So it is more reliable.

We can get the test report automatically after the execution of test cases. No manual intervention required for the same.

Minimal manual intervention required in Test Automation Framework.

5. Which Framework you have used in your Selenium Project?

In the Selenium Project, we mostly use Java language to develop. Though Selenium supports multi-languages to develop Java with Selenium is the best match. Selenium Project that we have worked upon basically used Data-Driven Testing Framework where Page Object Model design pattern has been used along with Page Factory.

Part 2 – Java Testing Interview Questions (Advanced) 6. Where do you apply Object-Oriented Programming concepts in Test Automation Framework? 7. What do you mean by Automation Testing?

Automation testing is a software testing process where minimal manual intervention is required, which is used for software testing by executing some test cases to find out the defects and share the automated test result after execution. Many tools are available to perform this automation testing, like Selenium Web Driver, Appium, Cucumber, Test Studio, RSpec, etc.

Let us move to the next Java Testing Interview Questions.

8. What type of Test Cases did you prefer to be automated?

The test cases I preferred to be automated are as below:

Sanity Test Cases

Regression Test Cases

Smoke Test Cases

9. Why do you like to use Selenium?

These are the frequently asked Java Testing Interview Questions asked in an interview. I would like to use the Selenium Automation Testing tool for the below reasons.

Selenium is free to download and use and also open source.

Cross-browser compatibility supports by Selenium.

Multi-language support and very easy compatibility with Java.

A large no of users are using Selenium as a Test Automation tool; that’s why the help communities are larger compared to the other test Automation tools.

10. What type of test cases you would not prefer to be automated?

Based on Project Stability, the test cases that change frequently or the test cases that I need to run rarely or only one time, I would not pick up those to be automated.

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Basic Interview Questions On Computer Architecture

This article was published as a part of the Data Science Blogathon.


this article, we will discuss some questions on Computer Architecture that are important from the perspective of interviews and college examinations.

Computer Architecture means how a computer is interconnected with its hardware components and how they transfer data. Various methods and hardware have increased these computers’ processing speed and efficiency.

History of Computers

1. Charles Babbage: Conceptualization and implementation of the first mechanical computer (1 s 5 tons, and its length is 11 feet

2. The first electronic digital programmable computer, Colossus, was invented in 1943. It uses Vacuum Tubes to process the information.

3. the First programmable electronic computer called ENIAC was invented in 1945. It weighs about 80 tons, and it contains about 18000 vacuum tubes.

Fig. 1 Basic Computer Architecture

Why should we study Computer Architecture?

Below are some reasons why it is beneficial for us to gain knowledge of computer architecture. It helps us to write fast and efficient code. Also, it allows us to identify the proper hardware which fulfills our computational demands.

1. Write better programs

a) Faster

b) Smaller

c) Less power consuming (fewer computations involved)

2. To make suitable design choices for changing needs and evolving technologies

a) GPU

b) Wearable

c) Datacenter

d) Mobile phones

e) Quantum computing etc.

Outcomes of learning Computer Architecture:

1. Understanding of the essential components and the design of a computer,

2. Understanding the functional aspects of different components

3. Identification of the issues involved in the instruction execution

4. Identification and analysis of the issues related to performance improvement

5. Analysis of system requirements

Interview Questions on Computer Architecture

Serial Bus: It is a bus that transfers data bit by bit over a single channel. It periodically transmits data to avoid a collision.

Parallel Bus: It is a bus that parallelly transmits bits over multiple channels. As more than one channel is used, there is no chance of collision.

Serial Bus Parallel Bus

 It transfers more bits per I/O cycle.

Less Cost.  It transfers data with more speed as compared to the serial bus.

It also has fewer pins, making it less complicated.  It has a high update rate, so it could be beneficial where the update rate of bits must be increased.

Serial Bus Parallel Bus

Slower Rate of data transfer. More complexity on the motherboard due to more pins.

Slower bit update rate. Higher Cost

It requires all the bits of the multibyte register, which must be loaded one at a time. It only supports short-distance communication due to cross-talk between parallel lines.

Q2. Explain the differences between Von Neumann and Harvard architectures.

Von Neuman Architecture Harvard Architecture

This same memory is used for storing instructions and data. In this, separate memories are used for storing instructions and data.

Due to the single memory, it has a cheaper cost. Due to multiple memories, it has a higher cost.

The CPU can not simultaneously read and write the instructions and data as a single memory. Due to multiple memories, the CPU can read and write the instructions and data simultaneously.

We can commonly find Von-Neuman Architecture in personnel computers. Harvard Architecture is typical in microcontrollers and signal processing.

Below is the diagrammatic explanation of this two architecture

Fig. 2 Von Neumann V/S Harvard Architecture

The Stored Program Concept is similar to Von-Neuman Architecture. In this, both the instructions and data are stored in the same memory. And before this concept, the instructions and data are stored in two separate memories, entirely different entities (e.g., Harvard Architecture). Below is the figure which shows where this store program concept is used.

It only uses single memory, that’s why its manufacturing cost is significantly less. Also, a single data bus is used to fetch both data and instructions, which reduces its cost furthermore. By using this concept, we can sequentially perform various tasks. Also, it provides high processing power due to only a single memory.

Q4. Explain the role of the instruction set architecture as a layer of abstraction. How is system software different from application software?

Instruction set architecture acts as an interface between hardware and software. Provides commands to the processor to tell it what it needs to do. Instruction set architecture is the machine’s portion visible to the assembly language programmer. Also, it is the only way to interact with the hardware.

System Software Application Software

It is written in assembly language. It is written in High-Level Languages.

They are general-purpose software. They are made for specific purposes and functions.

They can run independently of application software. They need System Software to run.

It works as an interface between Application Software and System. It works as an interface between the Application Software and the User.

Users cannot interact with it. Users can interact with it and give them commands.

E.g., Operating Systems E.g., MS Word

Q5 “The clock rate of a computer may be arbitrarily increased to achieve faster execution by the CPU” – Do you agree with this statement? Explain.

No, we cannot increase the clock rate of a computer to a value to achieve high computations arbitrarily. Because improving the clock rate arbitrarily can increase the cost of the issues and lead to severe heating issues.

CPU execution time = (Number of instructions × CPI)(1/clock rate)

From the above equation, we can see that if the clock rate is inversely proportional, the execution time will decrease and vice-versa. If the pulse is high, given that the circuit is slow, it might be possible that the course is triggered by the next clock pulse, leading to the wrong result.

Q6. Is Moore’s Law still valid? Do you think that it will remain steadfast in the future? If not, what will be the possible reasons for its failure?

Moore’s Law is invalid nowadays because we cannot double the number of transistors every two years. According to a study, the growth rate of the number of transistors is less than 30% annually. Using standard silicon technology, computing power cannot maintain its rapid exponential growth.

In the future, the original Moore’s Law will not be valid. It will probably be replaced or modified according to the needs of quantum computation.

Reasons for the failure of Moore’s Law:

1. Currently, the transistors are soo small that we cannot reduce their size further. Now, Apple is making micro-chips of size 7nm, which is even minor in the thickness of hair.

2. The main reasons blocking Moore’s Law are Heating and Leakage.

3. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning have augmented Moore’s Law over time.

4. The upcoming era is Quantum Computing which has an entirely different structure and is based on nano-biotechnology. It will be the end of the silicon age.

Q7. Consider the following table.

Clock Cycles

ALU Instructions 50% 4

Load Instructions 30% 5

Store Instructions 10% 4

Branch Instructions 10% 2


1) CPI is the average clock cycle required per instruction.

Therefore, CPI

= (50/100)×4 + (30/100)×5 + (10/100)×4 + (10/100)×2

= 4.1

2) CPU executing time = (No. of instructions)*CPI/frequency

Number of instructions = 3 × 106 {Given}

CPI = 4.1 {As calculated above}

Clock rate = 2 × 109 Hz {Given}


CPU execution time = (Number of instructions × CPI)(1/clock rate)

= (3 × 106 × 4.1)(1 / 2 × 109)

= 6.15 × 10-3s

3) Overall speedup (S0) = 1.5 {Given}

p = 0.5 {Given}

S = speedup {To find}


According to Amdahl’s Law, the Overall SpeedUp is given by-

S0 = 1(1 – p)+p/S                 {So is the overall speedup}

1.5 = 1(1 – 0.5)+(0.5/S)


S = 3

Therefore, Speedup of ALU instruction is 3

In the first scheme, we will do the 1’s complement, but in the 2nd scheme, we will do the 2’s complement to increase the speed to the desired value.


In this article, we have discussed various essential questions about Computer Networks for Interview preparation.

There are also various topics in computer architecture, like the Arithmetic Logic Unit, which is responsible for all the arithmetic and logic operations on data processed by a computer. Also, the circuitry must be able to perform all the arithmetic and logic operations included in the instruction set.

Also, Control Units and Registers are some crucial topics I will discuss in subsequent blogs.

Currently, there is a massive demand for computer architecture engineers. So if you want to pursue this field, it is very high time. You get numerous resources online free of cost that will help you to master this skill.

4. Talk about Clock Rate, System Software, and Application Software.

It is all for today. I hope that you have enjoyed reading that article.

See you again 😊

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50 Machine Learning Interview Questions And Answers (2023)

Here are Machine Learning interview questions and answers for fresher as well as experienced candidates to get their dream job.

1) What is Machine learning?

Machine learning is a branch of computer science which deals with system programming in order to automatically learn and improve with experience. For example: Robots are programed so that they can perform the task based on data they gather from sensors. It automatically learns programs from data.

2) Mention the difference between Data Mining and Machine learning?

Machine learning relates with the study, design and development of the algorithms that give computers the capability to learn without being explicitly programmed. While, data mining can be defined as the process in which the unstructured data tries to extract knowledge or unknown interesting patterns. During this process machine, learning algorithms are used.

3) What is ‘Overfitting’ in Machine learning?

In machine learning, when a statistical model describes random error or noise instead of underlying relationship ‘overfitting’ occurs. When a model is excessively complex, overfitting is normally observed, because of having too many parameters with respect to the number of training data types. The model exhibits poor performance which has been overfit.

4) Why overfitting happens?

The possibility of overfitting exists as the criteria used for training the model is not the same as the criteria used to judge the efficacy of a model.

5) How can you avoid overfitting?

By using a lot of data overfitting can be avoided, overfitting happens relatively as you have a small dataset, and you try to learn from it. But if you have a small database and you are forced to come with a model based on that. In such situation, you can use a technique known as cross validation. In this method the dataset splits into two section, testing and training datasets, the testing dataset will only test the model while, in training dataset, the datapoints will come up with the model.

In this technique, a model is usually given a dataset of a known data on which training (training data set) is run and a dataset of unknown data against which the model is tested. The idea of cross validation is to define a dataset to “test” the model in the training phase.

6) What is inductive machine learning?

The inductive machine learning involves the process of learning by examples, where a system, from a set of observed instances tries to induce a general rule.

7) What are the five popular algorithms of Machine Learning?

Decision Trees

Neural Networks (back propagation)

Probabilistic networks

Nearest Neighbor

Support vector machines

8) What are the different Algorithm techniques in Machine Learning?

The different types of techniques in Machine Learning are

Supervised Learning

Unsupervised Learning

Semi-supervised Learning

Reinforcement Learning


Learning to Learn

9) What are the three stages to build the hypotheses or model in machine learning?

Model building

Model testing

Applying the model

10) What is the standard approach to supervised learning?

The standard approach to supervised learning is to split the set of example into the training set and the test.

11) What is ‘Training set’ and ‘Test set’?

In various areas of information science like machine learning, a set of data is used to discover the potentially predictive relationship known as ‘Training Set’. Training set is an examples given to the learner, while Test set is used to test the accuracy of the hypotheses generated by the learner, and it is the set of example held back from the learner. Training set are distinct from Test set.

12) List down various approaches for machine learning?

The different approaches in Machine Learning are

Concept Vs Classification Learning

Symbolic Vs Statistical Learning

Inductive Vs Analytical Learning

13) What is not Machine Learning?

Artificial Intelligence

Rule based inference

14) Explain what is the function of ‘Unsupervised Learning’?

Find clusters of the data

Find low-dimensional representations of the data

Find interesting directions in data

Interesting coordinates and correlations

Find novel observations/ database cleaning

15) Explain what is the function of ‘Supervised Learning’?


Speech recognition


Predict time series

Annotate strings

16) What is algorithm independent machine learning?

Machine learning in where mathematical foundations is independent of any particular classifier or learning algorithm is referred as algorithm independent machine learning?

17) What is the difference between artificial learning and machine learning?

Designing and developing algorithms according to the behaviours based on empirical data are known as Machine Learning. While artificial intelligence in addition to machine learning, it also covers other aspects like knowledge representation, natural language processing, planning, robotics etc.

18) What is classifier in machine learning?

A classifier in a Machine Learning is a system that inputs a vector of discrete or continuous feature values and outputs a single discrete value, the class.

20) In what areas Pattern Recognition is used?

Pattern Recognition can be used in

Computer Vision

Speech Recognition

Data Mining


Informal Retrieval


21) What is Genetic Programming?

Genetic programming is one of the two techniques used in machine learning. The model is based on the testing and selecting the best choice among a set of results.

22) What is Inductive Logic Programming in Machine Learning?

Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) is a subfield of machine learning which uses logical programming representing background knowledge and examples.

23) What is Model Selection in Machine Learning?

The process of selecting models among different mathematical models, which are used to describe the same data set is known as Model Selection. Model selection is applied to the fields of statistics, machine learning and data mining.

24) What are the two methods used for the calibration in Supervised Learning?

The two methods used for predicting good probabilities in Supervised Learning are

Platt Calibration

Isotonic Regression

These methods are designed for binary classification, and it is not trivial.

25) Which method is frequently used to prevent overfitting?

When there is sufficient data ‘Isotonic Regression’ is used to prevent an overfitting issue.

26) What is the difference between heuristic for rule learning and heuristics for decision trees?

The difference is that the heuristics for decision trees evaluate the average quality of a number of disjointed sets while rule learners only evaluate the quality of the set of instances that is covered with the candidate rule.

27) What is Perceptron in Machine Learning?

In Machine Learning, Perceptron is a supervised learning algorithm for binary classifiers where a binary classifier is a deciding function of whether an input represents a vector or a number.

28) Explain the two components of Bayesian logic program?

Bayesian logic program consists of two components. The first component is a logical one ; it consists of a set of Bayesian Clauses, which captures the qualitative structure of the domain. The second component is a quantitative one, it encodes the quantitative information about the domain.

29) What are Bayesian Networks (BN)?

Bayesian Network is used to represent the graphical model for probability relationship among a set of variables.

30) Why instance based learning algorithm sometimes referred as Lazy learning algorithm?

Instance based learning algorithm is also referred as Lazy learning algorithm as they delay the induction or generalization process until classification is performed.

31) What are the two classification methods that SVM ( Support Vector Machine) can handle?

Combining binary classifiers

Modifying binary to incorporate multiclass learning

32) What is ensemble learning?

To solve a particular computational program, multiple models such as classifiers or experts are strategically generated and combined. This process is known as ensemble learning.

33) Why ensemble learning is used?

Ensemble learning is used to improve the classification, prediction, function approximation etc of a model.

34) When to use ensemble learning?

35) What are the two paradigms of ensemble methods?

The two paradigms of ensemble methods are

Sequential ensemble methods

Parallel ensemble methods

36) What is the general principle of an ensemble method and what is bagging and boosting in ensemble method?

The general principle of an ensemble method is to combine the predictions of several models built with a given learning algorithm in order to improve robustness over a single model. Bagging is a method in ensemble for improving unstable estimation or classification schemes. While boosting method are used sequentially to reduce the bias of the combined model. Boosting and Bagging both can reduce errors by reducing the variance term.

37) What is bias-variance decomposition of classification error in ensemble method?

The expected error of a learning algorithm can be decomposed into bias and variance. A bias term measures how closely the average classifier produced by the learning algorithm matches the target function. The variance term measures how much the learning algorithm’s prediction fluctuates for different training sets.

38) What is an Incremental Learning algorithm in ensemble?

Incremental learning method is the ability of an algorithm to learn from new data that may be available after classifier has already been generated from already available dataset.

39) What is PCA, KPCA and ICA used for?

PCA (Principal Components Analysis), KPCA ( Kernel based Principal Component Analysis) and ICA ( Independent Component Analysis) are important feature extraction techniques used for dimensionality reduction.

40) What is dimension reduction in Machine Learning?

In Machine Learning and statistics, dimension reduction is the process of reducing the number of random variables under considerations and can be divided into feature selection and feature extraction.

41) What are support vector machines?

Support vector machines are supervised learning algorithms used for classification and regression analysis.

42) What are the components of relational evaluation techniques?

The important components of relational evaluation techniques are

Data Acquisition

Ground Truth Acquisition

Cross Validation Technique

Query Type

Scoring Metric

Significance Test

43) What are the different methods for Sequential Supervised Learning?

The different methods to solve Sequential Supervised Learning problems are

Sliding-window methods

Recurrent sliding windows

Hidden Markow models

Maximum entropy Markow models

Conditional random fields

Graph transformer networks

44) What are the areas in robotics and information processing where sequential prediction problem arises?

The areas in robotics and information processing where sequential prediction problem arises are

Imitation Learning

Structured prediction

Model based reinforcement learning

45) What is batch statistical learning?

Statistical learning techniques allow learning a function or predictor from a set of observed data that can make predictions about unseen or future data. These techniques provide guarantees on the performance of the learned predictor on the future unseen data based on a statistical assumption on the data generating process.

46) What is PAC Learning?

PAC (Probably Approximately Correct) learning is a learning framework that has been introduced to analyze learning algorithms and their statistical efficiency.

47) What are the different categories you can categorized the sequence learning process?

Sequence prediction

Sequence generation

Sequence recognition

Sequential decision

48) What is sequence learning?

Sequence learning is a method of teaching and learning in a logical manner.

49) What are two techniques of Machine Learning?

The two techniques of Machine Learning are

Genetic Programming

Inductive Learning

50) Give a popular application of machine learning that you see on day to day basis?

The recommendation engine implemented by major ecommerce websites uses Machine Learning.

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